Biol1001 Enzymes

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    Enzymes

    Enzymes An enzyme is a protein molecule that helps to increase the rate in which chemical reactions occur. Recognizing an enzyme is very simple as they are named after a substrate with the suffix “ase” attached to the end. In terms of activation energy, an enzyme’s function is to decrease the amount of energy necessary for the reaction to take place. An enzyme inhibitor prevents that function from happening by binding to the enzyme. There are two different ways that enzyme inhibition can occur

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    Use of Enzyme in Food Processing

    consistently performed, and more so in recent years, where significant advances in enzyme engineering has fastened the place of such developments. Targeted improvements aim at enzymes with enhanced thermal and operational stability, improved specific activity, modification of pH-activity profiles, and increased product specificity, among others. This has been mostly achieved through protein engineering and enzyme immobilization, along with improvements in screening. The latter has been considerably

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    Enzyme

    becomes non-functional. This is due to the exceeding time on the reaction of enzyme. The enzyme either has been denatured or its reaction time is extremely slow. It is encouraged that this experiment should be repeated a number of times to get a confirmation on the results as a proof that the data and the hypothesis set is not a coincidence. In this experiment, we did not encounter any denaturation of the enzymes. However, it would also be interesting to find the point of denaturation; this

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    Enzyme Activity

    What is the effect of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration on Enzyme activity? Purpose: Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They break down molecules called substrates. Each enzymes have only one substrate that breaks down. Enzymes are produced in the cells of the body and affect the rate of almost all the chemical reactions which take place in living organisms. The rate of enzymes activity is influenced by temperature, pH, and substrate concentration

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    Enzymes

    Temperature can affect a lot of different factors hence its effect on enzyme activity is very complex. It affects the speeds of molecules, the activation energy of the catalytic reaction and the thermal stability of the enzyme and substrate. At low temperatures (say at around 0 centigrade) the rate of enzyme reaction is very slow. The molecules have low kinetic energy and collisions between them are less frequent and even if they do collide the molecules do not posses the minimum activation energy

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    Effect of a Factor on the Activity of an Enzyme

    Effect of a factor on the activity of an enzyme Research Question: How does pH effect the activity of the enzyme amylase and the hydrolysis of starch? Hypothesis: Amylase is an enzyme that acts on starch. pH is capable of altering the structure of the active site centre in the enzyme leading to denaturation. At each pH, the enzyme activity would be relatively different. Ideally the optimum pH is 6.0 when the enzyme works best and the fastest, however if the pH is higher or lower the hydrolysis

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    Enzyme Lab Report

    The purpose of the enzyme lab conducted was to observe the chemical composition of cells. In order to do so we tested for the presence of organic molecules. Molecules are what forms when atoms bond together. Organic molecules of cells include proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, which are composed of smaller molecules known as monomers and polymers. Polymers are joined monomers. A chemical reaction links monomers together occurs and releases a water molecule, this is called dehydration synthesis

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    Action of Enzymes

    Action of enzymes as catalysts in biochemical processes * Enzymes acts as catalyst and increase the rate of all the chemical reactions. * Enzymes are also described by two properties like all other catalysts. It composed of two main functions. * The first function is that, they increase the rate of chemical reactions by without consumed themselves or undergo any change or alteration in the reaction. . ( Zemitec et,al 2008). * The second function is, they increase reaction rates

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    Enzyme Concentration and Rateof Reaction

    Introduction: I carried out an experiment to determine how the concentration of an enzyme will cause a change in the initial rate of reaction. I worked with three other people and split different tasks between ourselves. This experiment required a lot of safety measures to be taken. Safety: Goggles were needed for the experiment to avoid contact with eyes as we were using hydrogen peroxide which is corrosive, and hot water. Lab. Coats were a necessity in order to avoid the risk of getting the

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    Biol1001 Enzymes

    Introduction Enzymes are a key aspect in our everyday life and are a key to sustaining life. They are biological catalysts that help speed up the rate of reactions. They do this by lowering the activation energy of chemical reactions (Biology Department, 2011). In chemical reactions bonds must be broken and new bonds must be formed. In order for this to occur the bonds must be made less stable. For bonds to become less stable a small input of energy is required and this is called the activation

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    Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

    Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Analysis of Enzyme Activity: Catalase and Tyrosinase Introduction to Neurotransmitters: Acetylcholinesterase Abstract: A series of three labs were combined to observe the effects of some common biological enzymes: Catalase, Tyrosinase, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Enzymes are catalytic proteins, that when present in a chemical reaction, are able to lower the action potential needed to create the reaction without being destroyed or altered themselves

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    Enzyme Essay

    the function of enzyme catalysed reactions (inhibitors not required) (10) There are four main factors that affect the rate of reaction on enzyme-catalysed reactions. The first of these is temperature. When increasing the temperature of a reaction the kinetic energy of molecules increases and therefore they more around more quickly and collide with each other more often. This means that within an enzyme-catalysed reaction the substrate molecules collide more often with an enzyme and so the rate

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    Reaction of Enzyme - Experiment

    The purpose of my experiment was to see how temperature affected the rate of the catalase enzyme reaction. My hypothesis was that as the temperature of the catalase increased from 30 to 45 degrees Celsius, the gas/ bubble production would increase while below 40 degrees. Then, I expected the bubbles to decrease once the temperature reached 40 and above. I would now reject that hypothesis because our data showed differently. From the temperature of 30 and 38 degrees, the bubble production was 8.1cm

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    How Substrate Concentration Affects a Catalase Enzyme Reaction

    Biology HL 20/9/2013 How Substrate Concentration affects a Catalase Enzyme Reaction RQ How does changing the substrate concentration affect the rate of a catalase reaction in an enzyme? Hydrogen peroxide was used as the substrate and the rate was measured by oxygen production. Hypothesis If the substrate concentration is increased then the rate of a catalase reaction will also increase until it reaches the optimal concentration or saturation point and will remain constant. This is because there

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    Enzymes

    Enzymes Ally Wormaan 11/07/2013 Section 018 Introduction: Our body has many cells, cells which operate like a chemical factory. Chemicals are broken down for things like energy, and new chemicals are then synthesized. The food we eat only supplies us with some of the compounds that are needed for our body to operate. Most that are needed are synthesized within the cell by hundreds of different types of reactions that are all part of metabolism. All of these reactions wouldn’t be able to take

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    Enzymes Lab Report

    Lab Report #2 Name: Lab: #9 Enzymes – Experiment #4 Due date: Purpose The purpose of the experiment is to compare and examine the effect of substrate concentration on catalase activity. Introduction All chemical reactions require a catalyst. A type of catalyst that exists is an enzyme, which acts to bring out a specific biochemical reaction. At all times, all work inside a cell is being performed by enzymes (Brian, 2000). The purpose of an enzyme is to help the cell carry out reactions

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    Biology- Enzymes

    LAB REPORT: ENZYMES Part I: Graphs and Data TIME COURSE: ABSORBANCE VS. TIME Provided data: Time(minutes) | Experimental ABS @ 405nm | Control ABS @ 405 nm | Exp. ABS minus Control ABS | Micromoles p-Nitrophenol | 0 | 0.057 | 0.051 | 0.006 | 0.0004 | 10 | 0.207 | 0.053 | 0.154 | 0.0064 | 20 | 0.351 | 0.054 | 0.297 | 0.0120 | 30 | 0.501 | 0.055 | 0.446 | 0.0181 | 60 | 0.955 | 0.064 | 0.891 | 0.0362 | Personal data: Time(minutes) | Experimental ABS @ 405nm | Control ABS

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    Enzyme Reaction

    Enzyme Lab INTRODUCTION: What would happen to your cells if they made a poisonous chemical? You might think that they would die. In fact, your cells are always making poisonous chemicals. They do not die because your cells use enzymes to break down these poisonous chemicals into harmless substances. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reactions that would otherwise happen more slowly. The enzyme is not altered by the reaction. You have hundreds of different enzymes in each of your cells

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    Enzyme

    At any given moment, all of the work being done inside any cell is being done by enzymes. If you understand enzymes, you understand cells. A bacterium like E. coli has about 1,000 different types of enzymes floating around in the cytoplasm at any given time. Enzymes have extremely interesting properties that make them little chemical-reaction machines. The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly. These reactions allow the cell to build things

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    Enzymes

    Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are about 40,000 different enzymes in human cells, each controlling a different chemical reaction. They increase the rate of reactions by a factor of between 106 to 1012 times, allowing the chemical reactions that make life possible to take place at normal temperatures. They were discovered in fermenting yeast in 1900 by Buchner, and the name enzyme means "in yeast". As well as catalysing all the metabolic reactions of cells (such as respiration, photosynthesis

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    Enzyme Lab

    Enzymatic Reaction of Sucrose and Sucrase: Analysis Under Different Conditions and Concentrations Abstract: Sucrase is the enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose. The purpose of this lab experiment was to determine under what environment the enzymatic reaction between sucrose and sucrase would produce the most products and the rate of production. To determine the rate of reaction, Benedicts Reagent was used to identify the amount of glucose produced from the enzymatic reaction

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    Commercial Enzyme

    Microorganisms are referred as predominant source of commercial enzyme (Wiwapat et al., 2002, Kvesitadze, Kvesitadze 1990, Kutateladze et al., 2009). Due to diverse spectrum of applications enzyme production now became a multi-billion dollar business (Bhat, 2000). The market of the technical enzymes showed great diversity both in terms of the applications as well as the consumption. It has been evaluated that global sale of enzymes was $1.7–2 billion in 2005 which is expected to grow in the forthcoming

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    How Enzymes Function

    HOW ENZYMES FUNCTION SHANITA HAMLIN BIOL1402L-165 DR. MERCEDES MONDECAR 09/27/2012 INTRODUCTION: Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells, which regulate chemical reactions in the body. Enzyme activity can be affected by The experiments conducted were done to show that under optimum conditions; such as the ideal temperature, the right pH, and a higher enzyme or substrate concentration, the activity of the catalase enzyme would increase. HYPOTHESIS: Exercise 5

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    For Stabilization of Enzymes

    The examples below describe some interesting aspects for stabilization of enzymes, DNA, RNA, cytoplasmic membrane, and cytoplasmic solute in hyperthermophilic archaea. * This is a good example of the fact that an increase in internal hydrophobicity of an enzyme and stabilization of a secondary structure α-helix leads to an increase in the thermostability of a protein. * When enhancement of protein (thermo) stability is desired, there are a number of strategies available, taking into account

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    Babs Enzyme Project

    BABS1201  Group  Enzymes  Project   Group  Protocol  Including  Equipment  and  Reagents  List     Lab  Day:   Lab  Time:   Wednesday     10am  –  1pm       Are  you  in  Lab  G20  (furthest  from  BSB  Student  Office)  or  Lab  G21  (closest  to  BSB  Student  Office)?:   Demonstrator  Name:   Daniel  Winters     Names  of  Group  Members:  

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    Enzyme Lab Report

    the effect of enzyme concentration, pH level, and temperature on the rate of reaction? Theresa Lashinski Annandale High School In partial fulfillment of the requirements for College Biology Mrs. Kraemer November 27, 2012, 2012 Abstract What is the effect of enzyme concentration, temperature, and pH levels on the rate of reaction for the enzyme tyrosinase? An experiment was conducted, manipulating the pH levels, temperature and concentration of the enzyme tyrosinase.

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    Enzymes

    Title: Enzyme Introduction The main reason for conducting this experiment is to establish the various factors that affect enzymes and reaction rates. Various experiments have been conducted to help gain a wide range of the factors that affect enzyme controlled reactions. Enzymes are affected by very many factors. It was the main aim of this experiment to establish these factors and the manner in which they affect them. This experiment also seeks to establish the manner in which some enzymes

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    Investigating an Enzyme Catalyzed Reaction

    Running head: LAB 5: INVESTIGATING AN ENZYME-CATALYZED REACTION Lab 5: Investigating an Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction September 24, 2014 Principles of Biology 120.601 Mrs. Annemarie Duncan Abstract: (Burmania) This experiment was performed in order to examine ways in which a potato catalase enzyme reacts to various assays with differing variables. To do so a baseline assay (undiluted extract and room temperature H2O2) was used within the experiment with only one other variable changed in

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    Enzyme

    Enzyme Catalysis: Lab Report Introduction: In the lab there were 4 parts (A, B, C, D). Each part having a different reaction among it, an example of this reaction could be lab A when the catalysis was tested for activity. The reaction was to support the affect catalysis had on the hydrogen peroxide. This was a fizzing and bubbling state supporting a reaction was occurring. So one can infer that if enzyme catalysis brakes down hydrogen peroxide, then an abandons of catalysis would break down more

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    Role of Enzymes

    Role of Enzymes ¨. Catalysts that help a molecule breakdown faster. ¨. Catalysts speed up or slow down a biochemical reaction by increasing or decreasing the activation energy. Does not change in reaction. ¨. Enzymes bind to a substrate to form the enzyme substrate complex. When bound the enzyme has a specific job it was designed to do. Once the job is done, the substrate has become a product, and the enzyme moves along to the next substrate. ¨. If enzymes were

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    Enzymes

    Enzyme lab report Determining the properties of an Enzyme Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that acts as catalysts for reactions. This means that enzymes lower the activation energy essential for a reaction to take place, allowing a specific reaction to occur much quicker and easier. Certain enzymes only lower the activation energy for certain reactions, and enzymes are shape precise. The distinctive

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    Enzymes

    Enzymes and pH pH is a measure of H+ concentration. The higher the concentration of H+ the lower the pH values (acids) A hydrogen ion has a (+) charge so will be attracted to negatively charged molecules or parts of molecules. As like charges repel, positive molecules or parts of molecules will repel hydrogen ions. Large numbers of hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds are responsible for holding the tertiary structure of an enzyme protein in place. This ensures that the active site is also held

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    Lab 4: Enzymes

    compatibility. Pre-Lab Questions 1. How could you test to see if an enzyme was completely saturated during an experiment? 2. List three conditions that would alter the activity of an enzyme. Be specific with your explanation. 3. Take a look around your house and identify household products that work by means of an enzyme. Name the products, and indicate how you know they work with an enzyme. Experiment 1: Enzymes in Food This experiment tests for the presence of amylase in food by using

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    Enzyme

    Enzyme Experiment * Isolation of yeast invertase * Effect of temperature and pH Objectives * Determine the activity of an enzyme (invertase) * Determine the effects of pH and temperature in each activity Parts of the Experiment 1. Isolation 2. Sucrose Assay – to generate or construct a standard curve 3. Effect of temperature and pH a. Determine and graph the optimum pH and Temperature Enzymes will act on a compound or biomolecule (substrate, e.g. sucrose) to

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    Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Structure

    is increased it is possible that more molecules per unit time will reach the activation energy. Thus the rate of the reaction may increase. 2) The number of collisions per unit time will increase. In order to convert substrate into product, enzymes must collide with and bind to the substrate at the active site. Increasing the temperature of a system will increase the number of collisions of enzyne and substrate per unit time. Thus, within limits, the rate of the reaction will increse. 3)

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    Enzyme Lab Report

    of Peroxidase on Enzyme Activity Gianna Crowe Bio Lab 117 October 16th, 2014 Most enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions and are characterized as catalysts. Enzymes work in such a way that when the right chemicals of a molecule are present for the enzyme, it will fully fit the shape. The part of the particular shape is called the active site of the enzyme, since this is where the reaction occurs. The molecule that the enzyme works on is called the substrate. An enzyme reaction includes

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    Enzyme Controlled Reactions

    Enzyme Controlled Reactions The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate and observe how enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates are affected by substrate and pH concentrations. You will go to the following website: http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078757134/383930/BL_11.html You will follow the instructions and work through the simulation as instructed in the lab. As you perform the simulation, you will record your results in the table below (answers need to be in another color font).

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    The Effect of Enzymes on Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition

    What is the function of enzymes in a living system? Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions necessary for life. Without them certain vital processes would not take place and the body would be unable to function. Difference enzymes work better under different conditions. Where in a human body might it be beneficial to have enzymes work in very acidic environments? In areas, like the stomach, that have a pH of two would benefit by having enzymes that function well in acidic environments. An example

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    Enzymes

    Introduction (5 marks) Enzymes are globular shaped proteins that are found throughout the body, with their main function being to act as biological catalysts. An enzyme can act to speed up or regulate the rate of the reaction, in order to maintain an efficient rate of biological reactions. Enzymes, whilst having an important role in the reaction of many chemicals within the body, are not consumed in the reaction, and so are able to catalyze many reactions in their life cycle. Enzymes are able to reduce

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    Understanding Enzymes

    Nguyet Vu Activity of the Porcine Pancreas α-Amylase Enzyme Under Different Concentration Introduction: Enzymes are specialized protein structures that increase the rate of reactions without changing chemical equilibrium between reactants and products (Cooper, 2000). These enzymes have a distinct chemical composition that constructs an active site for substrates to bind to; this is the location where the substances come together to from an enzyme-substrate complex, which makes forming a product possible

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    Enzyme Activity in Living Tissue Lab

    Enzyme Activity In Living Tissue Lab Jaida Dieckman November 23, 2015 Background The studies done during this lab were the enzymes and there role is having proteins that are used as catalysts in living things. Also, substrates are reactants that connect to and enzymes active site. The role of the enzymes catalase in a cell is it breaks down the substrate hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is produced during normal metallic activities in the cell, but it is poisonous to the cell if it accumulates

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    The Effects of Temperature, Ph, Enzyme Concentration and Substrate Concentration on the Enzyme Catecholase

    Introduction & Hypothesis: Enzymes are important for every living organism, because they are the reason that reactions occur. Although most reactions would take place without enzymes, enzymes allow these chemical reactions to happen at a much faster rate, therefore making cells more efficient (Reece, 2011). Enzymes are catalysts, and almost always proteins, that speed up the rates of reactions by lowering the activation energy without being consumed in the reaction (Helms, 1998). Throughout this

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    Enzyme

    Introduction Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze chemical reactions in all living organisms. Enzymes allow living organisms to carry out complex chemical activities at low temperatures, but can’t cause a reaction that hasn’t occurred in their absence. Also, enzymes are thought to speed up reactions by bringing reacting molecules together to increase the chances that a reaction will occur (Worthington Biomedical Corporation, 2015). Each enzyme has a specific active site where the substrates

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    The Nature and Properties of Enzymes

    THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF ENZYMES Enzymes are extremely important and without them, the reactions in living organisms would be so slow they would hardly proceed at all. They enable metabolic reactions to proceed rapidly at low temperatures, and as well as speeding up reactions they also control them. There are two main groups of enzymes: intracellular and extracellular. INTRACELLULAR: Occur inside cells where they speed up and control metabolism. EXTRACELLULAR: Produced by cells but achieve

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    Structure of Enzyme

    Enzymes are generally globular proteins, acting alone or in larger complexes. Like all proteins, enzymes are linear chains of amino acids that fold to produce a three-dimensional structure. The sequence of the amino acids specifies the structure which in turn determines the catalytic activity of the enzyme.[18] Although structure determines function, a novel enzyme's activity cannot yet be predicted from its structure alone.[19] Enzyme structures unfold (denature) when heated or exposed to chemical

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    Enzymes

    Enzyme Regulatory Function Enzymes operate as catalysts by increasing and regulating all chemical reactions in a living organism within half the fraction of energy if they were not utilized. What makes enzymes so efficient and unique is that they can increase the rate of a reaction and alter chemical activity at the cellular level while still maintaining homeostasis and cellular equilibrium. In the absence of enzymes it would dramatically alter chemical reactions by decreasing the rate at which

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    Enzyme

    ------------------------------------------------- Enzyme From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Enzymology) Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate, or catalyze, chemical reactions. The molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates and the enzyme converts these into different molecules, called products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 The set of enzymes made in a cell

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    Ph Affect on Enzymes

    structures which are sensitive to their environment so is an enzymes which works better under certain conditions than others.(Campbell “Biology” 8th ed. text, pp.152-155). Enzymes are organic catalysts (a chemical that speeds up a reaction without changing itself) that engages in the transformation of one organic molecule to another but with a lower activation energy.(Bio 05LA Lab Manual- Lab# 5, UCR, Winter ’11 ed., pp. 1). The molecule that the enzyme acts upon is called the substrate and the molecule produced

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    Enzymes

    POLYMERASE OR REPLICASE ENZYMES: A polymerase enzyme catalyses the formation of a polymer and cellular polymerase enzymes of genetic interest are those that bring about the synthesis of one polynucleotide chain that is copy of another. A polymerase enzyme is called replicase enzyme when the copy of the polynucleotide chain so produced is inherited by daughter cells or viruses, that is, when the enzyme brings about chromosomal replication. PROKARYOTIC DNA POLYMERASES: Three different DNA polymerases

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    Enzyme Activity

    Abstract Enzymes are molecules that act as catalysts in the regulation of chemical and biological reactions in humans and other species. Every organ in humans depends on enzymes, as they are essential for optimal health. Most enzymes are protein molecules, which increase the reaction rate and function best under optimal conditions or temperatures related to the environment and the host organism where the enzyme is found. In this experiment, the digestive enzyme amylase was used in order to

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