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Submitted By eriel123
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Eriel Cuevas

Mr. Mertsock

English 12

21 October 2013

Steroids and Athletes

Barry Bonds steps up to the plate awaiting a pitch he could hit from Mike Bacsik on a beautiful tuesday night. With a full count Barry finally gets the pitch he and everyone else was waiting for, he blasts the ball to the deepest part of AT&T Park. Was it his natural talent or was it the steroids he had been taking? Why are most of the top athletes in the world risking their health just to get those big contracts that everyone in professional sports want? The first introduction to performance enhancing drugs was in the 1930’s, by a group of German scientists, where they created a form of testosterone. Now people use the drugs to help them become bigger, faster, and stronger. This then would lead to them either getting caught or getting the big contracts that Alex Rodriguez has, which neither A-Rod or any or the other athletes deserve to get. The use of steroids is putting a influence on the rest of the athletes and especially young athletes in high school. This is why the use of steroids has forever changed the face of professional sports, making it a world fueled by drug contacts instead of natural skill and talent.

The introduction of steroids to the world was in the 1930’s, by a group of German scientists, trying to create a synthetic form of testosterone for men that weren’t able to produce enough hormones for growth, development, and the men who could not function correctly sexually (Anabolic). The scientists later decided to give the testosterone to the Soviet army, to become more powerful. This then led to the German Olympic coaches injecting most of their athletes with the testosterone to enhance their performances. Female athletes that they injected told people that they did not know what they were being injected with. People began to wonder why women began to look like men. In 1937, the Rockefeller Foundation generously provided financial support for the research on natural compounds, and steroids.

Even though steroids were made using sex hormones, males that use steroids can still suffer from a numerous amount of long and short term effects (Mitchell). For example, men who abuse steroids can find that their sex life isn’t where it should be because they are having problems with their male parts. They will start to see there testicles beginning to shrink, which can lead to sperm count reduction. Testosterone-based hormones are extremely bad for men who eventually want to have children. They actually work almost like a contraceptive. When a man is taking anabolic steroids, it is practically impossible for a man to get their partner pregnant. The abuse of steroids can also lead to the male having erectile dysfunction. Taking steroids can sometimes also lead to pain or difficulty while trying to urinate. Taking performance enhancing drugs can also lead to major heart problems. According to the American Heart Association journal, Long-term anabolic steroid use may weaken the heart more than previously thought and may increase the risk of heart failure (Long-Term). For example, middle-aged weight lifters who took steroids for a couple years showed impaired heart pumping function and would then end up leading to series of heart attacks. Steroid abuse has been tied precisely to harmful effects on cholesterol levels, and a connection is suspected between steroid abuse and an enlarged heart (Long-Term).

The only effect that people really know about is “Roid Rage.” Roid rage is when steroid users display phases of aggression and violent feelings or actions towards people. Users report that they feel good about themselves after or when they are taking steroids. The users can suffer from paranoid jealousy, delusions and horrible judgements that comes from the feeling of being more powerful than the people around them. If users suddenly stopped taking steroids they will most likely become depressed, depending on how long they have been taking steroids (Anabolic). While depressed some people even go as far as committing suicide. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people 15 to 24 years of age, according to U.S. government studies (Steroid).

After leaving the pros, John Rocker stated in an interview with CBS, "Honestly, and this may go against what some people think from an ethical standpoint, I think it was the better game. At the end of the day when people are paying their $80, $120 whatever it may be, to buy their ticket and come watch that game, it’s almost like the circus is in town. They are paid to be entertained. They wanna see some clown throw a fastball 101 mph and some other guy hit it 500 feet. That’s entertainment. You’re paying to be entertained"- John Rocker (Services). This is just stupid, real baseball fans that go to games often already know what to expect from a game. Look at Miguel Cabrera and Chris Davis, they are all chasing 61 home runs. Steroids made the game worse and takes skill out of the game that we all love. Why ruin it with cheating? There is no need to use steroids, we still have the same entertainment.

"More than one million people in the U.S. are thought to have used steroids - 48 percent of them under age 25. A recent report found that about 375,000 high school boys and 175,000 girls use steroids" (DiConsiglio). It’s outrageous knowing how many boys and girls in high school use steroids. especially the girls, what girl wants to look like a man? They must really want to make it to the pros. "These kids are terribly nice 99 per cent of the time but when it suits them they can switch their morality off and do something they know is wrong and stand there with all innocence and say, 'I didn't do anything', athletes who were more in favour of doping were obsessed with winning,” Professor Moston said (Sports). It's not just hyper-competitive jocks who abuse the substances. Doctors say a growing number of so-called "cyclers" are teens who suffer from muscle dysmorphia, a body image disorder similar to anorexia in women (Steroid). Young kids inject themselves just because they don't feel comfortable in their bodies, they see most of the athletes with big biceps and get made fun of because they are smaller physique wise. One of the reasons people start taking drugs is because they think everybody else is, In all of our studies we ask people to guess how many elite athletes they think are using performance enhancing drugs generally, Normally they give a big overall number, about a third of athletes (Sports).

The committees at all non professional levels should have performance enhancing drug testing just to ensure that the playing fields are even. The youth of this country and other countries model their behavior after the popular athletes in sports present and past. A Kaiser Family Foundation study found that over half of the youth surveyed believed that “it is common for famous athletes to use steroids or other banned substances in order to get an edge on the competition (Mitchell). Athletes are second only to parents in the extent to which they are admired by younger athletes. Young athletes that see the top stars in the game not getting in severe trouble, think to themselves oh he didn't get in trouble so i won't either. When on trial track star Marion jones asked judge Karas not to send her to prison. Marion stated "I plead with you to alleviate the situation by not separating me from my boys, even for a short period of time," she said. But Karas noted that "athletes in society ... serve as role models to children around the world. When there is a widespread level of cheating, it sends all the wrong messages" (Wilson). Now some reports have shown a recent decline in steroid use by high school students in america; they range from 3 to 6 percent (Mitchell). Even though is a lower amount of high school students using steroids means that there are still hundreds of thousands of high school-aged young people are still illegally using performance enhancing drugs.

Performance enhancing drugs are used roughly in every sport there is today. It is usually the top names in sports that end up getting caught using performance enhancing supplements. Marion Jones for example was one of the most accomplished female athletes in the world in her time, being the first woman ever to win five track-and-field medals at a single Olympics. Jones entered her guilty pleas in October and admitted she lied to a federal agent in November 2003 about her use of steroids (Wilson).In 2004, she filed a $25 million defamation lawsuit against Victor Conte, founder of BALCO marketer of THG, accusing him of trying to "destroy her career and reputation" when he said he supplied her with performance-enhancing drugs (Wilson). Why would she file a lawsuit against victor? She must have known that the supplement that he gave her. Why would any person take something when they don't know what it is? Just because she got caught, she wanted to bring everyone that was involved with it down with her. Marion Jones was then sentenced to six months in a federal prison, she had also got two years of probation.

Ben Johnson is a canadian sprinter, he was known for setting a world record in the 100m final, with the time of 9.79 seconds. That record is still standing till this day, people still think that Ben’s record will never be broken. Three days later following the race Ben’s urine test revealed that the sprinter had taken Stanozolol, and he was later disqualified. This all came to play when star sprinter Carl Lewis had to explain himself for not winning the race. Carl was suppose to win that race, none of the other sprinters where even going to come close to beating him. Lewis first claimed that Johnson had false-started, then he alluded to a stomach virus which had weakened him. Finally, without naming names, Lewis said "There are a lot of people coming out of nowhere. I don’t think they are doing it without drugs." This was the start of Lewis’ calling on the sport of track and field to be cleaned up in terms of the illegal use of performance-enhancing drugs. While cynics noted that the problem had been in the sport for many years, they pointed out that it didn’t become a cause for Lewis until he was actually defeated, with some also pointing to Lewis's egotistical attitude and lack of humility” (Montague).

Lyle Alzado, the focal point of how a player will end up by using steroids. Alzado played for the Denver Broncos and Oakland Raiders of the NFL, as a defensive lineman. Lyle was an undersized player in high school, he began experimenting with the muscle-building drugs in college and never stopped. Shortly before his death he stated in a Sports Illustrated article, “I started taking anabolic steroids in 1969 and never stopped. It was addicting, mentally addicting. Now I’m sick, and I’m scared. Ninety percent of the athletes I know are on the stuff. We’re not born to be 300 lbs or jump 30 ft. But all the time I was taking steroids, I knew they were making me play better. I became very violent on the field and off it. I did things only crazy people do. Once a guy sideswiped my car and I beat the hell out of him. Now look at me. My hair’s gone, I wobble when I walk and have to hold onto someone for support, and I have trouble remembering things. My last wish? That no one else dies this way” ('i'm Sick). Alzado estimated he spent $30,000 a year on the drugs, often buying them at gyms around the country. His second wife, Cindy, blamed the breakup of their marriage on his mood swings caused by steroids. She said she called police at least five times during their marriage because Lyle physically abused her, but Alzado was never arrested. Lyle admitted the steroids sometimes made him so crazy that at times he couldn't deal with social stress. "Once in Denver in 1979 a guy sideswiped my car," he said, "and I chased him up and down the hills through the neighborhoods” ('i'm Sick).

Major League Baseball had been an open secret for many years that players were using

steroids and other performing enhancing drugs. Everyone that watches baseball knew when a player is on steroids or not. They have the idea in mind but at that point it isn't proven. Their use had been either tacitly or directly encouraged, especially under conditions in which baseball had pressure coming from those other sports, including football and basketball, and feared losing some of its market share, mainly in the end of the 1994 strike. Using steroids to inflate the number of home runs was one way of attracting fans back into the ballpark. Banned substances in baseball has been an ongoing issue for Major league baseball. Several players have come forward in recent years to suggest that drug use is spreading in baseball. Jose Canseco stated on 60 Minutes and in his tell-all book juiced that as many as 80% of players used steroids, and that he credited steroid use for his entire career. Canseco also claimed, widespread use of steroids in Major League Baseball, and he named names, some of them superstar players, including Mark Mcgwire and Rafael Palmeiro.

Mark McGwire ended the 1998 season with 70 home runs, ten more than Babe Ruth had hit in 1927 and nine more than Roger Maris in 1961. Contemplating his achievement, McGwire famously remarked that he was "like, in awe of myself." That made him an idol to baseball fans around the world, "He became a symbol of hard work and dedication. He reached for an impossible goal - and made it!” (Diconsiglio). But then there was the day Mark McGwire's name made headlines of another kind. A bottle of pills was found in McGwire's locker. No One knew that he was using performance enhancing drugs until he admitted that he was using them. Mark later stated that “It's very emotional, it's telling family members, friends and coaches, you know, it's former teammates to try to get ahold of, you know, that I'm coming clean and being honest," he said. "It's the first time they've ever heard me, you know, talk about this. I hid it from everybody" (McGwire). McGwire, who is eighth on the all-time home run list with 583 homers, was not elected into the Hall of Fame in his fourth year of eligibility.McGwire used steroids. Thats why he will not be in the baseball hall of fame.

Sammy Sosa had a memorable home run race with Mark McGwire in 1998 and is credited with helping revive baseball. Baseball conducted the 2003 survey testing to determine if full-scale testing was necessary. The survey test was taken by 1,198 players, with 104 testing positive for performance enhancing drugs. The results were meant to be anonymous, carrying no punishment for players who tested positive.That was not the first time Sosa has been involved in a cheating scandal. In 2003 he was found to have used a corked bat during a game. People began to think since he had cheated once with the corked bat, he wouldn't be scared of using steroids. Sosa then popped 40 home runs and drove in 103 runs after coming back from that incident, and hit one of the Cubs’ great homers off Ugueth Urbina in Game 1 of the 2003 NLCS. Sosa finished the season with 66 home runs, 4 behind Mark Mcgwire, both had broken Roger Maris's of 61 in a single season. Sammy hit 609 career home runs with 549 of those coming during the steroid era in Chicago. He averaged 60 home runs and 149 runs batted in per season from 1998 until 2001. Those numbers are just ridiculous especially from a player that came into the league with a body of a high schooler.

Rafael Palmeiro, a four-time All-Star and three-time Gold Glove first baseman, is one of only four players in big league history with 500 homers and 3,000 hits. Perhaps the most memorable moment Palmeiro's career came when he boldly wagged his finger at Congress in March 2005, saying "I have never used steroids. Period." (Klopman). Its was when he got his 3,000th hit, three weeks later it was announced he tested positive for steroids and was suspended 10 games. From that day forward the fans booed him at home and they booed him on the road, and after a 2-for-26 slide, the Orioles told him to go away and rest and never come back. Next season, no one called him,not one team in all of baseball would take a flier on a 41-year-old free agent. Back in 2005 Palmeiro was suspended 10 games for testing positive for performance enhancing drugs. Palmeiro said that he received a vitamin B-12 shot that season from teammate Miguel Tejada, and that somehow steroids ended up in his system.

Miguel Tejada is an outfielder for the Kansas City Royals, he recently had been suspended 105 games after testing positive for an amphetamine in violation of Major League Baseball's drug program. Tejada then stated in an interview with Espn, "I've been using it [Adderall] for the past five years and had medical permission from MLB. But my last permit expired on April 15 and they didn't gave me another. I knew that I was in risk of breaking the rules, but at the same time, I could not stop using the medicine because I suffer from ADD [Attention Deficit Disorder]. It's not a vice, it is a disease" (Miguel).Tejada's ban is the third-longest non-lifetime suspension handed down by MLB, behind Alex Rodriguez’s pending two hundred and eleven game ban and Steve Howe's hundred and nineteen game ban in 1992. He also is the third former MVP to be suspended this season under baseball's drug program, joining Rodriguez and Ryan Braun, who has a 65 game suspension.

Ryan Braun, the 2011 National League Most Valuable Player is currently serving a sixty five game suspension for using performance-enhancing drugs. The season he was named MVP, Braun tested positive for elevated levels of testosterone after a playoff game. Ultimately however an arbitrator sided with Braun’s argument that the test sample had been improperly handled and voided the earlier suspension he would have had to serve. This is just telling the MLB that the can not trust even the doctors that are performing the drug tests. After the MLB finished their investigation, which led to Braun being suspended, he later told reporters that he was dealing with a nagging injury and turned to products for a short period of time. In that same interview he apologized and said, “It is important that people understand that I did not share details of what happened with anyone until recently. My family, my teammates, the Brewers organization, my friends, agents and advisors had no knowledge of these facts, and no one should be blamed but me. Those who put their necks out for me have been embarrassed by my behavior. I don't have the words to express how sorry I am for that” (Braun). This is the second athlete that said no one knew that he has using performance enhancing drugs.

Barry Bonds was an incredible baseball player. He was the best hitter and fielder at his peak which was from 1990 all the way through 2004. Bonds combination of power and speed was tremendous during the time when everything was all about the home run. He could launch the ball with the best of them, but he was such a great athlete that he could do more than just hit the ball really far. The transformation that Barry Bonds achieved through the use of performance-enhancing drugs is reflected in his batting stats. Bonds began using steroids before the start of the 1999 season, when he was 34 years old. From that point on his performance improved dramatically at a time when otherwise he might have been approaching the end of his career. In 2003 Bonds was questioned on whether he had been involved with BALCO a supplement agency in the bay area. This is a statement he said during a grand jury testimony back in 2003, "I never asked. When he said it was flaxseed oil, I just said, 'Whatever.' It was in the ballpark.. in front of everybody. I mean, all the reporters, my teammates, I mean they all saw it. I didn't hide it" (Memorable). His response is that he took these on the advice of his trainer and had no idea they were steroids. People around him have to be blind to not see the incredible changes in him over that short period and the fact that as he aged his home run records improved doubling in averages over a period of a few years.

For those professional athletes, a very fine line separates the heights of stardom from failure and poverty. Enormous amounts of money are promised to the athletes who perform well. The athletes who do not perform well are abandoned and discarded, sometimes left with disabling and disfiguring medical conditions as the only reward for the hard work they put in unlike the cheaters that took the easy way out instead of working their tails off. Without a doubt many players have become convinced that using performance enhancing drugs offers the best pathway to success and financial security. Owners, coaches, agents and everyone else connected to the game have proven more than willing to look the other way as long as their profits are up. Although baseball is making an effort to clean up but this particular leftover from the “Steroid Era” stands as testimony to some serious mistakes by both players and policy makers in Major League Baseball.…...

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...Nesbitt-Johnston Writing Center Hamilton College Clinton, NY 13323 INTRODUCTIONS AND THESIS STATEMENTS Introductions The introduction is a key paragraph for both readers and writers. First impressions matter. The reader will be more inclined to read a paper and consider a position if the initial paragraph is clear, organized, and engaging. For the writer, a carefully crafted first paragraph acts as a springboard, establishing the order and direction for the entire paper. The form and content of an introduction depend upon many factors, including the specifics of the assignment, the intended audience, the style of the discipline, and the expectations of your professor. In general, your introduction should • capture the reader’s attention • reflect the question raised by the assignment • provide essential context for your topic • define key terms Most importantly, your introduction should • convey the pattern of organization you will follow in the paper • build to the thesis sentence: a clear, concise statement of the specific position you will explore in your paper Outline first Outline your argument as fully as possible before starting the first draft. Outlining first helps you to see the shape of your argument, making writing the draft much easier. Start focused Avoid broad openers; start your argument right away. Do not open with empty filler such as “Since the beginning of time” or “For thousands of years, men, both good and evil.” Open with a......

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... According to the related article mentioned above, fingerprint scanning technology has been used in many fields as a means of security to confidential government records. Technology helps law enforces in the identification of employees. Local Literature The aim of general payroll system is to provide easier and faster way to monitor the movement of salary in the business. It is a proper way to get an exact salary of employee regarding their minimum income. From this documents of payroll the salary will be illustrate the name of employee, the rate, the deductions for their benefits, deduction from damages and cash advance, computing a gross and giving the amount of net income. According to John Aquilan made a comparable thesis entitled “Automation of time attendance System” in 2004, it stated that the automation of the time attendance records, time in and time out of every employee using barcode system. It tends to eliminate the manual recording system of time and attendance and also include salary computation of each employee based on the time and attendance reports. According to Mayor Jun Bernabe on the article Planet Biometrics, In August 2011 Parañaque City, Philippines has replaced its existing biometric machines with a new finger print biometric attendance registry system, which it says is more user-friendly and efficient. The city’s mayor, Jun Bernabe, says the new attendance machines will enable it to resolve the issues of long queues as well as......

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...Time Management and Test Preparation. The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerely, and integrity of the respondents. This study will not cover the graduating students, due to the f act that we have limited sources. Moreover 1st year and 2nd year Batasan Gen Ed. Students are only allowed to participate in the research. Definition of Terms Student Employment - The one who work for oneself. Part Time Job - The way of the student to earn and to provide their necessity. Work - Something that produces an output or being accomplished. Working Students – Student who work while studying. References http://www.slideshare.net/AngeAlcantara/a-thesis-asses http://www.merriam-webster.com/press-release/2009-word-of-the-year http://debraorton.com/subcategory/factors-affecting-the-academic-performance-of-college-working-student-in-the-philippines/1...

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...Thesis CHAPTER 1 The Problem and its Background Introduction If you could improve performance, increase student morale an develop self esteem of a student, would you? According to B.F Skinner, behavior is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior. Skinner said, “When someone behaves in a way we find reinforcing, we make him more likely to do so again by praising or commending him. We attest to the value of the person’s behavior by patting on the back, or saying good or right or giving him a token of our esteem such as prize, honor or award.” Guthrie assume that learning depends on action an organism must do, it is to learn. Once the student performed the required response, the teacher must present the student a reward, which will capture his or her attention that the student will eventually further improve his or her performance. For example, when students do exceptionally ell in class, he or she will earn medal or a star. Another, the student will be more motivated if his or her teacher will say “good job” or “very great answer” for every correct answer and good performance. The researcher believes that rewards have something to do with learning and we assume that motivation is important to the learner. A reward must be something desirable; without the desire, there can be no reward (Tria, 1998) Since the researchers have mentioned the concept of positive reinforcement......

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