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Use Analysis of Cocaine

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Keuze van historische voorloper van toekomst droom.
Met als toekomstdroom neuromodulatie door middel van elektrische en chemische middelen hebben wij gekozen om de cocaïne productie en verbruik in de eerste wereldoorlog als historische voorloper te analyseren. Omdat cocaïne een psychologische en pijnstillende werking heeft kan dit worden gezien als neuromodulatie. Het idee voor deze voorloper kwam uit een boek van Conny Braam[1] die na nauwkeurig onderzoek dit boek heeft geschreven.
In de eerste wereldoorlog zijn er door de Duitsers, Fransen en Britten gigantische hoeveelheden cocaïne gebruikt. In eerste instantie werd het gebruikt als pijnstiller voor de slachtoffers van de loopgraven, maar als snel werd duidelijk dat dit ook een oppeppende functie kon hebben die de angst van je soldaten wegnam en ze in sterke soldaten zou veranderen. De cocaïne werd verkregen uit cocaïne bladen die vanuit Indonesië kwamen en door nieuwe technieken konden gigantische hoeveelheden worden gemaakt en maakte Nederland hier grof geld mee.

Wat was de rol van ingenieurs in deze droom
Om een serieus beeld te krijgen wat de rol van de ingenieur in de cocaïne productie was zullen we moeten kijken naar de geschiedenis van de ontwikkeling ervan. In 1855 wist de Duitse Chemicus Friedrich Gaedcke[3] cocaïne voor het eerste te isoleren uit de coca plant. Het was dus een ingenieur die ervoor zorgde dat cocaïne bekend werd. Gaedcke begon later een apotheek waar ook cocaïne als medicijn verkrijgbaar was. Zo werd het later bijvoorbeeld gebruikt tegen morfine verslavingen. De ingenieurs ontwikkelde de methodes waarmee er sneller en meer cocaïne kon worden geproduceerd waardoor het een echt handelsproduct werd. Ook al was aan het begin van de 20e eeuw al bekend dat het goedje verslavend zou werken ging de productie gewoon door en werd het in grote getalen gebruikt in de oorlog. De ingenieurs waren dus verantwoordelijk voor de productie ervan, maar de regering en andere betrokkenen hielden het gebruik in de oorlog niet tegen.

Additionele USE nachtmerries
Dat er veel soldaten verslaafd raakten aan een product waarvan men vroeger dacht dat het een medicijn was, was niet de enige nachtmerrie die zich ontpopte door het gebruik van cocaïne tijdens de eerste wereldoorlog. Omdat cocaïne ook psychische werkingen heeft, heeft dit zeker bijgedragen aan de duur van wereldoorlog I. Het is bekend dat de eerste wereld oorlog een slag van uithoudingsvermogen was waarbij er veel troepen op een klein stuk grond met elkaar vochten. In deze vreselijke omstandigheden moesten de soldaten zich staande weten te houden. Vele deden dit door gebruik van cocaïne om de angst weg te halen. Want een van de functies van cocaine is dat het je laat denken veel beter te zijn dan je bent[4].
Daarbij bleef het niet alleen een probleem in de eerste wereldoorlog. Tegenwoordig is het nog steeds een groot probleem. Er wordt illegaal cocaïne gehandeld en gebruikt. In 1990 werd dit probleem beschreven in The Optimist[2] en nog steeds is het probleem niet opgelost.

Reflectie op assignment 1
Wat betreft de droom die we hebben gekozen als voorloper en de droom die we in de toekomst willen bereiken klopt het redelijk. Ze ontdekte in het jaar 1855 hoe cocaïne kon worden geïsoleerd en gebruikt kon worden als pijnstiller. Wij hopen echter verder te kunnen gaan dan alleen pijnstillende functies. Je zou dus kunnen zeggen dat dit een erg milde voorloper is van de toekomstdroom die wij hebben. Dit is ook de reden waarom wij onze droom hebben gericht op chemicaliën én elektriciteit. Wij hopen de hersenen hiermee te kunnen stimuleren of manipuleren.
Wat betreft de nachtmerries komt het in principe ook overeen. De nachtmerrie van de cocaine was dat het product vele ongewenste bijwerkingen had zoals verslaving en aantasting van de hersenen. Wij hopen juist dat we met onze toekomstdroom ervoor kunnen zorgen dat we geen beschadigingen aan de hersenen aanbrengen maar genezingen. Echter blijkt uit het voorbeeld van de cocaine wel dat je heel voorzichtig moet zijn met wat de bijwerkingen van een product of methode kunnen zijn. Het is dus van groot belang dat er voorzichtig wordt omgegaan met nieuwe methodes van het stimuleren van de hersenen. Dit zou anders nog ergere gevolgen kunnen hebben dan het gebruik van cocaine, zeker omdat we ons dan op nieuw grondgebied bevinden van de wetenschap.

Mogelijke USE nachtmerries
Doordat de regeringen van de landen die in oorlog waren geen stop zetten op het gebruik van cocaïne door soldaten, was er natuurlijk een enorm risico dat er ontzettend veel soldaten met een verslaving te kampen kregen. In een historisch artikel wordt dan ook vermeld dat Amerika zijn soldaten pijn wilden besparen, doormiddel van het royaal uitdelen van onder andere cocaine.[1] Na de eerste wereldoorlog liepen er dus duizenden verslaafde ex-soldaten rond, die allemaal opzoek waren naar cocaïne voor eigen gebruik. Dit brengt ons bij een tweede nachtmerrie, illegale handel. In de Opiumwet van 1919 en 1928[2] werd opgenomen dat het handelen in cocaïne alleen nog meer legaal was voor medische doeleinden. Aangezien er ontzettend veel cocaïne verslaafde rondliepen, die cocaïne niet als medisch middel namen, ontstond er naast de “legale medische cocaïne handel” ook een illegale handel in cocaïne[3].

De slachtoffers
In eerste instantie zijn de soldaten zelf natuurlijk het slachtoffer. Want cocaïne had misschien een positieve en kalmerende werking voor hen tijdens de oorlog. Echter voelde de soldaten zich na de oorlog nog steeds afhankelijk van cocaïne. Daarnaast was het ook een probleem voor de staat, omdat deze mensen nog altijd cocaïne wilde gebruiken, terwijl cocaïne alleen nog maar als medisch middel werd uitgegeven. Waardoor de staat te kampen kreeg met illegale drugspraktijken[3]. Met deze illegale drugshandel hebben landen tot op de dag van vandaag te maken en het ziet er ook nog niet uit dat er een definitieve oplossing is voor dit probleem.

[1] http://kranten.delpher.nl/nl/view/index?query=cocaine+wereldoorlog+1&coll=ddd&image=ddd%3A011121244%3Ampeg21%3Aa0265&page=2&maxperpage=10

[2] http://books.google.nl/books?id=JWneSZms19YC&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=opiumwet+1928&source=bl&ots=PNyiOwo6Tp&sig=1RVBQf7vZOxhrl0Grb_GrPUy_4o&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=2X5nU_mIIsaNOI7qgKAH&ved=0CEUQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=opiumwet%201928&f=false

[3] http://kranten.delpher.nl/nl/view/index?query=coca%C3%AFne+smokkel&coll=ddd&image=ddd%3A010930027%3Ampeg21%3Aa0166&page=1&maxperpage=10…...

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