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Negin Ektefaie
Dr. Odom
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Urinalysis: What’s in your urine?

The urinary tract consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder and one urethra. Its major function is to remove waste products from our bodies and help regulate the volume and composition of blood by the production and excretion of urine. This drainage system is carried out by nephrons, the functional unit of the kidney, in three subsequent steps: filtration, reabsorption and secretion. When blood enters the renal artery of the kidneys, the blood plasma is filtered by blood pressure forcing fluid across the glomerulus capillary membranes. Glomerular filtration creates a plasma-like filtrate of the blood. Filtrate moves through the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) Nephron loop distal convoluted tubules (DCT), where reabsorption and secretion occurs. Useful solutes, such as water, glucose, and electrolytes are removed from the filtrate by tubular cells; and nitrogenous wastes are removed from the blood and added to the filtrate. The concentrated urea is called tubular fluid. Water conservation takes place in the collecting ducts, where water is removed and returned to the blood, further concentrating the urine. Urine travels from the kidneys through two thin tubes called ureters and fills the bladder. When the bladder is full, a person urinates through the urethra to eliminate the waste.
The composition of urine can fluctuate with dietary intake and metabolic activity. It contains urochrome, a pigment that give urine a pale yellow color, and is made up of water and other organic and inorganic molecules. A urinalysis is a test used to evaluate urine. It can be used to assess kidney function and overall body health, and involves examination of both the physical and chemical characteristics of urine.
The first portion of the urinalysis consists of a qualitative, or…...

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