Free Essay

The Rake

In: Film and Music

Submitted By ajcrpdoj
Words 2453
Pages 10
History and Analysis in Popular Music:1
Prof. Francis Amora

Music of the Philippines:
Traditional music:Main article: Filipino folk music

Philippine gong music can be divided into two types: the flat gong commonly known as gangsa and played by the groups in the Cordillera region of the bossed gongs played among the Islam and animist groups in the Southern Philippines.
Kulintang refers to a racked gong chime instrument played in the southern islands of the Philippines, along with its varied accompanying ensembles. Different groups have different ways of playing the kulintang. Two major groups seem to stand-out in kulintang music. These are the Maguindanaon and the Maranaw. The kulintang instrument itself could be traced to either the introduction of gongs to Southeast Asia from China from before the 10th century CE, or more likely, to the introduction of bossed gong chimes from Java in the 15th century. Nevertheless the kulintang ensemble is the most advanced form of music from before the late 16th century and the legacy of hispanization in the Philippine archipelago.

The tradition of kulintang ensemble music itself is a regional one, predating the establishing of borders between the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. It transcends religion, with animist and Christian ethnic groups in Borneo, Flores and Sulawesi playing kulintangan; and Muslim groups playing the same genre of music in Mindanao, Palawan and the Sulu archipelago. It is distantly related to the Gamelan music orchestras of Java and Bali, as well as the musical forms in Mainland Southeast Asia, mainly because of the usage for the same bossed racked gong chimes that play both melodical and percussive.

Notable folk song composers include the National Artist for Music Lucio San Pedro, who composed the famous "Sa Ugoy ng Duyan" that recalls about the loving touch of mother to her child. Another great composer who's known as patriotic composer, Alfredo Buenaventura.

Harana and Kundiman:

The Harana and Kundiman are lyrical songs popular in the Philippine Islands dating back to the Spanish period. Harana are traditional courtship songs in the Mexican-Spanish tradition based on the habanera rhythm while the Kundiman, which has pre-colonial origins from the Tagalog region, uses triple meter rhythm. Kundiman is also characterized by a minor key at the beginning and shifts to a major key in the second half. Its lyrics depict a romantic theme, usually portraying love, passion, or sadness.
In the 1920s Harana and Kundiman became more mainstream musical styles led by performers such as Atang de la Rama, Jovita Fuentes, Conching Rosal, Sylvia La Torre and Ruben Tagalog.
The Tinikling is a Philippine dance which involves two individual performers hitting bamboo poles, using them to beat, tap, and slide on the ground, and fartand against each other in co-ordination with one or more dancers who steps over, and in between poles.


The Cariñosa (meaning loving or affectionate one), is a Philippine national dance from the María Clara suite of Philippine folk dances, where the fan, and handkerchief plays an instrument role as it places the couple in romance scenario. The dance is similar to the Jarabe Tapatío. The Cariñosa is accompanied with Hispanic music, and language. It is also related to Kuracha, Amenudo and Kuradang in the Visayas and Mindanao Area.


The Rondalla is performed on ensembles comprising mandolin instruments of various sizes called banduria composed on the Iberian tradition. Other instruments including guitars, is also performed.It is original to Spain.

Modern Filipino Music:

OPM (Original Pilipino Music) List of best-selling albums in the Philippines
Original Pilipino Music, now more commonly termed Original Pinoy Music or Original Philippine Music or OPM for short, originally referred only to Philippine pop songs, particularly ballads, such as those popular after the collapse of its predecessor, the Manila Sound, in the late 1970s, up until the present. In the 70's Nora Aunor, Pilita Corrales, Eddie Peregrina, Victor Wood, ASIN and many more. In the 1970s the major commercial Philippine pop music artists were, Pops Fernandez, Claire dela Fuente, Didith Reyes, Rico Puno, Ryan Cayabyab, Basil Valdez, Celeste Legaspi, Hajji Alejandro, Rey Valera, and Freddie Aguilar, Imelda Papin, Eva Eugenio, Nonoy Zunigaand many others.

Between the 1980s and 1990s, OPM was led by artists such as Regine Velasquez, Sharon Cuneta, APO Hiking Society, José Mari Chan, Dingdong Avanzado, Rodel Naval, Janno Gibbs, Ogie Alcasid, Joey Albert, Lilet, Martin Nievera, Manilyn Reynes, Joey Albert,Lea Salonga, Vina Morales, Raymond Lauchengco, Francis Magalona, and Gary Valenciano among many others.

In the 1990s, the famous artists/bands included Eraserheads, Smokey mountain, Donna Cruz, Jessa Zaragoza, Ariel Rivera,Southborder, Afterimage, Andrew E., Jaya, Rivermaya, Ella May Saison among many others.

Underground bands emerged and along with them were their perceptions of idealism and self-expression. The famous lyricist of Circle’s End, Geno Georsua landed on top as the melodramatic expressionist. Bassist Greg Soliman of UST Pendong grasps the title as the best bassist of underground music.
From its inception, OPM has been centered in Manila, where Tagalog, and English are the dominant languages. Other ethnolinguistic groups such as the Visayan, Bikol, and Kapampangan, despite making music in their native languages have not been recognized as OPM, except in unusual cases like the Bisrock (Visayan Rock music) song "Charing" by Davao band 1017.

Multiculturalism advocates, and federalists often associate this discrepancy to the Tagalog-centric cultural hegemony of the capital city of Manila.

Having successfully created a subgenre of Philippine Rock they called Bisrock, the Visayans by far have the biggest collection of modern music in their native language, with great contributions from Visayan bands Phylum, and Missing Filemon. However, a band called Groupies' Panciteria that hails from Tacloban, a Winaray-speaking city, launched a free downloadable mp3 album on in 2009 containing 13 Tagalog songs and only one very short one in the Cebuano language.
Following suit are the Kapampangans. The debut music video of "Oras" (Time) by Tarlac City-based Kapampangan band Mernuts has penetrated MTV Pilipinas, making it the first ever Kapampangan music video to join the ranks of other mainstream Filipino music videos. "RocKapampangan: The Birth of Philippine Kapampangan Rock," an album of modern remakes of folk Kapampangan extemporaneous songs by various Kapampangan bands was also launched last February 2008, which are now regularly played via Kapampangan cable channel Infomax-8 and via one of Central Luzon's biggest FM radio stations, GVFM 99.1. Inspired by what the locals call "Kapampangan cultural renaissance," Angeles City-born balladeer Ronnie Liang rendered Kapampangan translations of some of his popular songs such as "Ayli" (Kapampangan version of "Ngiti"), and "Ika" (Kapampangan version of "Ikaw") for his repackaged album.

Despite the growing clamor for non-Tagalog, and non-English music, and greater representation of other Philippine languages, the local Philippine music industry, which is centered in Manila, is unforthcoming in venturing investments to other locations. Some of their major reasons include the language barrier, small market size, and socio-cultural emphasis away from regionalism in the Philippines.

In 2000, the Himig Handog contest was established. It is the biggest Philippine multimedia songwriting competition specifically focusing on creating brand new OPM songs and featured many prominent artist within the country who are chosen by songwriters to interpret their songs. Five competitions had been held so far starting from 2000 to 2003 and was eventually revived in 2013.

Pop music:

Pop OPM (also called P-Pop in some territories) has been regularly showcased in the live band scene. Groups such as the Neocolours,Side A, Introvoys, The Teeth, Yano, True Faith, Passage, and Freestyle popularized songs that clearly reflect the sentimental character of OPM pop.
Choral Music:
Most outstanding choirs in the Philippines: • Philippine Normal University Chorale • Philippine Madrigal Singers • University of Santo Tomas Singers • University of the Philippines Singing Ambassadors • University of the Philippines Concert Chorus • Ateneo College Glee Club • University of the East Chorale • University of the Visayas Chorale

Rock and Blues: Pinoy rock

The United States occupied the Islands in 1898 until 1946, and introduced American blues, folk music, R&B, and rock and roll which became popular. In the late 1950s, native performers adapted Tagalog lyrics for North American rock & roll music, resulting in the seminal origins of Philippine rock. The most notable achievement in Philippine rock of the 1960s was the hit song "Killer Joe", which propelled the group Rocky Fellers, reaching number 16 on the American radio charts.
Up until the 1970s, popular rock musicians began writing and producing in English. In the early 1970s, rock music began to be written using local languages, with bands like the Juan Dela Cruz Band being among the first popular bands to do so. Mixing Tagalog and English lyrics were also popularly used within the same song, in songs like "Ang Miss Universe Ng Buhay Ko" (The Miss Universe of My Life), by the band Hotdog which helped innovate the Manila Sound. The mixing of the two languages (known as "Taglish"), while common in casual speech in the Philippines, was seen as a bold move, but the success of Taglish in popular songs, including Sharon Cuneta's first hit, "Mr. DJ", broke the barrier forevermore.

Philippine rock musicians added folk music and other influences, helping to lead to the 1978 breakthrough success of Freddie Aguilar. Aguilar's "Anak" (Child), his debut recording, is the most commercially successful Filipino recording, and was popular throughout Asia and Europe, and has been translated into numerous language by singers worldwide. Asin also broke into the music scene in the same period, and were popular.

Folk rock became the Philippine protest music of the 1980s, and Aguilar's "Bayan Ko" (My Country) became popular as an anthemduring the 1986 EDSA Revolution. At the same time, a counterculture rejected the rise of politically focused lyrics. In Manila, a punk rockscene developed, led by bands like Betrayed, The Jerks, Urban Bandits, and Contras. The influence of New Wave was also felt during these years, spearheaded by The Dawn.

The 1990s saw the emergence of Eraserheads, considered by many Philippine nationals as the number one group in the Philippine recording scene. In the wake of their success was the emergence of a string of influential Filipino rock bands such as Yano, Siakol,Parokya ni Edgar, and Rivermaya, each of which mixes the influence of a variety of rock subgenres into their style.

Filipino rock has also developed to include some hard rock, heavy metal, and alternative rock such as Razorback, Wolfgang,Greyhoundz, Slapshock, Queso, Bamboo, Franco, Urbandub and the progressive bands Paradigm, Fuseboxx, Earthmover and Eternal Now.
Rock festivals have emerged through the recent years and it has been an annual event for some of the rock/metal enthusiasts. One big event is the Pulp Summer Slam wherein local rock/metal bands and international bands such as Lamb of God, Anthrax, Death Angel, and Arch Enemy have performed.[

The Neo-Traditional genre in Filipino music is also gaining popularity, with artists such as Joey Ayala, Grace Nono, Bayang Barrios,Cocojam, and Pinikpikan reaping relative commercial success while utilizing the traditional musical sounds of many indigenous tribes in the Philippines.

Hip-hop: Pinoy hip hop

Filipino hip-hop is hip hop music performed by musicians of Filipino descent, both in the Philippines, and overseas, especially by Filipino-Americans. This article focuses first on Filipino hip-hop in the Philippines, and secondly on that in the USA. The Philippines is known to have had the first hip-hop music scene in Asia[1] since the early 1980s, largely due to the country's historical connections with the United States where hip-hop was originated. Rap music released in the Philippines has appeared in different languages such as Tagalog, Chavacano, Cebuano, Ilocano and English. In the Philippines, Francis M, Gloc 9, and Andrew E. are cited as the most influential rappers in the country, being the first to release mainstream rap albums.

Program Music:

Unlike pure music which has no reference in the real world and no story component, program music is instrumental music that may tell a story with explicit episodes, reveal facets of a character, place, or occasion, or imitate the sounds of the world. Sometimes this may take the form of a verbal explanation of the “story” or “program” of the piece. The term was invented by composer Franz Liszt, who understood program music to involve a program external to the music that set the parameters and the form in which the musical piece unfolds.
Other genres:
A number of other genres are growing in popularity in the Philippine music scene, including a number of alternative groups, and tribal bands promoting cultural awareness of the Philippine Islands.

Likewise, jazz has experienced a resurgence in popularity. Initial impetus was provided by W.D.O.U.J.I.(Witch Doctors of Underground Jazz Improvisation)with their award winning independent release "Ground Zero" distributed by the now defunct N/A Records in 2002 and the Tots Tolentino-led Buhay jazz quartet on the year before that. This opened up the way for later attempts most notable of which is the Filipino jazz supergroup Johnny Alegre Affinity releasing its eponymous debut album in 2005 under London-based Candid Records. Mon David has also made the rounds of the Las Vegas music circuit. Among the female performers, Mishka Adams has been the most prominent. A recent development is the fusion of spoken-word and jazz, and rock, chiefly attributed to Radioactive Sago Project. Other notable names of late are Bob Aves with his ethno-infused jazz, The Jazz Volunteers and Akasha which have anchored the now legendary underground jazz jams at Freedom Bar for almost half of the 11 years of its existence.

Bossa nova and Latino music has been popular since the 1970s. Performers like Annie Brazil were active in the 1970s, while more recently, Sitti has been earning rave reviews for her bossa nova covers of popular songs.
While there has long been a flourishing underground reggae and ska scene, particularly in Baguio City, it is only recently that the genres have been accepted in the mainstream. Acts like Brownman Revival, Put3Ska, Roots Revival of Cebu and The Brown Outfit Bureau ofTarlac City, Philippines have been instrumental in popularizing what is called "Island Riddims". There is also a burgeoning mod revival, spearheaded by Juan Pablo Dream and a large indiepop scene.

Electronic music began in the early 2000s in the Manila underground. It became more significant due to the Korean wave which its musical popularity started in the country recently. Starting 2010, local artists starting to create electropop songs of themselves. As of now, most electronic songs are used in commercials. The only radio station so far that plays purely electronic music is 107.9 U Radio.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL Lake Sebu, SouthCotabato January 18-19,2013 Third Final Examination AQUACULTURE VII Name____________________ Year & Section ______ Score_____ Parent’s Signature:____________ I. MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the correct answer and encircle the letter of your choice . 1. A device used to strike or deliver blows to an object like driving nails, fitting parts and breaking up objects. a, Hammer b. Plier c. Wrench d. Cutter 2. It is the most popular type of measuring tools which usually has 6 or 12 inches length. a. ruler b. speed square c. wrench d. Cutter 3. It is a curved and hand held aquaculture tool for harvesting grain crops or cutting grasses for hay. a. Shovel rake c. sickle d mattock 4. The most versatile and widely used shovel used for digging, scooping or shoveling dirt from one point to another. a. Irrigation shovel b. Round point shovel c. Garden shovel d. Scoop shovel 5. A device for measuring the weight of an object. a. Paper weight b. Measuring tool c. weighing scale d. square 6. A tool used to tighten or loosen screws. a. hammer b. Screw driver c. Wrench d. Pliers 7. Known to be hand operated tools. a. Shovel b. tools c. Pliers d. Hand tools 8. It can be like a compass with inward or outward facing points and the type can be adjusted to fit across the points to be measured. a. Caliper b. Folder ruler c. Ruler d. Square 9. Quality indicators of using......

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decision Making Model

...beginning of each year, the department head sends the faculty a questionnaire, asking them to rate their preferences for each course using a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 is “strongly preferred”, 2 is “preferred but not as strongly as 1”, 3 is “neutral”, 4 is “prefer not to teach but not strongly”, 5 is “strongly prefer not to teach this course”. The faculty have returned their preferences as follows: Course Faculty members | 3424 | 3434 | 3444 | 3454 | 4434 | 4444 | 4454 | 4464 | Clayton | 2 | 4 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 5 | Houck | 3 | 3 | 4 | 1 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 4 | Huang | 2 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 4 | Major | 1 | 4 | 2 | 5 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 2 | Moore | 1 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 2 | 3 | 3 | 5 | Ragsdale | 1 | 3 | 1 | 5 | 4 | 1 | 1 | 2 | Rakes | 3 | 1 | 2 | 5 | 3 | 1 | 1 | 1 | Rees | 3 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 5 | 1 | 1 | 3 | Russell | 4 | 1 | 3 | 2 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 5 | Sumichrast | 4 | 3 | 1 | 5 | 2 | 3 | 3 | 1 | For the fall semester, the department will offer two sections each of 3424 and 4464, three sections each of 3434,3444,4434,4444 and 4454 and one section of 3454. The normal semester teaching load for a regular faculty member is two sections. (Once the department head determines the courses, he will assign the faculty he schedules the course times so they will not conflict.) Help the department head determine a teaching schedule that will satisfy faculty teaching preferences to the greatest degree possible. Solution: Our objective is to determine an optimal......

Words: 3245 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Directive Essay

...a paved driveway is better for most home owners than a dirt driveway. A driveway that has been paved with asphalt is less likely to damage cars with flying rocks or leave a vehicle dirty or muddy. I am going to guide you thru this back breaking process. Here is a list of things you will need to do and purchase before we start. You will need to measure the drive way, by length and width so you can price your materials. The amount of asphalt you will need to pave a driveway will be determined by the size of your space. Measure your area by square ft. and take those measurements to the home improvement store. Then find a team of hard strong workers. Now you will need a roll of yellow caution tape, some markers, a couple of shovels, spades, rakes, tamps, a jack hammer, a hand roller, and a ride on roller, wheel barrel and a spreader box. You will also need gravel, base, black top and top soil to back fill, also a dump truck to remove the old driveway material. Next you will need four or more men to do the labor, it depends on how large the driveway is that you are working on. One of the easiest ways to make a driveway is to simply clear the land, compress it with heavy machinery and begin using it to gain access to and from a home or building. Is this the best way to go about creating a driveway? Not really, and this is because seasonal conditions and soil erosion will quickly degrade the path and make it either boggy and muddy or bumpy and full of rocks and impediments. It......

Words: 1362 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Analysis of Non Suburban Passenger Coaching Stock Utilization

...highest in the world, close to China at 773 billion passenger kms) and passenger earnings were Rs 19,783 crores. Of this, 43% of the passengers, 84% of the passenger kms and 92% earnings were from the non suburban sector. The actual passenger kms for 2007-08 was higher than the capacity of the IR. Such overuse can be reduced by increasing the coaching stock, or by improving the utilization of coaches. The former method proves to be an expensive one for IR. Hence, this calls for an improvement in the coaching stock utilization. In this paper, we assess the utilization of coaches on the parameters % of runtime, kms/day, and average speed of rakes servicing express/mails and passenger trains in the South Central Railway (SCR), taking into consideration the rake linking involved. This is done by analyzing every rake link used in the SCR as given in their rake link booklet.                                                              1  Prepared by G Raghuram, Rishita Digar and Chandni Jain, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. Email : Research assistance provided by Samantha Bastian is acknowledged.         W.P.  No.  2009‐07‐03    Page No. 2 IIMA   INDIA Research and Publications Analysis of Non Suburban Passenger Coaching Stock Utilization Significance • In 2007-08, Indian Railways (IR) carried 6.5 billion passengers (highest in the world as a single system, and second highest in the world as a country after Japan at......

Words: 12807 - Pages: 52

Free Essay

Landscaping need to bring in another machine to move it to the area you’re working. Next topsoil should be spread four to five inches thick, grassy areas topsoil should just be raked threw. However non-grassy areas get around five inches on top. Where there is a water runoff area topsoil should be spread seven to eight inches thick, so it won’t erode as fast as normal with water running through it. Third you would need to have more topsoil brought so that you can spread it out with the machine and make it level. Once you are done spreading the topsoil with the machine most landscapers use a hydraulic power rake for their machine, this cuts raking time in half by not doing it by hand. Then one or two people will follow behind the machine and rake out the machine tracks, and also do where they can’t get with the machine. A standard size yard usually take around two hours to do with a rake. Fourth you would proceed to spread granulated lime that neutralizes the soil, so that the acids in the soil won’t kill the seed. Then you would spread fertilizer which feeds the lawn and gives you dark green grass. If you don’t spread the fertilizer evenly when grass grows it will grow in strips of different color green. Next you would spread your grass seed, there are all different kinds of grass seed for example; direct sun, all shade, or mixture of sun and shade. Most landscapers use the mixture of sun and shade unless specified otherwise. Finally once all your lime, fertilizer, and seed......

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Yankee Case

...shortages of last year. This will cause the past problems to bleed into the future forecast. Then production gets the marketing demand numbers and drops the demand by 10% because they believe marketing has inflated the numbers. Then they come up short with the production and there’s never enough time for the forgers of steel to work to catch up. To solve this issue, they need to work together to create one, actual demand based; forecast that the whole company can agree on. They cannot work separately on the forecast because this is definitely causing shortages and inventory problems. 2. It can be seen that there is a seasonal effect on the demand for the bow rakes, therefore to create a forecast for year five I used the multiplicative seasonal method. There is also an upward trend annually in the demand for the rakes. Using the Multiplicative seasonal method takes both the seasonal and upward trend into account when creating a future forecast. Taking the average of each month for the past fours years of actual demand is the best way to forecast what will be needed in year five....

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...jones English I 11 August 2014 Bleachers By : John Grisham 1. Ever since Neely Chrenshaw was a little kid he always dreamed about becoming a football superstar. Coach Eddie Rake was going to help him become that. But he wasn't just a regular coach, he would always go hard on the guys, and that's why he won so many games. Because of him Neely Chrenshaw became the best quarterback, and he played for the Messina Spartans. The years have passed, and Neely decided to move somewhere else. After fifteen yeas Neely comes home to Messina to show his respect to Coach Eddie Rake even though they didn't like each other. Everyone that was on the team, and that was alive wanted to go to the bleachers. Where they were waiting for signal, that was saying that Eddie Rake passed over. Neely wanted to finally forgive his coach, and get that off his chest, so he can move on with his life. 2. The reason that I liked about this book is the details because we can actually feel how the characters felt, and how the writer actually detailed the football game it was so amazing. The reason that I didn't like this book is because I'm not into these types of books. I prefer scify and mythology. 3. My favorite character is Coach Eddie Rake, because he is such a determined person, he also fights for what's his, and he is such a great person. But not everybody knows that, because he doesn't want to express his feelings dowards others. His passion for......

Words: 387 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Leader Profile Paper

...accepted to college I think I was a role model for the children and to let them know that someone just like them could get to where I am going.” Coming from our home town and seeing people go to college and be successful is a big inspiration. b. Spokesperson She had to speak before the church board many times to get things approved that the youth committee wanted to do. c. Negotiator Mrs. Linton acts as a negotiator when she has issues between children in the individual groups. She has to help them work things out and get along. d. Coach and motivator Mrs. Linton feels like a coach and motivator at her church’s annual event called the Red River Rake. She said “we rake elderly people’s yards and I like to think of games for the children to sort of compete to motivate them to go and rake the next yard.” e. Team builder She likes to think of herself as a team builder when all of the children meet up for event. She gives them challenges to do and she wants them to know that they need each other for some tasks. f. Strategic planner Mrs. Linton said she was a strategic planner whenever she plans trips that the youth take. She says “as a parent I know that I want to know everything about my child, when they leave, what are they doing while they are away, and exactly when they are getting back.” So she makes sure to let the parents know all of the information before they leave for the trip. Mrs. Linton could not think recall a time......

Words: 4788 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Health and Safety

...Carrots What to do Soil preparation * Success with root vegetables is very much down to the quality of the soil that they're grown in, so it's worth taking the time to prepare your patch. Start digging over your soil in late winter or early spring, removing any stones you find and thoroughly turning the soil until it has a fine, crumbly texture. * If your soil is not ideally suitable for carrots or parsnips, you can prepare a large container for sowing instead. When digging over your soil, do not add manure as this makes the soil too rich for the seeds. * One week before sowing your seeds, rake in a light dressing of general fertiliser. How to sow seeds * Carrot seeds are small, but it's wise to plant them as thinly as possible. This reduces the amount of thinning necessary and potential risk from pests. * Sow the seeds thinly on a sunny, dry day in shallow drills around 2-3cm (1in) deep, covering the seeds once in place. Early sowings in March and April may need to be protected with fleece or a cloche in some parts of the country. If you have difficulty sowing thinly, try mixing the seeds with a handful of sharp sand and then sowing the seeds and sand together. The sand will aid drainage and will allow thinner sowing. * Once the seeds have germinated and are showing their first rough leaves, thin the seedlings to 5cm (2 in) between plants. * Parsnips can be grown in a similar way, but as they're larger they should be thinned to 15cm (6......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Intro Paper

... Grisham effectively uses round characters to prove to us that a football team is so much more than a ‘team’, but a brotherhood. Eddie Rake drilled the Spartans day in and day out. He worked them like dogs, expecting nothing less than perfection, nothing less than victory. Nat Stewardson was called the Spartan’s worst punter, being compared to an “ungainly gazelle.” (89) Rake cussed Nat out every game for his errors, game-costing mistakes. We originally see Rake as cold, a coach focused strictly on victory with no care for his players at all. Nonetheless, when Nat becomes the first openly-gay coffee/book shop owner in Messina, the bond of the football team brings them together. We see a different side of Eddie Rake, as he rounds out to be empathetic and friendly, as he strives to open up to Nat. Rake begins to visit Nat every morning, and in exchange for Rake’s company Nat influences him to read detective fiction, a hit with Rake. The past Rake and Nat shared allowed them to come together and bond so easily, ignorant to the fact that they were both outcasts in their own way. Rake’s snub-nosed, hold nothing back personality didn’t hold Nat back from befriending Rake, like it had for the rest of Messina. Rake knew Nat very well before he opened up, Rake had not been afraid to tear a strip out of Stewardson before on the football field, so Rake had no fear of offending Nat and his sexuality, even though any Messinite had been immobilized by the thought of saying something they......

Words: 1238 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Operation Management with forecasting finds that the company is having issues with their current forecasting process. The marketing department makes their forecast independently and passes it on to the production department. The production department makes modifications of their own based on their judgment. This makes the production to be delayed and eventually unhappy customers. Yankee needs to find a better way to forecast the market for the bow rake. Issues with the forecasting system currently being used by Yankee The marketing team creates the forecast by month for the next year. The forecast is always over inflated. They do not seem to have a scientific forecasting process. They marketing team, meets with the sales managers from the different regions to get an idea of the sales from last year. They take into account economic changes and shortages they had last year. Forecast for the future is based on the sales they had last year and not what the real demand would be for the future. The data provided by the company for the four year market demand of the bow rake provides some insight into the general trend of the demand. There seems to be a seasonal trend where the demand falls sharply between the third and sixth month. Secondly looking at the bigger picture if we were to sum the sales for each of the four years, the demand has increased every year! Using the Naïve forecast process is an option because the seasonal patterns and trend are very stable. Using the different......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chasing the Leaves of Fall

...divine. When I enter the kitchen, I am handed a soft, warm chocolate chip cookie shaped like a pumpkin and a glass of milk. “Thank you,” I reply with a smile. As I look out the window near the kitchen table, it is enjoyable to see all of the colorful leaves scattered throughout the yard. The leaves are of different shades of yellow, crimson red, orange, or a mix of the colors together. The shapes are unique as well. It is such a gorgeous time of the year I think to myself. Finishing every morsel of the cookie, I rinse my glass and put it in the dishwasher. After taking a shower and getting dressed, I walk into the garage that is filled with cool air. “I am going outside, mother, to rake the leaves!” I told her with excitement in my voice. I run outside onto the dewy, wet grass and begin to rake and try to form a big enough pile to jump into. The air is crisp and a few neighbors are gathering up the colorful leaves to burn. One of my favorite smells, as well chocolate chip cookies, is the smell of burning leaves wafting through the air. Suddenly, the wind begins to pick up, and a big breeze comes through, creating a swarm of leaves in my backyard. The pile that I started is now ruined, and there is once again a big mess in the yard....

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Leding Teams

...Housings grounds maintenance team (rakes and ladders)measure team performance against goals and objectives. In my opinion rakes and ladders have clear goals and objectives this makes it allot easier to fur fill them. At times, the objectives of one department and another conflict but we still need to work together to achieve the overall objectives of the organisation Rakes and ladders carry out a self-service evaluation every six months to see how the teams are performing this takes into account all of our complaints and positive feedback The down side to this is that when the December service is carried out rakes and ladders haven’t been as visible as they are in the summer because during the winter period rakes and ladders help out the maintenance department carrying out fencing and guttering work. This also causes conflict because I believe rakes and ladders provide a very good service for the maintenance team. during the winter this is when most of the repairs need carrying out on the repairs side because strong winds brings down fences and leafs block many gutters so when rakes and ladders are working hard on the maintenance side the satisfaction survey shows them to be not performing to organisation needs We also conduct a survey but this is based on all the maintenance team and isn’t a true reflection on the rakes and ladders team because during the summer months the repairs team hold back a large amount of the fencing work for rakes and ladders to......

Words: 2205 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...female-headed households due to divorce, widowhood and other reasons. Female-headed households do not have income from male earners and the single mothers have to fulfil both the roles of an earner and a carer. Therefore, these female-headed households bear a higher risk of living in poverty. More importantly, unless the economic status of these women improves, the accompanying problem of child poverty cannot be properly tackled.4 1.3 Poverty is a multi-dimensional problem. While some causes of poverty are common to both men and women, some apply specifically to women. These particular factors are discussed in the following section. 1 2 3 4 Bellamy & Rake (2005a) and United Nations Development Fund (2005). The average exchange rate of US$ to HK$ for 2004 was US$1 = HK$7.788. The United Nations Department of Public Information (2000). Bellamy & Rake (2005b). Research and Library Services Division page 1 Legislative Council Secretariat 2. FS07/05-06 Causes Traditional role as a carer 2.1 Tradition, culture and stereotypes have contributed to a gender division of labour that women should be mainly responsible for caring of children, the elderly and the disabled in the family. Women taking the unpaid caring responsibilities can only work fewer hours or stop work altogether.5 Over the lifetime, this caring role reduces women's opportunities to develop skills and build up assets, such as pension. Unequal economic status 2.2 Since most women are unpaid for assuming the......

Words: 1701 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Obesity in Amercia

...least for the moment. A few years later I found myself laughing, again, at pain that was somewhat self-inflicted. My cousin and I was raking leaves out of my grandmothers yard. She had brought out some glasses of cold lemon aid and left them on the porch. We dropped our rakes and raced to the porch to quench our thirst and take a little break from raking the endless amounts of leaves. After a ten or fifteen minute break , my cousin gathered the glasses to return them into the house to my grandmother, and I started walking back toward an large pile of leaves we had raked up. Smack! The handle of the rake,I had accidentally stepped on ,stood strait up and busted me square in the face. I felt the blood to start to pour from my nose and started to panic. As I looked up I noticed my grandmother laughing at me from her kitchen window and my cousin returning from taking the glasses into the house. He raced towards my wanting to know what happen and if I was alright. As I told him that I had stepped on my rake and it hit me, my grandmother stepped out with towels to aid my bleeding nose, I remember her still laughing and said“I told you not to lay the rake down in the leaves,or this would happen”. I started to laugh , the new found pain lost my attention. Later that night as I was looking into a mirror at my black eye and swollen nose , I heard my grandmother describing what had happen to my grandfather. Her story sounded ...

Words: 821 - Pages: 4