Free Essay

Using Examples Discuss the Strengths and Weaknesses of Interactionist Research Methods. Part

In: Social Issues

Submitted By staticshockj
Words 936
Pages 4
Using examples discuss the strengths and weaknesses of interactionist research methods. Part B
One method of research used by Interactionists is known as the un-structured interview. They are less strict than an ordinary interview and are similar to that of an everyday conversation. Although it will be based around a specific subject or topic it allows the interviewee to go deeper into the question and give a more in-depth opinion. Unstructured interviews are commonly, open-ended and flexible as they can go beyond the question. (reference) whilst having an specific topic for the overall direction of the interview’s structure the flexibleness of the style can enter areas which may not be or have seemed not to be important.
Although unstructured interviews are helpful they do hold some weakness, firstly the process can be expensive and take a great amount of time for discussion with more than just one person to improve reliability. A great deal of time is also spent in collecting and analysing the answers given afterwards due to key words, progression of trends and so on. Furthermore it is known that some participants to put themselves in a favourable position to the reality. Lastly it can be difficult to separate bias from opinion if the interviewer becomes friendly with the interviewee.
However in comparison to this, it allows the interviewer the opportunity to come across in a more friendly and open manner than an appearance which may make the interviewee feel tense or worried, Ann Oakley, a feminist sociologist, stated ways of interviewing in an approachable and friendly manner, therefore allowing the interviewee to open up and share information which may have been closed off by more official methods. Finally, by following ethical practices the interviewee is fully aware of the subject and commonly gives consent to discussion. (reference)
One other method used by Interactionists is participant observation; this is a form of qualitative research. It’s primary aim is to gain a close understanding and familiarity with the selected group or individual, this is done through intense involvement with their environment and way of life over an extended period of time to observe it on a first hand basis and the reasoning behind it.
There are two forms of participant observation known as covert and overt. Covert observation is when those being observed are unaware of either the true intentions of the sociologist or the fact they are being studied by the sociologist. Whilst overt is when this is where the group or individual is aware that they are being studied by a sociologist who is participating.
The strengths of participant observation vary to the type one chooses to use, taking this into consideration, one strength of this method is the capacity to ease within the group to gain knowledge and understanding that outsiders cannot see. Although this is more effective in covert form, as it allows groups who may not want to be studied to be understood and protected at the same time, this could be because of illegal activities, from negative stigma being attached to the group etc. One example would be Macintyre’s ‘Chelsea Head-hunters’ where Macintyre gains the trust of a violent football group whilst filming and noting subjecting them unknowingly to study.
Secondly a further benefit of this type of covert observation is that the Hawthorn effect is not a playing factor in the study. (Pearson, 2005) this is where the observed are aware of the observation and therefore behave differently often to enhance the way they feel should be shown. As the people being studied are unaware of the intentions of the sociologist they therefore avoid this effect as they were accepted as one of their own and not as an outside source.
However one major drawback of covert participant observation, ethically, is that the observe may be required to participate in illegal or dangerous events in order to stay within the group. Furthermore, removing yourself from the group after covertly participating can be difficult and on occasion hold consequences .
On the other hand overt participant observation has its benefits it allows information to be openly documented, avoids problems such as ‘going native’- where the observer loses objective view of the situation and becomes part of the observed social group and lastly the question of ethical conduct is more easily addressed in the group who are aware of the researchers role ( Pearson, 2005). An example of this is Eileen Barkers study of the Moonies, where she discussed the methods used in her study which allowed the opportunity to discuss in depth about their thoughts on being a Moonie.
In contrast to this another method or research is known as non-participant observation, Similar to participant observation although the sociologist does not participate in the activities of the group again, either overtly or covertly, only observing and noting the activities
A key asset of non-participant observation is the ability to objectively and quickly record required data as the observer is observing and not actively joining in with the group in question. Additionally as the observer does not need to be involved in any other capacity it allows the conduct of the observation to be less challenging
In contrast to this a weakness of non-participant method is that by not actively participating in the group it can be made more difficult to attain the depth and meaning behind the interactions.
References
Pearson,2005,ParticipantObservation [Online] http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/ema_uk_he_plummer_sociology_3/40/10342/2647687.cw/content/ Browne, K, 2006 "Sociology for As and A2" Polity Press, London
CGP-AS &A2 sociology -published coordination group publications Ltd 2012…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses

...needed, therefore they are very high in competitive advantage since they’ve got a new idea penetrating the market. The product they are selling and marketing is targeted at a specific group of the market, which are sportsmen and sports industries. This group is very focused in terms of their wants and needs; therefore they knew who their target market was whilst the product was in making. 4. SWOT Analysis: Strengths of QR: i. It is a sole product of the Biolife, therefore owners have only one target, which is to enhance and improve QR. All attention of the owners and shareholders is on QR, so it has to gain attention in all aspects, like marketing, improving and financing this product. ii. It is unlike anything out there. This means that Biolife and QR as a product have got very high competitive advantage. Since it is the only market leader. Other companies will have a difficult time in following this market, and getting other customers to use their products instead of QR. iii. Used by head athletic trainer of the Lakers on national TV. This is a major strength point of QR. It started out strong, and got onto TV quickly and by a very well known person too....

Words: 493 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

‘Yahoo Consumer Direct Marries Purchase Metrics to Banner Ads’ Case Analysis Group 6 What Is Consumer Direct ? 1. Describe the Research Design for Consumer Direct. 2. Discuss the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Research

...‘Yahoo Consumer Direct Marries Purchase Metrics To Banner Ads’ CASE ANALYSIS GROUP 6 What is Consumer Direct ? 1. Describe the research design for Consumer Direct. 2. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the research design. VASUNDHARA KEDIA MANDEEP PRADHAN SUDESHNA CHOWDHURY SOURABH SONI SHAURYADIPTA BASU NILOY BISWAS Consumer Direct, is a sequence of online advertising procedures done in conjunction with ACNielsen’s Homescan panel. In this process, Yahoo sets ads to target consumers, and the Homescan network is households that have elected to partake in such studies. From here households reflect back to the advertising agents after viewing a product on-line at Yahoo, and after a cool-down period of six weeks are then placed in the stores to see the purchasing power that the advertisement had on consumers that are part of the Homescan panel. The metrics of this advertising is to view the effectiveness of the ad targets, and the persuasiveness of the advertising to make consumers to want to go out and get the product. Consumer Direct used the descriptive research design. This design aims to observe and describe the usage of Yahoo without influencing the public in any way, in order to determine the effectiveness of the advertising on Yahoo. This design includes describing any behaviours, performing a case study, observing the amount of advertises being bought or look at through Yahoo, and lastly a questionnaire or presentation. The goal is to be more effective and......

Words: 1085 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Business Research Methods, Part Three

...Business Research Methods, Part Three For Jose Cuervo to stay ahead of the game, qualitative and quantitative data must be collected to develop the new tequila line and stay ahead of the competition. Collecting quantitative data on the tequila is relatively easy, whereas collecting qualitative data, on the other hand taking a significantly larger and more meticulous effort. To collect such data a survey was conducted to determine whether or not Jose Cuervo should introduce a new tequila line specializing in the women market. A convenience method was used because the sample was made up of one hundred women who were easy to reach at various locations. A series of four questions regarding the likes and dislikes of tequila was made. From the data collected Jose has decided to analyze the data as follows. If, 65% of the individuals gave positive feedback then Jose Cuervo would accept and launch the new tequila line Reina de la Noche. According to the data the one of the highest scoring questions showed that 85% of the population surveyed likes to drink tequila. Furthermore, 95% of these individuals have confidence that they would drink tequila if it were fruity in flavor. It is also very important for Jose Cuervo when introducing a new product that the value and consumption of the current high quality tequila does not weaken. Jose Cuervo believes the high scores in these categories reinforces and confirms the hypothesis. However, there are a number of challenges as...

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psychology Research Methods G544

...Lesson Plans is provided in: • PDF format – for immediate use • Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ needs. The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching. The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself. A Guided Tour through the Scheme of Work [pic] |GCE Psychology: H568. G544 Approaches and Research Methods in Psychology | |Suggested teaching time |40 hours |Topic |Section A – Research Methods: The Design of a Practical Project | |Topic outline |Suggested teaching and homework activities |Suggested resources ...

Words: 6449 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses of Biological Positivism

...Strengths and Weaknesses of Biological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour Positivist criminology began towards the late 18th century and early 19th century and contrasted with Cesare Becharios early ideas of classicism. Positivism which arrived after classicism looked at criminal behaviour from a completely different perspective. Positivism looked at the offender rather than that of the crime. Positivism can be separated into three main areas, Biological, Psychological and Sociological. These three areas give explanations on why the offender commits acts of criminal activity and also help to provide answers to why there is crime in society. In this essay there will be analysis on the biological theory to positivism. In doing so theorists such as Cesare Lombroso, Hans Brunner and Gall will be explored in an aim to explain the strengths and weaknesses of their theories. This essay will feature an insight towards outlining positivism by expressing knowledge into the biological side of the subject. Biological positivism was focused on the ideas put forward that criminals were born bad. Work by Italian Professor and criminologist Cesare Lombroso spoke about activism and how criminals were people who had not evolved sufficiently enough from our earlier ancestors. The idea criminals not evolving was based on representations of Charles Darwin’s study of evolution and how criminals could in fact be those who are underdeveloped. Lombroso’s ideas were that activism was operational in......

Words: 2620 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Modernization Theory, Strengths and Weaknesses

... NUMBER: | I405/0329/2011 | DATE: | 31ST AUGUST, 2013 | * QUESTION 1. MAKE NOTES ON UNDEREXPLOITED /NEGLECTED PLANT SPECIES HIGHLIGHTING THEIR CLASSIFICATION, TAXONOMY, PROPAGATION, GENETIC RESERVIOUR, MANAGEMENT AND IMPORTANCE. (a) Albizia lebbeck L.(Woman’s –tongue- tree) Classification:Underexploited Fodder Plants Taxonomy. Kingdom- Plantae Subkingdom- Tracheobionta Superdivision- Spermatophyta Division- Magnoliophyta Class- Magnoliopsida Subclass -Rosidae Order- Fabales Family- Fabaceae Genus- Albizias Species -Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. – Woman’s tongue Common names: * Swahili:  Mkingu, mkungu * English: East Indian walnut, frywood, Indian siris, siristree, woman's-tongue-tree, Propagation * It is best established using potted seedlings, although bare-rooted seedlings, direct seeding and stump cuttings have all been used successfully. * Seed pretreatment involves scarification and immersion in boiling hot water then cooling and soaking for 24 hours, or acid treatment to break seed-coat dormancy. * Germination improves after storage for 2-4 years, but satisfactory germination (50-60%) has been obtained from fresh seeds. * Freshly collected seed has about 70% germination capacity after 1-2 months. * About 880 pods weigh 1 kg and will yield about 300 g of seed. Genetic Reservoir * Albizia lebbeck is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and those areas of south East Asia with a marked dry season (e.g. northeast Thailand, the eastern......

Words: 3648 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Assess the Strengths and Weaknesses of Using Experiments in Investigating Power and Authority in Prisons

...Assess the strengths and weaknesses of using experiments in investigating power and authority in prisons (15 marks) There are two types of experiments which are used by sociologists to study various causes and effects of variables within settings and situations, these include laboratory experiments and field experiments. As favoured by positivists, the laboratory experiments are artificial environments where the researcher controls variables to discover their effect, with the aim to discover a causal law. However, sociologists sometimes use field experiments to overcome the lack of validity of laboratory experiments. Field experiments differ from lab experiments as they take place in the participants' natural surroundings, and the participants do not know they are in an experiment. Researchers could use laboratory experiments to create a prison situation amongst participants and observe their behaviour in terms of power and authority. However, if prisons itself were to be studied, many practical issues may arise. For example, prisons are closed organisations which mean that access to them may not be gained, and even so, prison guards and other authority figures could be protective over their 'canteen' like culture and thus may deny requests for access. Despite this, previous research has shown that researchers have easier access to organisations such as prisons if they are encouraged by the government. For example, researchers of the 'short, sharp shock' approach......

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses of Secondary Sources

...• Grades are easily averaged • Easy to predict future achievements of students Disadvantages • Proportion of students achieved each grade varies from teacher to teacher • Does not indicate student’s specific strength and weaknesses in learning • Are a combination of achievement, effort, work habits and good behavior Advantages of pass-fail system I. Encourages students to explore new areas even those that they are not fully prepared for II. Permits students to focus on aspects of the course that relate directly to their major field of study. III. Enables students to select their learning experience by removing fear of lower grades Disadvantages I. Offers less information about the performance II. Gives no indication of level of learning hence difficult to predict future performance III. Efforts are directed towards passing rather than achieving higher grades Advantages of standard based system a) Are concise and convenient as they cover broad perspectives b) Provide good compromise of the other grading methods hence the fairest Disadvantages a) It is not goal specific b) Does not indicate strength and weaknesses of students c) Difficult to estimate improvement over short time Advantages of checklist i. Detailed analysis of strength and weaknesses ii. Reminds students, teachers and parents of the objectives of the school Disadvantages i. Difficult to keep the list of statements down to a workable number ii. Difficult to state in simple and concise......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses

...Strengths and Weaknesses Essay A person’s strengths and weaknesses reflect their overall character and ability to lead. When looking at my character, it is important to consider all of my qualities, whether they are good or bad. For example, I consider leadership to be a large part of my personal identity. Since leadership is one of my most important characteristics, many of my strengths derive from it. My strengths are important to consider in my overall personality and the way I relate to other people. An important strength in my character is my ability to work hard and stay focused in a distracting environment. It is easy for me to accomplish tasks while others may try to distract me. For example, in class, I am able to get all my work done on time without being sidetracked. I am also very organized. This helps me to get things done faster and more efficiently. Organization is very important in the workplace and I have an advantage because of it. My ability to lead others is important as well. I can be a role model to those around me by exerting leadership qualities such as direction and responsibility. I am also very dependable and reliable. When working in teams, others can count on me to do my fair share of the work and not let them down. Even though I have many strengths, I also have weaknesses as well. My weaknesses hinder my abilities and are flaws in my personality, which could complicate my relationships with others. One of my......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research Methods

...can correspondence tests are understand the meanings to examples. Brown and Gay some extent. | | |send a white and black actor out. | | | | |The comparative method |• A thought experiment. |- |- |• Positivists – past events and is reliable. | | |• Relies on secondary data. | | |• Intepretivists – letters may show the | | |• Identify cause and effect. | | |meanings. | | |• The most famous example is | ......

Words: 3418 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Assess the Strengths and Weaknesses of One of the Following Methods for Investigating the Effects of Streaming

...advantages and disadvantages of using unstructured interviews with students to find out about the effects of a streaming education. “Steaming involves allocating pupils of similar ability to the same class for all or most lessons”-Item B. If you conducted unstructured interviews they would tend to be a quiet time consuming and expensive way of finding out about the effects of streaming. Another weakness is it can be hard to gain access to interview participants as they are hierarchical institutions the permission of the head, the local authority and parents may have to be gained. However, in a school if the head gives permission for you to do your study on effects on streaming he/she may be able to make sure that staff and students are able to give up their time to be able to talk to you. This is particularly important when using unstructured interviews as individuals in school are very time pressured and so might not be able to give up the time to discuss the issue with you. The problem with this is that you could end up with an unrepresentative sample as if the principle is worried that you might reveal some kind of streaming bias he may only allow you to interview staff and students that show his school in the best possible light. One problem with doing research on young people is that they may be reluctant to fill in a questionnaire seriously and with younger children they may find it hard to express their opinions. One strength of using unstructured interviews is......

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Assess the Strengths and Limitations of Using Official Statistics as a Method for Investigating Corporate Crime.

...defend him and negotiate a light charge. These are of course practical limitations. Another criticism of using OCS to investigate white collar is that Interpretivist sociologists argue they do not uncover the whole picture of the crime (such as motivations of the perpetrator), and Marxists argue that OCS are distorted by the Criminal Justice System (CJS) and ruling class institutions to promote businesses and further their status, explaining why the amount of white collar crime is so minimal. Nevertheless, Positivist theorists like to use quantitative data sources like OCS to investigate crime as they believe these figures are an objective, representation reality. There are also many practical advantages such as attaining the data (it is free), the accessibility of these sources (they are publically released and on the Internet), and a researcher can use this secondary source of data to strengthen and corroborate their hypothesis and primary research. Also, as some white collar and business crimes spread across countries they may have more OCS which can strengthen research. However white collar crime can be a transgressive crime, where a law in Britain may not apply in a country like India, for example with child labour laws, so there may not be . Finally, because OCS are publically released any ethical issues that an Interpretivist may face with their preferred methods are no more. On the whole, white collar crime is a very difficult area to investigate as it is......

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses

...Cierra Kidd Adv. Comp/ 3rd Hr Ms. Huter 30 November 2011 Strengths and Weaknesses Writing is the dominant foundation upon which most communication is based. Efficient writing is used to convey distinct information or ideas. Great care is essential to ensure that a message is interpreted correctly by the intended audience. Timing, grammar, vocabulary, and other writing skills are vital techniques to master. Planning for college and a career demands consideration of these skills. Advanced composition will assist in reaching my goals of utilizing current strengths, overcoming specific weaknesses, and preparing for a college career. Writers often develop personal strengths. Personally, it is easy to be creative, persuasive, informative, and precise. Creative writing is used to express the writer’s thoughts, feelings, and emotions. Persuasive writing may be expressed by convincing readers of the writer’s viewpoint. Informative writings are used to familiarize the reader with the topic at hand. Various people often face the challenge of remaining focused when writing. Generally it is easy for me to stay focused and proceed with the correct topic. Writers often cultivate weaknesses when writing. Individually, it is difficult to grasp the concept of proper punctuation, extended vocabulary, unwanted repetitiveness, and accurate grammar. Proper punctuation is very......

Words: 419 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Evaluation of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Communication Methods Adopted by the Company

...Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the communication methods adopted by the company Evidently, Strangers at 47 gives out a homey and welcoming feeling to all as both the owners have developed close relationships with external and internal parties based on their communication strategies. When it comes to their communication methods, the strengths considerably outweighed the weaknesses. Internally, Sean and Sing Yi prefers to use face-to-face method with their staff. Mainly because it is more suitable to adapt to the fast pace of the café’s day-to-day operations as it delivers immediate response from both parties. When communicating face-to-face during rush hour, Sing Yi created a certain familiar code to make sure that the message gets across speedily without a hitch. As for online communications, the online method is the better way to keep track of employees rather than the written method given the ease of access and convenience. Externally, the power of the face-to-face and online method is apparent when getting feedback from customers. The face-to-face method is used on the customers who are physically in the shop. For those who are not physically there, Strangers at 47 managed to extract feedbacks from online and social sites such as, Facebook, Foursquare and Tripadvisor. Also, modern technology has caused external communications to do a 180 degree turn when the Internet became a valued resource in reaching existing and new customers. Sean stated that he is......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Main Strengths and Weaknesses of Sanction Policies

...The main strengths and weaknesses of sanction policies June 2015 Student ID: Acronyms CIPFA: Chartered Institute of Public finance and Accounting DWP: Department of Works and Pension LCFS: Local Counter Fraud Specialist NAO: National Audit Office NFA: National Fraud Authority NHS: National Health Service NHS CFSMS: National Health Service Counter Fraud and Security Management Services XXXXX: XXXXX ousing Gr Table of Contents 1.Executive Summary.................................................................................................. 4 2.Introduction.............................................................................................................. 6 2.1 Objective of XXXXX sanction policy............................................................ 6 3.Literature Review.................................................................................................... . 7 3.1 Definition of fraud.................................................................................... 7 3.2 Examples of fraud ................................................................................... 8 3.3 Sanction.................................................................................................... 8 3.4 Definition of sanction............................................................................

Words: 2844 - Pages: 12