Free Essay

Weather and Climate Excercise

In: Science

Submitted By jnorthey
Words 797
Pages 4
GPH- 100P-02

Ahrens Extreme Weather and Climate
Ch. 7
Q’s 1, 2, 4, 10, 13, 16, 19, 20

1. What is the primary difference between a cloud droplet and a raindrop?
A typical cloud droplet is 100 times smaller than a raindrop. Clouds are composed of many small droplets.

2. Describe how the process of collision and coalescence produces precipitation.
To produce the many collisions necessary to form a raindrop, some cloud droplets must be larger than others. Larger drops may form on large condensation nuclei, such as salt particles, or through random collisions of droplets. The amount of time a droplet spends in a cloud, the larger it will be. In warm clouds (above freezing at all levels) strong updrafts slow the rain drops down, which allows it to grow larger because it spends more time in the cloud. As the droplet grows to 1 mm, the pull of gravity suspends the particle against the updraft. It will eventually collide with other small droplets begin to descend slowly, picking up size and speed. As it falls faster it reaches a size of 5mm at which point it is a rain drop.

4. How does the ice-crystal (Bergeron) process produce precipitation? What is the main premise behind this process?
The Bergeron Process proposes that ice crystals and liquid cloud droplets must co-exist in clouds at temperatures below freezing. This process of rain formation is extremely important in middle and high latitudes, where clouds are able to extend upwards into regions where air temperatures are below freezing. These are known as cold clouds. Above the freezing level, liquid water droplets are known as supercooled liquid droplets. The reason behind this is the lack of ice nuclei, which typically consist of clay minerals and bacteria that share similar geometry to an ice crystal. In the subfreezing air of a cloud, many supercooled liquid droplets will surround each ice crystal. Both the liquid droplets and the ice crystals are in equilibrium, meaning that the number of molecules leaving the surface of both the droplet and the ice crystal must equal the number of molecules returning. This difference in vapor pressure causes water vapor molecules to move (diffuse) from the droplet toward the ice crystal. The removal of vapor molecules reduces the vapor pressure above the droplet. Since the droplet is now out of equilibrium with its surroundings, it evaporates to replenish the diminished supply of water vapor above it. This process provides a continuous source of moisture for the ice crystal, which absorbs the water vapor and grows rapidly. The ice crystal then grows even larger by colliding with supercooled liquid droplets, at which point the liquid droplets stick to the ice crystal. This is called accretion. The icy matter that forms is called graupel, which falls, splinters and forms ice crystals that act as seeds. These crystals then form snowflakes, which are an aggregate of crystals, which may melt before it reaches the ground.

10. Why is it never too cold to snow? no matter how cold the air becomes, it always contains some water vapor that could produce snow. In fact, tiny ice crystals have been observed falling at temperatures as low as 53F. We air with “no snow” because the coldest winter weather occurs on clear, calm nights—conditions that normally prevail with strong high pressure areas that have few if any clouds.

13. What is the difference between freezing rain and sleet?
Freezing rain is a supercooled liquid drop that freezes upon impact. Sleet is a snowflake that partially melts then re-freezes and is frozen before it reaches the surface.

16. Describe how icing can be hazardous to aircraft. icing reduces aircraft efficiency by increasing weight. Icing has other adverse effects, depending on where it forms. On a wing or fuselage, ice can disrupt the air flow and decrease the plane’s flying capability. When ice forms in the air intake of the engine, it robs the engine of air, causing a reduction in power. Icing may also affect the operation of brakes, landing gear, and instruments.

19. How do the atmospheric conditions that produce sleet differ from those that produce hail?
Hail typically occurs in the summer, in large thunder clouds that cycle supercooled water droplets for 5-10 minutes. Sleet, typically occurs during winter time, and involves a falling snowflake, that melts and refreezes before hitting earths surface.

20. Where are the wettest and driest regions of the world located?
Mawsynram, on the crest of the southern slopes of the Khasi Hills in northeastern India, is considered the wettest place in the world as it receives an average of 467 inches of rainfall each year. Arica in northern Chile holds the world record for lowest annual rainfall—0.03 inches.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Difference between climate and weather? Weather is the description of conditions over a short period of time – a “snap shot” of the atmosphere at a particular time. Climate the some or synthesis of all the weather recorded over a long period of time. It tells us the average or most common conditions. What is oceanography? Also called oceanology or marine science. It is a branch of earth science, it is the study of the deep sea and shallow costal oceans. What is hydrology? The study of movement, distribution and quality of water on earth and other planets. What is metrology? The study of weather. What is demography? Statistical study of human populations and sub-populations. What is geomorphology? The study of the surface of a planet and those processes responsible for forming it. Four types of precipitation: Rain, snow sleet and hail. Synoptic chart Shows weather events occurring at one time throughout a large area such as a country or region. Hectopascals: Unit of measurement of atmospheric pressure. What is microclimate: Local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding areas. Ozone layers: Layer of earth’s atmosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone. The Troposphere The Stratosphere The Mesosphere The Thermosphere The exosphere. What is atmosphere The atmosphere is a layer of gases, which surrounds the entire Earth. It consists mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, as......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Climate Change and Weather

...EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WOMEN Introduction Definition of basic terms What is Weather? The term weather describes the state of the air at a particular place and time – whether it is warm or cold, wet or dry, and how cloudy or windy it is, for example. It affects many of the things that we do, from the clothes we wear and the food we eat, to where we live and how we travel. As a result, the weather is of great interest to people everywhere, from meteorologists, the scientists who study it in great depth, to you and I in our everyday lives. In fact, one of the main topics of conversation is often what the weather will do next the .Weather is very changeable and unpredictable. What is Climate? The normal pattern of weather experienced in a particular area over a long period of time is known as the climate.   The climate tells us how hot, cold or wet it is likely to be in different parts of the world at different times of year. For example, tropical countries have hot climates and the Antarctic has a cold climate. The climate may include four seasons a year - spring, summer, autumn and winter - or a wet and a dry season. Our climate depends on our position on the earth and our distance from the sun. We will learn more about this in the Days and Seasons section.  What is weather forecasting? Weather experts use computer technology and data from stations and satellites all over the world to predict the weather.   By carefully monitoring weather conditions it is possible to......

Words: 2261 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...after more than seven inches of rain fell Saturday and Sunday in Louisville, Kentucky. The National Weather Service declared a flash flood emergency for Louisville early Sunday due to back-to-back thunderstorms that began Saturday.. First floor apartments were flooded and vehicles were swallowed by high waters after 5.91 inches fell in Louisville on Saturday alone, according to the Weather Channel. Flooding closed at least 45 roads. Authorities say more than 80 people were rescued or evacuated thanks to seven-inches of rainfall that fell in 36 hours. NBC's Kerry Sanders reports. "I was lying there sleeping, kids woke me up, looked out, I couldn't believe it," evacuee Vickie Dedrick told NBC affiliate WAVE in Louisville. "Just a little bit of water on the road, next thing you know it looks like a tidal wave come through; looks like all cars washed off," added evacuee Mark Elliott. No injuries were reported, but at least 45 roads were closed and many homes and cars were damaged, according to the Courier-Journal. According to the National Weather Service, a record 5.91 inches of rain fell on Saturday, breaking the day's old record of 3.07 inches of rain set on October 5, 1910, WAVE reported. The deluge also already breaks the local all-time record for rainfall the month of October: The previous record was 5.07 inches set in 2004. The National Weather Service reports Louisville residents will be able to breathe a sigh of relief with a mostly sunny......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Weather Station

...Technology Development Project Initiation Award for Students (TDP-IAS) 2009 PROJECT proposal LOW COST AUTOMATED WEATHER STATION (AWS) |Name |Department |Entry # |CGPA |Contact # / email | |Manish bansal |electrical engineering |2007ee50502 |9.55 | | | | | | |9811977681 | |Ishan mittal |electrical engineering |2007ee10371 |9.45 | | | | | | |9990641832 | |aditya goel |electrical ENGINEERING |2007Ee50052 |9.29 | | | | | | |9911073596 | |avinash kumar |electrical ENGINEERING |2007ee10060 |9.50 | | | | ...

Words: 1503 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Geo-Engineering Controlling the Climate and Weather

...Controlling the Climate and Weather Recall the pleasure derived from the last time you took a walk through a park on a day when the weather was perfect. The sunshine was bright, the temperature was perfect, and perhaps there was a slight breeze that left you the ultimate feeling of refreshment as it caressed your face. Or perhaps you can remember the last time you enjoyed the sounds and smells of a light April shower that left the trees and grass looking so green and the air so fresh that you just couldn’t resist taking a deep cleansing breath. No doubt everyone can remember times such as these or similar instances when the weather was responsible for bringing them a lift in spirit. Now imagine that you had the ability to control the weather and climate. Perhaps your first response to this idea is that such a thing is, and always will be, impossible. But you would be wrong in your assumption. In our modern world there is a science called Geo-Engineering that has become a political issue. Geo-Engineering is the ability of scientists to control the climate and weather in various areas and for various reasons. The issue we are all faced with is whether or not having this control is a good thing or a bad thing. First of all we must answer the question of whether Geo-Engineering is a reality. Without question it is, and has been for decades. Scientists have successfully demonstrated in numerous ways the ability to be able to control the climate and weather.......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

What Is the Diffrence Between Weather and Climate

...What is the difference between weather and climate? WEATHER -is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere, and its short-term variation in minutes to weeks. People generally think of weather as the combination of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, visibility, and wind. We talk about changes in weather in terms of the near future: "How hot is it right now?" "What will it be like today?" and "Will we get a snowstorm this week?" * Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud cover, winds, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms, thunderstorms, steady rains from a cold front or warm front, excessive heat, heat waves and more. * The study of weather is called as Meteorology. * Weather is for a current period. * It prevails over a short area. * It has only limited predictability * It depends primarily on density (temperature and moisture) differences between one place and another. CLIMATE-is the weather of a place averaged over a period of time, often 30 years. Climate information includes the statistical weather information that tells us about the normal weather, as well as the range of weather extremes for a location. * Climate may include precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, and wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail storms over a long period of time. * The study of climate is called as Climatology. * Climate is the area's average weather over a certain amount of years. * It......

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Weather Patterns & Climate

...The first thing that we need to understand is there is a difference between the weather patterns and the climate. The weather is what is going on outside your door right now; Climate is a pattern of weather over a period of years or decades and also over large areas. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the earth has experienced global warming. Anthropogenic warming is one of the obvious causes of global warming and the data over the last 100 years seems to back this up. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have concluded that the consequences of our global warming (temperature increase, sea-level increase, and rainfall changes) are irreversible for centuries after we get the Carbon Dioxide (Co₂) stabilized. However, there is another side of the global warming argument. The Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) has concluded in a report that there has been no actual global warming since 1997. The report states the temperature as a whole has been stable for the past 16 years despite an 8% increase in atmospheric Co₂. Most of us do believe we are experiencing Global Warming in some form or fashion. We can also agree that many of us have experienced some sort of changes in our local weather patterns and some of us have even seen some dramatic weather events. What we all cannot seem to agree on is what is causing this phenomenon. In my opinion, the reason we are more accepting of the idea of global......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Climate Scare Is all the hype about man made climate change going to destroy the human race. In The 11th Hour by Leonardo DiCaprio, we hear and see the perceived effects man-made climate change is having on our planet. Flooding, hurricanes, and drought, all caused by man’s use of fossil fuels, our only chance of survival, eliminate our use of fossil fuels. Bill McKibben agrees with this theory, in “350 Science” he informs us the current level of carbon dioxide (CO2), 392 parts per million, is much too high. His suggestion is that carbon sequestering is necessary to prevent our destruction. Patrick Moore reiterates this theory in “An Inconvenient Fact”. He contradicts DiCaprio’s belief of curtailing forestry and encourages improved forestry as a tool for carbon sequestering. While The 11th Hour suggests hurricanes, and flooding are caused by man, Scott Mandia tells us differently in “The Little Ice Age in Europe”. In it he describes conditions in Europe during ice age periods that mirror the conditions DiCaprio and others predict in The 11th Hour. We know that the CO2 levels are rising, but the dooms day predictions are false and misleading. All of their predictions have happened in recorded history, during times of colder temperatures and lower CO2 levels. Drought and horrible storms will occur no matter what level of CO2 is in the atmosphere or the average temperature is, we need to dedicate more resources to preparing for these disasters. Leonardo DiCaprio......

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Lab 5 – Weather and Climate Change

...Lab 5 – Weather and Climate Change Lab 5 - Demonstration 1: Modeling the Water Cycle POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. Which water cycle processes are represented in this model and by what components? Answer = the water processes that are represented in this model are condensation and evaporation. Condensation occurs under the lid of the jar. Some of the water in the jar evaporated. 2. Which processes are not represented? How could the model be altered to include these processes? Answer = Infiltration, Surface run-off, percolation, precipitation, transpiration, sublimation. I don’t see how you can change this experiment, unless you add more supplies. 3. How would the “weather” be affected if the water was at a decreased temperature? What about at an increased temperature? Answer = with decreased temperature the weather would be smooth compared to increased temperatures were things would be rough. Experiment 1: Water Movement POST LAB QUESTIONS 1. Develop a hypothesis predicting the effect of sunlight on evaporation? Hypothesis = By placing one bag of sand in direct sunlight and placing the other bag of sand in a shaded area, I believe the bag that’s in direct sunlight will show evaporation and condensation occur compared to the bag that’s in a shaded area. 2. Based on the results of your experiment, would you reject or accept the hypothesis that you produced......

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Discuss Weather and Climate

...Weather, Climate and associated Hazards – Sample Paper 1 (a) Study Figure 2 which shows a synoptic chart of Western Europe and the north-east Atlantic. Describe and suggest reasons for the differences in the weather experienced by stations A and B. (7) (b) Explain the characteristic features of the weather associated with a winter anticyclone in the British Isles. (8) (c) Evaluate the concept of the urban heat island. (10) Critically evaluate the possible effects of the phenomenon known as global warming and suggest possible responses to them. (40) Weather, Climate and associated Hazards - Sample Paper 2 - Study Figure 2, a diagram showing the impact of Hurricane Floyd 1999. (a) Using Figure 2, comment on the responses to Hurricane Floyd in September 1999. (7) (b) Explain the causes of tropical revolving storms. (8) (c) With reference to one tropical region that you have studied, describe and explain the characteristic features of the climate of that region. (10) “Urban areas have a significant impact on climatic characteristics.” Discuss this statement. (40) Exam Board Approved Back of Textbook Sample Paper (a) Study figure 2......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Climate Change There are so many researchers, scientists, and environmentalists that are expressing their concerns about all the changes in climate on earth. There are some that believe that there is a terrific amount of warming happening in the entire global climate. Researchers refer to the climate change as “global warming.” The research provided within this paper will conclude whether or not global warming is truly fact or fiction. The Oxford Reference Dictionary defines climate as the analysis of accumulated weather data for long term patterns and trends. Change is defined as, “To make or become different.” Combine those two words together the definition is “long-term weather patterns and trends becoming different over an extended period of time.” According to many researchers there has been a drastic change in climate temperatures. With their findings it is truthful that global warming is indeed happening before our eyes. Are these changes being caused by man? Ahrens C. Donald answers that question with, “changes in the climate can result from both natural events and human activities are causes of the warming. Examples of the natural causes of climate change are volcanic eruptions, variations in the earth’s orbit around the sun, and variations in solar output” (Ahrens, 485-491). There are also reasons for the climate change caused by humans. These examples include, industrial pollutants and fossil fuels (Rhodes, 116). After further ado, it is not solely......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Risk and Impacts of Climate (Weather) - Related Natural Disaster Such as Storm

...contributing to the changes in global climate, which are consequently having a negative effect on weather patterns and the frequency and severity of weather related natural disasters. Global warming has become alarming recently. Over the past decades, research has been conducted on climate change and its impact and how it directly or indirectly influences the health and well being of the planet and its inhabitants. This essay will cover the risk and impacts of climate (weather) – related natural disasters such as storms, floods, droughts, rainfall and extreme temperature. Research over the past few decades has done much to clarify the evidence that global climate is changing and these changes are largely due to human influence. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC),(2014) linked the risks of climate change to the increase in emission of greenhouse gas through human activities resulting from increased in population and economic growth. According to World Health Organization (WHO), (2014) the increase in human activities has impose dextra force on the climate system, most especially the burning of fossil fuels result in the emission of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide. They accumulate and cause extra heat on the surface temperature, increasing the climate variability and influencing climate change.As the atmosphere accumulates energy, it yields to the increasing greenhouse gas concentration causing climate change and extreme weather that may lead to natural......

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Weather and Crime

...murder made up 1.2%. But what causes this violence? According to Gamble and Hess (2012), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) created a list of factors that influence violent crime, and weather is one of them. This is quite interesting to look at to see if there is a relationship between average temperature and violent crime rate. Estimates of the extent of the problem Violent crime is sweeping the nation and is still causing problems for federal, state, city, and local police agencies. In 2013, an estimated 1,163,146 violent crimes took place across the nation (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2014). The FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR) compromises four offenses as violent crime; these include murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault (FBI, 2014). Per 100,000 people, there was an estimate of 367.9 violent crimes committed in 2013 (FBI, 2014). The FBI (2014) disclosed that aggravated assaults made up approximately 62.3% of violent crimes that were actually reported to law enforcement in 2013; robbery made up approximately 29.7% of violent crimes; rape made up approximately 6.9%; and murder made up approximately 1.2%. In order to better assess violent crimes committed across the country, I chose twenty-five cities that are located in different climates and compared their crime rates to fully assess the research question. In order for us to reduce the crime rate, it is important that we study it to better prepare ourselves for......

Words: 848 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Weather and Climate Change

...Earth System Science 5: THE ATMOSPHERE / Homework 5 (due 5/22/2008) Name___________________________________ Student ID__________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 6) Of the following steps in the Bergeron process, which should be second? 1) The terminal velocity of an object depends primarily upon: A) the falling of ice crystals through the cloud B) formation of rain drops A) its size. C) deposition of water vapor on ice B) the temperature. D) net evaporation from supercooled water droplets C) its shape. D) its composition. 7) Raindrops fall because: 2) The collision-coalescence process: A) they are small compared to atmospheric molecules. A) explains the formation of snow better than it explains the formation of rain. B) they become large enough that gravity can pull them out of the sky. B) is most frequent in cold clouds. C) is dependent upon the different downward velocities of different-sized droplets. C) they roll down isentropic surfaces and can't be stopped. D) they are large compared to atmospheric molecules. D) is most common at high latitudes. 3) The process by which supercooled water droplets freeze onto falling ice crystals is called: 8) Aggregation: A) is the first step of the Bergeron process. B) is another term for riming. A) riming. C) is facilitated by a thin coating of water on ice......

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Weather Climate

...STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE Troposphere | Closest to the earth and most weather happens here. Temperature drops as you go higher. Wind speeds increase. Most unstable layer. End of the sphere is marked by the tropoPAUSE- an isothermal layer where temp remains constant. | Stratosphere | Steady increase in temperature. Marked by the STRATOPAUSE. Atmosphere is thinner here. | Mesosphere | Temperature decreases to -90. No water vapour or dust to absorb radiation. Very strong winds at 3000 km/hr. MESOPAUSE | Thermosphere | Increase in temperature from the absorption of UV radiation | Greatest amount of energy coming into the atmosphere is from insolation (short wave solar radiation). The amount of this energy from the sun is determined by: *Solar constant- varies slightly & affects longer term climate rather than short term *Distance from the sun- Earth’s orbit around sun can cause variation in distant *Altitude of the sun in the sky- equator receives more energy as rays are head on. At 60 degrees N or S its at an angle so there’s twice the area to heat up & more atmosphere to pass through *Length of the day & night Some radiation is absorbed by ozone, water vapour, co2, ice particles, and dust reduce the amount reaching Earth. & clouds also reflect radiation back! ALBEDO is the ratio between the amount of incoming and reflected radiation. (Usually at 4%) Short wave radiation is converted to heat and heats the surface of earth, while longer...

Words: 6549 - Pages: 27