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Yudi Pyaa

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1

BAB 1 PENDAHULUAN 1. 1 Latar Belakang

Pemberian nutrisi bagi anak-anak, terutama pada masa bayi adalah hal yang sangat penting demi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yang baik. ASI merupakan nutrisi yang paling penting untuk bayi. ASI berbeda dengan susu botol biasa, ASI lebih aman, higienis siap pakai, tidak memerlukan biaya tambahan, dan tidak kalah pentingnya, ASI dapat menunjang pertumbuhan dan perkembangan optimal bayi yang.1,2 Selain daripada itu ASI juga dapat membantu mencegah terjadinya alergi semasa bayi.3 Selain manfaat bagi bayi, pemberian ASI dapat juga bermanfaat bagi ibu yaitu berperan dalam pengaturan jarak kelahiran dengan memperpanjang siklus reproduksi tanpa ovulasi.4 Berdasarkan alasan-alasan di atas, maka ASI seharusnya selalu diupayakan untuk diberikan kepada bayi. Hanya dalam keadaan yang betul-betul terpaksa ASI ini boleh diganti dengan susu kaleng. Sangat disayangkan diketahui presentase ibu menyusui mengalami penurunan. Terdapat penurunan penggunaan ASI di Amerika pada permulaan abad ke-20, kira-kira 71% bayi mendapat ASI sampai umur kurang lebih 6 bulan, sedangkan tahun 1971, angka ini menurun menjadi 25% pada ibu-ibu dengan sosio ekonomi sedang dan 5% pada ibu-ibu dengan sosio ekonomi baik. 1 Sangat disayangkan bahwa pada kenyataannya penggunaan ASI belum seperti yang diharapkan. Kejadian tersebut dipengaruhi oleh beberapa kendala hal yang dapat menggangu pemberian ASI seperti produksi ASI kurang, ibu kurang mengerti tata laksana laktasi, ibu bekerja, dan ibu hamil lagi padahal masih menyusui.5 Ibu kembali bekerja merupakan salah satu faktor yang dapat

mempengaruhi lama pemberian ASI. Data dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) tahun 2003, menunjukkan pekerja di Indonesia mencapai 100.316.007 dimana 64,63% pekerja laki-laki dan 35,37% pekerja wanita.6 Tidak dapat dipungkiri, wanita bekerja ternyata mempunyai konsekuensi buruk pada hubungannya dengan bayinya. Wanita bekerja banyak yang kekurangan waktu untuk berinteraksi
Universitas Indonesia

Faktor anak..., Ande Fachniadin, FK UI., 2009

2

dengan anak. Bahkan banyak wanita terpaksa tidak menyusui anaknya karena tidak sempat ataupun tidak mau. Kenaikan tingkat partisipasi wanita dalam angkatan kerja dan adanya emansipasi dalam segala bidang kerja menyebabkan turunnya kesediaan menyusui dan lamanya menyusui. Hal tersebut merupakan akibat dari kurangnya informasi bagi kaum ibu ataupun wanita tentang banyaknya manfaat ASI. Selain itu mereka juga tidak mengerti manajemen laktasi. 7 Penelitian yang pernah dilakukan oleh Fauzi didapatkan sebanyak 115 (39,7%) ibu pekerja di sektor perbankan dan asuransi, 98 (33,8%) ibu bekerja di berbagai perusahaan swasta, 71 (24,5%) ibu bekerja di sektor kesehatan sebagai dokter maupun perawat/bidan, dan hanya 6 (2%) ibu bekerja sebagai guru/tenaga pengajar. Adapun kekurangan penelitian tersebut adalah pengambilan tema penelitian yang tidak spesifik dalam pemilihan jenis pekerjaan subjek penelitian. Maka dari itu kami sebagai peniliti tertarik untuk melakukan penelitian lebih dalam dengan tema yang spesifik pada ibu bekerja sebagai pegawai swasta.8 Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, maka dalam penelitian ini masalah yang akan dibahas adalah hubungan proporsi lama pemberian ASI pada ibu bekerja sebagai pegawai swasta dengan faktor anak dibawa ke tempat kerja dan faktor fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja.

1. 2

Permasalahan

Ibu bekerja mempunyai kendala tersendiri yang dapat mempengaruhi lama pemberian ASI. Pada penelitian ini penulis mengkaji jenis pekerjaan sebagai pegawai swasta. Sedangkan faktor-faktor yang dikaji antara lain faktor anak dibawa ke tempat kerja dan faktor fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja. Dengan demikian masalah penelitian ini adalah pengaruh faktor anak dibawa ke tempat bekerja dan faktor tersedianya fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja terhadap lama pemberian ASI pada ibu bekerja sebagai pegawai swasta di wilayah Jakarta tahun 2009.

Universitas Indonesia

Faktor anak..., Ande Fachniadin, FK UI., 2009

3

1. 3

Pertanyaan Penelitian

Bagaimana hubungan antara faktor anak dibawa ke tempat kerja, dan faktor fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja dengan lama pemberian ASI pada ibu bekerja sebagai pegawai swasta?

1.4

Hipotesis Penelitian

Terdapat hubungan antara faktor anak dibawa ke tempat kerja, dan faktor fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja dengan lama pemberian ASI pada ibu bekerja sebagai pegawai swasta

1. 5

Tujuan Penelitian Umum penelitian ini adalah mengatahui faktor-faktor yang

Tujuan

mempengaruhi lama pemberian ASI pada ibu bekerja. Tujuan Khusus penelitian ini adalah sebagai adalah diketahui hubungan antara faktor anak dibawa ke tempat kerja dan fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja dengan lama pemberian ASI pada ibu bekerja sebagai pegawai swasta.

1. 6

Manfaat Penelitian

Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberi masukan dalam meningkatkan penyuluhan mengenai pemberian ASI kepada ibu-ibu bekerja serta dapat mendorong ibu-ibu hamil dan menyusui agar senantiasa memberikan yang terbaik bagi bayinya. Di samping itu, diharapakan adanya peningkatan pemberian ASI oleh ibu-ibu yang bekerja. Manfaat lain penelitian ini adalah sebagai data dasar untuk penelitian selanjutnya

Universitas Indonesia

Faktor anak..., Ande Fachniadin, FK UI., 2009…...

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