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The Roman Empire

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ROMERSK KRIGSFØRELSE

”Hvis man studerer den romerske hærs organisering omhyggeligt forstår man, at de har vundet deres store imperium ved deres tapperhed, ikke som en gave fra skæbnen”

- Den Jødiske skribent Josephus

Indholdsfortegnelse

Problemformulering………………………………………………………………………………S.3

Den romerskehær………………..……………………………………………………………….s.4-5

Opbygning……………………..……………………………………………………………………..s.5

Ære……………………………………………………………………………………………………..s.5-7

Strategi………………..……………………………………………………………………………..s.7-9

Disciplin…………………………………………………………………………………………..s. 9-10

Decimering…………………………………………………………………………..…………s. 10-11

Konklusion……………………………….………………………………………………………..s.12

Litteraturliste……………………………………….………………………………………….s.13

Problemformulering

Hvad blev legionærerne lovet?

Hvordan var livet som romersk soldat?

Hvilken faktor gjorde at romerne i datiden var militært dominerende?

Hvordan opretholdte man disciplinen i felten?

Hvordan var den militære organisation?

Den romerske hær

I den tidlige republik (før år 107 f.v.t.) bestod hæren af mænd, der selv var ansvarlige for at skaffe våben og mad. Legionærerne modtog ingen betaling og disciplinen var at ringeagte i forhold til de senere tiders hære. Romerrigets krigsførelse var på dette tidspunkt præget af grækernes krigssystem, hvor man dannede en falanksformation. Romerne lærte hurtigt at spyddet som man brugte i en falanks som primærvåben, var forældet og de valgte at sætte gang i en militær omskiftning hvor fleksibilitet og disciplin, skulle være kernen dette skulle føre dem til storhed. Hvor det før i tiden kun var højerestående mænd med jord, der kunne melde sig til legionerne valgte den romerske konsul Gaius Marius at lave om på loven. Så man kunne hverve jordløse frie borgere, nu bestod hæren af Professionelle soldater, der fik deres sold betalt af den romerske stat. Man brugte tvangsudskrivning til at få folk til legionerne. Unge mænd mellem 18-25 år indtrådte i legionerne, det var ikke en mulighed at være viet, når man var legionær og derfor blev ægteskaberne, ophævet hvis en soldat blev indkaldt.

Kejser Augustus var en forkæmper for legionærerne og han sørgede for at legionærerne blev behandlet godt under hjemsendelsen, efter de havde tjent Rom trofast i 25 år, det var en mærkesag for ham at de fik det jord der var blevet dem lovet i de nye besiddelser og desuden en kontant udbetaling svarende til 12 års løn. Legionærerne opbyggede nære forbindelser til lokalområdet i kolonierne, dette hjalp Rom da mange unge mænd i landsbyerne, så op til legionerne og derfor valgte at lade sig rekruttere som hjælpetropper[1]. Tit og ofte var disse hjælpetropper resultat af de romerske troppers tilnærmelser til de lokale kvinder, mange legionærer der var udstationeret i forter og langs rigets grænser grundlagde legionærer familier som efter legionærens pligtige tid i hæren kunne besegles med ægteskab[2]

Visse legioner var mere populære end andre alt efter den pågældende legions historie og erobringer. Hver legion stillede deres ørnestandart (en slags fane) på Campus Martius (Marsmarken). Da Julius Cæsar og hans barndomsven Marcus Brutus havde fået lov til at genoprette ”Primigenia”, der var Julius’ onkels Gaius Marius legion, som under hans hånd havde erobret Nordafrika, men senere blev anklaget for forræderi efter at Cornelius Sulla (konsul og diktator) havde vundet borgerkrigen mellem ham og Marius, var der ingen af de unge mennesker som var villige til at træde ind den skamfulde legion.

Opbygningen

H vis man kigger på den romerske hærs opbygning var der et fælles standpunkt, hvilket blev fulgt til punkt og prikke såvel som i byen Rom, hvor de sørgede for sikkerhed og tryghed, og i det kolde nord hvor målet var nye erobringer. En legion bestod af mellem 4-8000 mænd. Der var 10 kohorter (en form for delinger) i hver legion. I disse kohorter som ofte blev ledet af en general hørte 6 centurier som hver bestod af 80 menige ”Legionaries” (legionærer), disse 80 menige legionærer var ledet af en mand under rangen centurion. Denne mand havde kæmpet sig frem til sin plads ved hans dygtighed med sværd og tapperhed i kamp. Dog er det vigtigt at bemærke at den første kohorte var den mest prestigefyldte i en romersk hær, da generalerne valgte de bedste mænd til denne hær. Den øverste mand i den romerske hær var ”Legatus Legiones ” anfører eller general for hæren, denne mand var næsten altid senator og typisk romersk konsul under legaten var der den næstkommanderende ”præfekten”, der hvis det skulle ske at ”legaten” døde skulle overtage ansvaret over hæren.

Når det kom til udvælgelse af hvilke mænd, der skulle forfremmes var det legionærerne selv der skulle vælge, hvem der skulle afløse deres tidligere ”tesserarius” (underofficer). Men når det kom til at vælge hvilke folk der skulle afløse en centurion, havde man i senatet lavet en lov om at 6 såkaldte tribuner skulle udvælge manden. På denne måde havde Rom altid en vis kontrol over legionerne da de kunne udvælge de mænd der var tro mod byen.

Ære

E n legions ære havde sit standpunkt ved ”Aquiliferen” standarden eller fanen (hver legion havde hver deres udsmykning på fanen de fleste havde dyr som ørne, løver eller ulve). Den berømte Konsul Julius Cæsar, havde en gylden ørn som standard for hans tiende legion. Bæreren af standarten, havde en ærefuld pligt der indløste en hyre på 2 gange den almindelige løn, for en legionær, som i det første århundrede efter Kristus lå på 300 denari om året. Betalingen var ikke specielt høj i forhold til mange andre erhverv, legionærerne skulle selv betale for beklædning, våben og proviant typisk lavede man en aftale om at tilbageholde betalingen, så slap legionærerne for at betale for deres mad og rustning, men det blev automatisk trukket fra deres løn. Dette bevidner om store administrative evner, alligevel var der skeptikere som Percenius som anførte et mytteri mod kejser Tiberius i år 14 han skrev ”Militærtjenesten er i sig selv hård og udbyttesløs. Ens krop og sjæl vurderes til et par småmønter om dagen, og ud af denne sum skal man betale for beklædning, våben og telte, samt bestikke en grusom centurion for at slippe for de besværligste opgaver”[3]. Dette giver os en indsigt i at ikke alle de romerske soldater anså legionærerhvervet for pligtigt og ærefuldt. Men der kunne dog være andre gevinster ved livet som legionær, solden blev betalt regelmæssigt uden ventetid, lægevæsenet i hæren var det bedste i hele romerriget, så man havde de bedste forudsætninger, for at overleve en livstruende sygdom. En anden fordel var at Legionærerne i tilfælde af sejr fik del i krigsbyttet og kunne plyndre den besejrede fjende. Der var visse andre økonomiske fordele Kejser Augustus efterlod sig 75 seserts til hver legionær. Kejser Claudius valgte at indføre den lov at legionærerne fik en kontant gave når en ny kejser indtrådte[4].

Hver centurion havde deres egen fane dette var Centurionens ære. Hvis man mistede fanen til fjenden kæmpede man, med hud og hår for at genvinde den. Et eksempel på dette var da senatoren og konsulen Crassus sendte et felttog af sted mod Persien, her led man et stort nederlag ved ”Kharhai”[5], men det siges at der blev udfoldet store anstrengelser for at generobre den tabte ”Aquilifer”. Ofte havde standarden en forbindelse med hvor legionen var udstationeret F.eks. Den Niende legion der deltog i søslaget ved Actium. De havde som deres symbol Neptun på deres ”Aquilif”. Den såkaldte legionsrulle havde sin plads i selve senatet (det politiske centrum i det gamle romerrige) her blev legionernes numre og navne skrevet ned, det var meget sjældent at en legion blev genindskrevet på rullen, men et eksempel på dette er ”Primigenia”. De fleste Legioner havde blot numre som f.eks. ”Den fjerde Makedonske” navnet sagde typisk noget om hvor legionen var udstationeret, hvis ikke et flertal i senatet havde valgt at mobilisere dem i f.eks. Rom.

Under de romerske borgerkrige skete det ofte at en nyskabt legion, fik samme navn som en af fjendens legioner grunden til at en mand som Cæsar valgte at gøre dette var for at få sine mænd til at kæmpe ekstra hårdt for at få lov til at beholde deres navn. Det var ikke kun Borgere i Rom der blev hvervet i legionerne også slagne fjender og folk fra rigets yderposter, havde muligheden for at gøre karriere i den romerske hær. Julius Cæsar kunne være en barmhjertig mand hvis det gavnede hans sag da han i sit fjerde år i Gallien valgte at benåde 5000 kapitulerede ”helvetiere” (et stammefolk,) disse mænd brugte nogle år som hjælpetropper[6] for rom hvilket var en utrolig vigtig gruppe i den romerske hær, da de hjalp legionærerne med deres opbakning under slagene og desuden var mange af dem specialister f.eks. var de galliske hjælpetropper, kendt for deres dygtighed med bue og pil, mange hjælpetropper kunne blive forfremmet til menige legionærer, og dermed komme under de samme betingelser som de romerske soldater, hvis de udviste tapperhed og troskab mod romerriget, de var dog stadig ikke romerske borgere men efter at have tjent rom i 25 år ville de modtage et borgerbrev kaldet ”Diploma[7]” dette gav dem romerske rettigheder og de blev belønnet på samme vis, som deres romerske kammerater med et stykke jord på nyoprettet land, hvor de kunne oprette et romersk fællesskab og sprede den romerske kultur.

Strategi

I Kamp sendte man typisk de kohorterne med de mest uerfarne mænd frem i de forreste linjer man kaldte dem ”Velites”, her havde de muligheden for at bevise deres værd. Kohorterne efter ”Velites” gik under navnet ”Principes” det var typisk flertallet i en legion der gik under dette navn. De bagerste Kohorter under et slag var de mest erfarne soldater, der ikke havde mange år tilbage, før de kunne trække sig tilbage og nyde deres otium de blev kaldt ”Triarii”. Efter at Gaius Julius Cæsar havde brugt 10 år af sit liv på at erobre Gallien bestod hovedparten af hans hær af ”Triarri”, hærdede mænd der var berygtet over hele romerriget for deres mod.

Inden soldaterne mødte hinanden lå hundredvis af fjendens soldater døde da romerne havde lært at mestre krigsmaskinerne, så det første blod kunne være udgydt mens soldaterne var 400 meter fra hinanden med den store ”Onager”[8]. Romerne brugte store armbrøster ladt med 2 meter store pile denne maskine havde kraften til at skære igennem en hel række mænd og våbnet havde en rækkevidde på 180m. Når fjenden var 60m væk ville bueskytterne affyre en salve pile mod dem, samtidig ville legionærerne sætte i løb mod fjenden med løsnede spyd og inden for 30 meters afstand ville kastespyddene regne ned over fjenden. De romerske hærførere var blevet oplært i vigtigheden af hvilke omgivelser man kæmpede omkring. Et eksempel på dette er slaget ved ”Pharsalos” i Grækenland hvor Julius Cæsar udraderede Pompejus’ 3 gange større hær vha. fordele i terrænet og selvfølgelig hans mænds dygtighed[9]. Romerske generaler var villige til at trække deres mænd tilbage fra en gunstig situation, hvor man havde den overtallige fjende foran sig, men hellere ville vente for at være sikker på sejr, en skov ved siden af slagmarken kunne bruges til baghold og en legion på march havde hundreder af spejdere ude for at rekognesere området for fjendtlige enheder.

”Cornicen” eller hornblæseren stod i kampens hede tæt på Legaten, klar til at viderebringe de indøvede ordrer ved hjælp af hornsignal. Romerne kæmpede over en front dvs. at kun første række var i kamp, imens anden række var klar til at udfylde hullerne der opstod ved legionærernes død. Når Legaten gav ordre til ”Cornicen”, efter at første række var udmattet, blæste han et signal så de uerfarne ”Velites” blev skiftet ud med ”Principes”. Dermed kunne soldaterne få lov til at hvile deres arme inden de igen blev kaldt til frontlinjen. Desuden havde man en masse formationer som legionærerne skulle være klar til at træde ind i. Et eksempel på dette kunne være hvis fjenden sendte en kavaleristyrke mod de romerske fodfolk, så ville legaten videregive ordre om at danne formationen ”Testudo”[10]. Hvor soldaterne ville stikke deres ”Gladius[11]”(kortsværd) i deres ”Vagina” (skede) og pege deres spyd mod fjenden beskyttet af deres skjold, herefter ville bueskytter tage opstilling bag ved klar til at tynde ud i fjenden[12]. For at soldaterne skulle beherske de mange manøvrer krævede det en masse øvelse. En af de sværeste øvelser var rotering af fronten og dermed resten af hæren denne formation blev primært brugt hvis f.eks. højre fløj måtte vige for fjenden så kunne man rotere hele hæren for ikke at blive overrumplet. For at der ikke skulle opstå kaos og tumult var det vigtigt at Hornblæseren, gav de korrekte ordrer og at hver legionær havde 1,2 meter til sin højre og venstre kammerat til at manøvrere på. Under alle formationerne, havde de romerske soldater desuden deres opbakning som var følgende:

Lorica segmentata - 9 kg (leddelt rustning).

Galae - 2 kg (hjelm med kind- og nakkebeskyttere).

Scutum - 9,5 kg (stort firkantet skjold).

Personlige våben:

Pilum - 2,0 kg (tungt kastespyd).

Gladius - 2,2 kg (70 cm kort stiksværd).

Vagina - 1 kg (skede til gladius) og cingulum militare (bælte).

Pugio - 1,1 kg (dolk).[13]

Deres Kampudrustning vejede i alt 17, 8 kg.

Disciplin

N år en soldat var stationeret i f.eks. Gallien gik langt det meste af tiden med at vente. I stedet for at tilbringe tiden med at vente, tilbragte de meget af deres tid med at træne og desuden blev de beordret til at bygge veje, forter og løse andre lokale problemer f.eks. som i Alexandria[14] hvor de brugte ventetiden på at kloakere byen. Den Jødiske skribent Josephus skrev sidst i 1. århundrede om den romerske hærs træning og disciplin. Josephus prøvede at finde årsagen til at romerne havde vundet over jøderne i opstanden i år 66-70. Han indså at grunden til romernes storhed var den massive træning, hvor andre landes hære trænede op til et slag, trænede de romerske soldater konstant for at være klar til at forsvare riget. De romerske centurioner iscenesatte fortidige tabte og vundne slag, hvor legionærerne kæmpede mod hinanden med træsværd. På denne måde lærte man ikke at begå fortidens fejl, og på samme tid bemærke de effektive strategier. Josephus[15] beskriver øvelsesslagene som ligeså krævende og fysisk anstrengende som de virkelige slag.

Legionerne havde en masse fælles forskrifter for alt fra hvor stor afstand der skulle være mellem lejrteltene og hvordan opstillingen, skulle være i kamp dette har været en massiv organisering, men det gav romerne den fordel at legionærer fra hele riget havde de samme betingelser og derfor kunne samarbejde hvis kejseren, valgte at samle tropperne til en invadering. Josephus skrev ”Hvis man studerer den romerske hærs organisering omhyggeligt forstår man, at de har vundet deres store imperium ved deres tapperhed, ikke som en gave fra skæbnen”. At modsige sin ”tesserarius” eller en anden med højere rang end en selv betød øjeblikkelig henretning dette var med til at opretholde disciplinen i legionerne. Skribenten Josephus skrev ”Absolut lydighed over for officererne skaber en hær, som opfører sig godt i fredstid og rykker frem som en gruppe under kamp, rækkerne er så sammenhængende, de vender så korrekt, de er så hurtige til at opfatte ordrer og signaler og handler derefter”. Denne observans var en af grundene til at romerne havde stor succes med at kæmpe mod de vilde stammer. Hvor stammerne var individuelle krigere der stormede fjenden stod romerne sammen hver mand var afhængig af sine kammerater dette gjorde at der var et stort fællesskab.

Decimering

D et mest skamfulde for en legion var at flygte, mens resten af hæren stod tilbage prisgivet for fjenden. Dette medførte en ubarmhjertig straf, enten blev hele legionen nådeløst henrettet, men en straf der var endnu hårdere var decimering hvor man udvalgte hver 10. soldat som herefter skulle tæves ihjel af de resterende 9 dette straffede både offeret og morderen da morderne skulle leve med at have slået deres egne kammerater ihjel. Et historisk eksempel på dette var da den unge Cæsar nedkæmpede et slaveoprør mod Spartacus sammen med konsulen Crassus. Efter at en legion på venstre fløj var flygtet, valgte Crassus efter sejren at decimere soldaterne under decimeringen blev der ikke taget hensyn til rang. Centurioner blev derfor udvalgt på lige fod med menige legionærer. Efter decimeringen blev de resterende soldater smidt ud af lejren og skulle sove ude på den kolde jord til spe og spot for de loyale legionærer, mange legionærer valgte at tage deres eget liv så de slap for at leve med skammen.

Julius Cæsar fik overdraget de resterende soldater efter den berømte decimering dette er grunden til at Julius gav dem navnet den tiende legion så de aldrig skulle glemme hvilken skæbne der tilfalder kujonen. De flygtede aldrig siden og er blevet historiens mest ærefyldte legion[16].

Da rom havde besat og underlagt sig et stort område af datidens kendte verden havde de en grænse op mod deres fjenders land på flere tusind kilometer, for at imødegå en invasion brugte man hjælpetropperne, som forpost her havde de mulighed for at bevise deres værd, men selvfølgelig kunne hjælpetroppernes kvalitet, ikke hamle op med legionærernes så kejserne valgte at stationere legionerne så de var klar til at rykke ud til flere kritiske brændpunkter langs grænserne. Alligevel var roms militære magt ikke stor nok som historikeren ”Tacitus” bemærkede ”Måtte disse for altid opretholde, om ikke kærlighed så dog had til hinanden” her mente han at romerriget var afhængigt af at stammerne lå i krig med hinanden og ikke allierede sig som en samlet militærmagt mod Rom, derfor gik legionerne tit ind og støttede en stamme for at skabe splittelse iblandt dem, dette siger helt klart noget om romernes snedighed og hvorpå de kunne kontrollere et så stort rige.

Konklusion

H ermed kan jeg konkludere at årsagen til Romerrigets militære dominans lå i deres organisering alle aktiviteter var nøje planlagt og var fælles for alle legionerne dette gjorde administrationen lettere. Legioner kunne let sendes fra den ene del af romerriget til den anden vha. de romerske hærveje disse veje var bevogtet så legionærerne var sikret mod overfald og desuden gavnede de da det var betydeligt lettere at transportere store romerske krigsmaskiner til fjerne slagmarker. Den træning de romerske hærenheder fik, var enestående den måde de iscenesatte fortidige slag, organiseringen og formationerne hvor alle mænd var afhængige af hinanden for at overleve. Hver mand skulle have tillid til sine kammerater og tøven var katastrofalt når man trådte ind i sin formation. Den romerske rangorden var komplet og hver mand havde muligheden for at stige i graderne og gøre karriere i den romerske hær. pligt til at udføre sine ordrer, hvis ikke de blev imødekommet, var der en direkte konsekvens og man opretholdte disciplinen med vold f.eks. ved decimering, der var en brutal men yderst nødvendig straf. Romerne blev hvervet og meldte sig ikke selv til hæren. De gik ind under en legion og dermed indhyllet i denne legions ære og fortid. Efter 25 års tro tjeneste hvor mindre end halvdelen overlevede kunne legionærerne nyde deres fortjente otium gifte sig og nyde livet, hvis de havde været med til at erobre nye lande havde de nok på kistebunden til at leve et liv i overflod. Det vigtigste for det romerske imperium var at man for alt i verden skulle blive ved med at tilrane sig nyt land, hvis ikke man gjorde dette ville der ikke være noget land at love legionærerne og roms magt ville hurtigt forsvinde. Roms legioner sendte typisk skriftruller hjem med informationer om sejre, belejringer eller andre ærefulde bedrifter, disse skriftruller betalte legaten for at skulle blive opblæst på ”forum romano” til stor jubel for folket. Den Romerske hær havde standardmål for hvornår ”ornagen” skulle afløses og hvornår legionærerne skulle sætte i løb mod fjenden. Romerske hærfører satte en stor ære i at udføre et vellykket slag efter bogen, og de trænede sammen med legionerne for at imødegå enhver trussel fra fjenden. Den store dygtighed, organisation og administration var det der gjorde rom til et imperium

Litteraturliste

Følgende kilder har jeg brugt i min opgave:

Bøger:

Freeman, Charles: Romernes Verden. Bind 1, 1. 1. udg. Gyldendal, 1993. (Bog)

Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 1, Roms Porte. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)

Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 2, Kongers Død. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)

Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 3, Sværdenes Mark. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)

Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 4, Krigens Guder. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)

Carlsen, Jesper m.fl.: Romernes Historie. Bind 1. 1. udg. Meloni , 2008. (Bog)

Carlsen, Jesper : Romerriget, Samfund, familie, slaver. Bind 1. 1. udg. Systime, 2001. (Bog)

Internet:

http://www.damat.dk: Den Romerske stat. Udgivet af Kim Ursin,. Sidst opdateret: 2004. Internetadresse: http://www.damat.dk/undervisning/Historie/romerriget_fra_stat_til_verdensm.htm - Besøgt d. 20.05.2011 (Internet)

www.da.wikipedia.org: Legion (Rom). Udgivet af 25. april 2011 kl. 22:15.. Sidst opdateret: 25.04.2011. Internetadresse: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legion_(Rom)#Monarki_-_tidlig_republik - Besøgt d. 14.05.2011 (Internet)

www.mfzimsen.dk: Det Romerske Militær. Udgivet af Lui Taus Kirkeby Høyer Hansen. Sidst opdateret: 10.05.2011. Internetadresse: http://www.mfzimsen.dk/romerriget/Det_Romerske_Militar.html - Besøgt d. 23.05.2011 (Internet)

http://klassisk.ribekatedralskole.dk: Gaius Julius Caesar. Udgivet af Anonym. Sidst opdateret: 26.12.2009. Internetadresse: http://klassisk.ribekatedralskole.dk/personer/caesar/caesar.htm - Besøgt d. 20.12.2011 (Internet)

www.ibog.teknologihistorie.systime.dk: Romernes militær. Udgivet af Anonym. Sidst opdateret: 04.01.2007. Internetadresse: http://ibog.teknologihistorie.systime.dk/index.php?id=376 - Besøgt d. 26.05.2011 (Internet)

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[1] Henvisning til side 6
[2] Henvisning til Freeman, Charles: Romernes Verden. Bind 1, 1. 1. udg. Gyldendal, 1993. (Bog)
[3] Henvisning til Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 2, Kongers Død. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)
[4] Dette var med til at styrke loyaliteten til Rom
[5] Da det var alment kendt at Crassus ikke var den bedste hærfører derimod den rigeste mand i Rom, men han ville gerne have en legion så han kunne konsolidere sine handelsposter i Parther-riget. Så han fik sin søn trænet hos den mest berømte legion på dette tidspunkt nemlig Cæsars den 10. legion. Efter 10 års tjeneste vendte sønnen hjem klar til at lede hans fars hær dog endte det med nederlag til partherne.
[6] Hjælpetropper var ikke romerske borgere men folk fra provinsbyerne eller f.eks. kapitulerede fjender der i stedet for at se døden i øjnene valgte at samarbejde med rom.
[7] Betyder kopi da den romerske stat beholdte en kopi
[8] Romersk Katapult ”onager” betyder vildæsel navnet skulle komme af dens kraftige ”spark” efter at have sendt en 50 kg. Tung sten mod fjenden.
[9] Henvisning til Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 4, Krigens Guder. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)
[10] Oversat fra latin Skildpadden formationen er afbilledet th.
[11] Af ordet Gladiator
[12] Henvisning til www.ibog.teknologihistorie.systime.dk: Romernes militær. Udgivet af Anonym. Sidst opdateret: 04.01.2007. Internetadresse: http://ibog.teknologihistorie.systime.dk/index.php?id=376 - Besøgt d. 26.05.2011 (Internet)
[13] www.da.wikipedia.org: Legion (Rom). Udgivet af 25. april 2011 kl. 22:15.. Sidst opdateret: 25.04.2011. Internetadresse: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legion_(Rom)#Monarki_-_tidlig_republik - Besøgt d. 14.05.2011 (Internet)
[14] Mens den gravide Kleoptra og Julius Cæsar var på det flere måneders lange niltogt brugte legionærerne tiden på at kloakere den store by dette eksempel er ikke enestående det skete i hele civilisationens byer, Romerne vidste at dårlig hygeine var årsagen til at store virusser hurtig bredtes.
[15] Freeman, Charles: Romernes Verden. Bind 1, 1. 1. udg. Gyldendal, 1993. (Bog)
[16] Henvisning til Iggulden, Conn: Cæsar. Bind 2, Kongers Død. 1. udg. Cicero, 2005. (Bog)

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