Premium Essay

Thomas Gage

In: English and Literature

Submitted By marienlg30
Words 403
Pages 2
Thomas Gage
Thomas Gage was a British general who was well known for his many years of service as a military commander in the American Revolution. Gage, the second son of the first Viscount Gage, was born at Firle, Sussex, England in 1719 or early 1720. Departing school, Gage joined the British Army as a commissioned officer in the armed forces, before he purchased a commission as a lieutenant in the first Northampton Regiment in 1741. He then transferred to Battereau’s Foot Regiment the following year. In 1743, he was promoted to captain and joined the Earl of Albemarle’s staff as an aide-de-camp.
After pertaining in many important events that revolved around the American Revolution and the search for independence in America, Thomas Gage was recalled to England after the Battle of Bunker Hill. Gage reported to Lord George Germain, now the Secretary of State of the American Colonies, that a large army was necessary to defeat the Americans and that foreign troops were need to be hired. In April 1776, Thomas was placed on the inactive list. He remained in semi-retirement until 1781. Gage saw little active service and died at the Isle of Portland on April 2, 1787.
Thomas Gage was an important person that participated in the war for independence because in response to the outcry raised against the 1765 Stamp Act, he began calling troops and he concentrated them in the coastal cities, particularly New York. Later on, with passage of the Townshend Act, the focus of resistance shifted north to Boston. Gage sent troops to that city and the situation came to a head with the Boston Massacre. Gage requested a Leave of Absence two years later and returned to England. In that period Gage missed the Boston Tea Party and the outcry in response to the Intolerable Acts. Then, on April 18-19, 1775, Gage ordered 700 men to fight at Lexington and Concorde.
Thomas Gage was an…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Phineas Gage

...Phineas Gage was a foreman for the construction crew on the Rutland and Burlington Railroad in Cavendish, Virginia. He was working on the railroad using a tamping iron to press an explosive powder into a rock. This was a normal practice for blasting away rock during the middle 1800’s. While Phineas was tamping the rod down into the rock, the iron hit part of the rock and sparked, thus igniting the powder inside the rock. This caused a blast that projected the iron rod into his left cheek and brain, then coming out the top of his skull. This did not kill him; it did not even seem to have affected his brain in a major way at first. Phineas developed an infection that had him in and out of consciousness for two months, was blind in his left eye and experienced weakness in the left side of his face. Only when he returned to work did his coworkers see the change in his personality. (Wickens, 2005). This led people to study his case and do further research on neurological and cognitive studies about how his brain was affected by this accident. The initial thought that Gage was unaffected by this accident proved to be wrong. The physician, Dr. Harlow, that tended to Gage immediately after his incident hinted that while he did not seem to be affected intellectually, he had observed changes in his personality (Kihlstrom, 2010). This shows that neuroscience and social psychology both play a role in figuring out what ails the brain as well as the person. This is......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Gage

...Phineas Gage Paper The brain is one of the key role players in cognitive functioning. There are many different areas in the brain but only a few certain areas have an influence on cognitive functioning. A man named Phineas Gage showed the key elements in the specific areas in the brain that do support these cognitive functions. In 1848 Phineas gage suffered a traumatic brain injury which has aided in understanding the human brain in the fields of cognitive and neuropsychologists. This paper will help to better explain the role of cognitive functioning and the brain. One will better understand the importance of Phineas Gage’s injuries and how they have helped to aid cognitive functioning and neuropsychology. The Brain and Cognitive Functioning The brain plays and important role in cognitive functioning. The ability to process thoughts and information is cognitive functioning (Willingham, 2007). Learning, memory, and perception are all examples of cognitive functioning (Willingham, 2007). Different areas of the brain support different cognitive functions. The amygdala, hippocampus, and the rhinal cortex are all responsible for memory. Emotional memory and memories which are prompted by emotional behavior are all stored in the amygdala. The hippocampus is responsible for receiving information from the senses and then translating them into an individual’s short-term memory. Learned information is recalled from the rhinal cortex. “The cerebral cortex is what is studied,......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Thomas

...Response Paper Thomas Hobbes was born in London in 1588. After his father’s early death Hobbes was raised by his uncle. Thomas Hobbes received his education at Oxford University in England. As the scene was being set for the Civil Wars ‘’Civil war meant that the country became militarily divided.’’ all divisions cut across one another for this reason Thomas Hobbes felt forced to leave the country for his personal safety. Then he lived in France from 1640 to 1651. In this point we can easily understand that social and political chaos affected Hobbes’s life and shaped his thought, but it never prevented his intellectual development. His early position gave him to read, write and publish. On the other hand Thomas Hobbes also likes travelling that’s why he traveled to other European countries several times. While he travelling he meet with other scientists. In 1651, Thomas Hobbes wrote his most famous work which was name is Leviathan. His main concern is the problem of social and political order. First one is how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He believed that humans were basically selfish. They would do anything to better their position. Left to themselves, he thought, people would act on their evil impulses. According to Hobbes, people therefore should not be trusted to make decisions on their own. On the other hand if we look at Thomas Hobbes’s point of view about human nature we can say that; his view is a......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Phineas Gage

...Phineas Gage Paper At the age of 25 Phineas Gage was a bright, promising foreman working for the Rutland and Burlington railroad in Cavendish, Vermont. As was the practice of the times, tamping powder was used to blast drill holes for the preparation of laying track (Wickens, 2005). Gage was using a tamping rod to compact the powder in the holes before detonation when suddenly a precipitous explosion propelled the rod, which was 1.1 meters long, 6 millimeters thick, and weighing 6 kilograms, through his left cheek and brain, exiting out the vault of his skull (Leach & O'Driscoll, 1998). Surprisingly, Gage remained conscious on the ride to the doctor. Once there, Dr. Harlow, the attending physician, bandaged his wounds, which bled for an additional 2 days. Gage showed no obvious, immediate mental deficits, but an aggressive viral infection set in at the damaged area which led to a month of semiconscious recovery. The infection finally abated and Gage made a complete recovery, except for blindness in his left eye and weakness in the left side of his face. However, upon returning to work it became quite clear that Mr. Gage was not entirely himself. The damage to Gage’s brain was localized in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; nevertheless, in order to understand the personality changes that Gage underwent after his recovery it is necessary to first examine the underlying neurological and cognitive interplay thereof. Cognition and Neurology of Consequence Prediction The......

Words: 792 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Phineas Gage

...Phineas Gage PSY/360 Abstract In 1848, there was a railroad worker named Phineas Gage, who was severely injured on the job. In this essay, the author will discuss the details of the accident and what it revealed about how the different areas of the human brain support cognitive function. I will also discuss the characteristics of primary memory, the process of memory from perception and retrieval and the unreliability of memory retrieval. Phineas Gage Phineas gage is known as one of the most famous documented cases of brain injury. This brain injury occurred on September 13th, 1848 while Gage was working on the railroad excavating rocks with a tampering rod in the State of Vermont. An explosion occurred on the job-site that caused a tampering rod propelled at an extremely high speed to enter and penetrate Gage’s skull. This tampering rod entered his skull under his left cheek bone and exited through the top of his head; it was later recovered with bits of brain matter and blood on it. The amazing thing is that throughout this horrific accident, Mr. Gage never lost consciousness, in fact, by January of the following year; he had started to live a normal life. However, it was noted that around this time, Mr. Gage was considered to be suffering from some major changes in his personality. What Phineas Gage’s Accident Reveals about Cognitive Functions “Cognition refers to the higher order functions that are needed for learning and interacting with a person's......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Phineas Gage

...Phineas Gage Paper Stacy M Fender psy/360 July 14 2014 Brenda Edmons Phineas Gage Paper September 13, 18348 a man by the name of Phineas Gage was in a terrible railway construction accident. Phineas was in the town of Cavendish in the state of Vermont; he was tampering iron; these are around three feet long. Buy the chance the iron was fired, and it went through his head, after a CT scan which was cutting edge technology in its time, this showed the iron had gone through his cranium, destruction of his left frontal lobe. Even though he had a painful mishap, Phineas Gage made a remarkable improvement; he was alive for 12 years. He moved to San Francisco, and on the date of May 21, 1860 he died of epilepsy difficulties. The brain has been studied for many years by researchers trying to find the role cognitive functions play in the brain. Phineas was given the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury also known as TBI; this gives comprehension of how TBI's shape cognitive functions. It’s unfortunate that Phineas went through his tragic accident, but it did help researchers find the crucial knowledge of the brain and the areas that show proof of cognitive functions and how traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens. A person's cognitive abilities can foresee functional aftermath after a TBI (traumatic brain injury). The degree of concurrent rational abilities influences the significance of the functional renewal. The changes of a person's social, emotional, and behavioral......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Phineas Gage

... Phineas Gage and the “American Crowbar Case”. Samantha Romero PY3150 Ms. Dreskin 01-01-2015 ITT Technical Institute Phineas Gage and the “American Crowbar Case” There was a man named Phineas Gage who at 25 years old suffered a severe head injury in the year 1848, he was handsome with a pleasant disposition (Guidotti, T., 2012). The accident took place on a railroad near Cavendish, Vermont where Phineas was working (Guidotti, T., 2012). Phineas poured blasting powder into the borehole of the train track but neglected to add sand, when he tamped it down with his ‘crowbar’ the bar shot out going through his left cheek, destroying his left eye and rocketing out of his skull and landing 80 feet away (Guidotti, T., 2012). This is proven to be even more impressive because Phineas never fully lost consciousness and even considering he lost his left eye completely and neurosurgery had yet to be developed (Guidotti, T., 2012). The biggest deficit Phineas suffered was reported as a drastic change in personality and character (Guidotti, T., 2012). According to Guidotti’s article in 2012 Phineas went from being known as a “reliable, systematic and hardworking” man and after the accident was said to be “impulsive, disorganized and stubborn. His language was said to be colorfully profane, although he did not customarily swear before the injury” (Guidotti, T., 2012). Since there were no neurosurgeons during this time period, his specific injury while unfortunate allowed for some......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Phineas Gage

...Phineas Gage was an American railroad construction worker who is remembered for his survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe. It all happened on September 13th, 1848, when Phineas Gage’s life was forever changed. While working on a railroad project, Phineas Gage received a severe brain injury when a three foot long tamping iron went through his skull during an explosion damaging his frontal lobe. It entered through the bottom of his left cheek and exited through the top of his head. Amazingly, Phineas lived to tell the story about his accident. People who knew him before the accident said he was hard-working, but he just was not quite the same person he was after the accident occurred. In Phineas Gage’s case, his frontal lobe of his brain was affected and damaged in his accident. The frontal lobe, the biggest lobe of the brain, is responsible for conscious thought, voluntary movement, and individual personality characteristics. After the accident, Phineas’ personality had altered. He had become impulsive, unreliable, and unable to carry out his plans. He also couldn’t grasp logical thinking. He was not as organized and professional as he was before due to the damage done to his frontal lobe. With Phineas Gage’s accident, it led to the research and study of the frontal lobe because scientists could not explain why or how he survived such a terrible and tragic......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Thomas

...University of Phoenix Material Thomas Money Service Inc. Scenario Thomas Money Service Inc. has been in business since 1940. It started out as a consumer finance company granting small loans for household needs. Over the following 5 years, the company expanded its services by issuing business loans, business acquisition financing, and commercial real estate loans. In 1946, the decision was made to branch out into equipment financing. A subsidiary named Future Growth Inc. (FGI) was established. This decision turned out to be very lucrative. Because of the end of World War II, society had a huge demand for construction and forestry equipment. Because of increasing demand for this type of equipment, FGI decided to make a very daring move in 1951 and purchased an equipment manufacturing company. Now they could build, sell, and finance their own brand of building and forestry equipment. FGI discontinued financing other brands of equipment. For 67 years, FGI had been able to truthfully state that they have continuously increased profits year after year, even during economic downturns, and have never laid off workers. This track record has allowed their stock to grow from $5.00 to $85.60 with six stock splits from 1975 to 1998. FGI has never issued bonds, and the present stock value is $35 The current global downturn has caused the American economy to suffer. Oregon, Washington, and several other forestry states have encountered flooding, massive fires, and......

Words: 808 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Thomas

...How We Know What Isn't So The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life Thomas Gilovich THE FREE PRESS A Division of Macmillan, Inc. NEW YORK To Karen and liana Contents Acknowledgments 1. Introduction vn 1 PART ONE Cognitive Determinants of Questionable Beliefs 2. Something Out of Nothing: The Misperception and Misinterpretation of Random Data 3. Too Much from Too Little: The Misinterpretation of Incomplete and Unrepresentative Data 4. Seeing What We Expect to See: The Biased Evaluation of Ambiguous and Inconsistent Data 9 29 49 PART TWO Motivational and Social Determinants of Questionable Beliefs 5. Seeing What We Want to See: Motivational Determinants of Belief 6. Believing What We are Told: The Biasing Effects of Secondhand Information 7. The Imagined Agreement of Others: Exaggerated Impressions of Social Support 75 88 112 Contents PART THREE Examples of Questionable and Erroneous Beliefs 8. Belief in Ineffective "Alternative" Health Practices 9. Belief in the Effectiveness of Questionable Interpersonal Strategies 10. Belief in ESP 125 146 Acknowledgments 156 PART FOUR Where Do We Go from Here? 11. Challenging Dubious Beliefs: The Role of Social Science Notes Index 185 195 214 Four people made unusually significant contributions to this work and deserve special thanks. Lee Ross commented on drafts of many of the chapters and provided a number of his......

Words: 80718 - Pages: 323

Free Essay

Thomas

...Thomas Roland Mr. Lesosky Lit & Comp Biography Today we take a look into the career of one of the great icons of the Atlanta Braves. His name is Larry Wayne Jones Jr but most of us know him as Chipper Jones. He was born on April 24th of the year 1972 in Deland Florida. Jones began his high school baseball career at Taylor High School, where he pitched a one-hitter as a freshman. He went to The Bolles School as a sophomore, where he was a two-way player. He chalked up a 6-3 record with 87 strikeouts and a 1.89 ERA as a pitcher while hitting a .391 batting average with seven home runs, earning First Team All-State honors. In 1989, he played football and baseball, winning First Team All-State honors in both sports and winning a state championship in baseball. He also notched the Tournament MVP honors and held an 11-1 pitching record with a 0.81 ERA in 84 innings pitched, and 107 strikeouts. In his senior year, the Bulldogs were the state-runner up while Jones compiled a 7-3 record with a 1.00 ERA and 100 strikeouts in 79 innings on the mound, while hitting .488 with 14 stolen bases. He went on to get scouted by a man by the name of Tom Battista. After getting scouted he later went on to become the number one overall pick in the 1990 MLB draft by the Atlanta Braves, and made his MLB debut late in 1993. Between 1996 and 2003, he batted at least .300 with 26 home runs in seven of eight seasons. An eight time All-Star, he won the Most Valuable Player Award in 1990, and......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Phineas Gage

...Psy 260 May 15, 2011 Patricia Adesso Phineas Gage The brain is most complex of all of the organs in the body. The brain is the place where emotions, perception, planning, memory, action, thinking, learning and language, among other things, all take place. Cognitive functioning takes place in the cerebrum, the largest part of the brain and is carried out by neurons. The brain is made up of thousands of neurons that are responsible for carrying messages from the brain and into the body. These neurons interact with one another by releasing a neurotransmitter that fits on to the receptor of a neighboring neuron. When the receptor is triggered in the brain it causes the body to react, act, think, feel, learn and so forth. But how does this actually work? Brain imaging has given us some insight to answer this question. Brain imaging like MRI’s, CAT, and PET scans all help in discovering the brains role in cognitive functioning. Advances in imaging technology have helped researchers pin point which areas of the brain are responsible for thinking, learning and memory. By recording activity of the brain in action, researchers can examine the systems of brain regions that participate in different cognitive functions, ranging from basic sensory and motor functions to complex functions like reasoning and language understanding. According to the Center for Neural Basis of Cognition (CNBC) at the University of Pittsburg “To discover how brain cells actually support cognitive......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Phineas Gage

...Phineas Gage Megan Libey PSY 360 Melissa Jackson Phineas Gage Phineas Gage was a foreman working for the railroad in Vermont. In those days blasting holes was the normal procedure to gain access to lay the railroad down. Gage was using tamping powder to drill holes with a tamping iron. He would use the iron to pack the powder in holes and suddenly there was an explosion which led the tamping iron which was now protruding from left cheek and part of the brain and hanging out from his skull (Twomey, 2010). He had everyone one of his co-workers looking at him in amazement since he never loss consciousness. The Doctor that examined Gage was amazed as well and cleaned and bandages his wounds. Phineas Gage was a well mannered person, who enjoyed working before the accident, but afterwards a vicious viral infection had done the toll and recovery was long and hard. Gage was recovering well physically, but the infection had robbed him of sight in his left eye and decreased sensation on his left face. Gage did return to laying down tracks for the railroad but everyone who knew him saw he was a changed man (Wagar, 2004). Cognition Functions with Phineas Gage Antonio Damaiso showed research based on somatic-marker hypothesis in Phineas Gage that allowed people to understand that patients with frontal lobe damage was evidence that brain’s regions for making decisions are strongly connected to emotional centers (Barnes & Thagard). Somatic markers can help......

Words: 879 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phineas Gage

...space or the anticipated reward value of environmental cues. Ongoing studies will shed light on the way the brain represents and transforms information in the performance of a wide range of cognitive activities Phineas P. Gage (1823-1860) was a railway construction workman who, in 1848, received a devastating penetrating head injury. A 4 foot long tamping iron was fired by accident through his skull destroying both frontal lobes. He survived the accident by chance, the care he received from colleagues at the scene and through medical care received from doctors. Gage remained conscious on the way to the local physician. Upon arrival, Dr. Harlow, the attending physician, bandaged his wounds, which continued to bleed for another 2 days. Gage showed no obvious, immediate mental discrepancies, but an aggressive viral infection set in at the damaged area which led to a month of semiconscious recovery. Once infection finally subsided, Gage made a complete recovery, except for blindness in his left eye and weakness in the left side of his face. Upon his returning to work it became quite evident that Mr. Gage was not entirely himself. The damage to Gage’s brain was located in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; but, in order to understand the personality changes that Gage underwent after his recovery it is necessary to first examine the underlying neurological and cognitive interplay thereof. Perception, attention, emotion, planning and action, learning and memory, thinking,......

Words: 1027 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Gage

...Science unrolls and unravels the many functions of the brain through research, inference, experiments and actual real life occurrences. Such was the case of Phineas Gage (1823 – 1860), a young foreman on the railroad in the mid 1800’s who survived a blasting accident which destroyed a part of his brain. Documentation on Mr. Gage’s health and personality before and after the accident opened the door to the role of the brain in cognitive functions. Phineas Gage’s accident and apparent recovery precipitated the idea that there was a connection between the human brain and the personality. First, prior to Mr. Gage’s phenomenal recovery from the loss of a substantial part of his brain, scientists believed that the brain was an entire “organ”, and that all of it was needed to function at all. The incidence with Phineas’ recovery and his continual capability to function altered scientific thinking substantially. Secondly, the adaptation that he made in his personality opened further doors for studying the cognitive adaptability of the brain. According to friends and collegues, Gage was no longer Gage. Once a friendly and affable, easy to get along with individual, he became stubborn, argumentative and forgetful, unable to organize his life in a reasonable manner. He could no longer hold down a job. Phineas Gage died 12 years after a rod pierced his skull and permanently damaged his frontal cortex. The scientific studies that followed the reports of Phineas Gage’s......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3