Premium Essay

The European Union and Its Power over Opinion: What Can Belarus Tell Us About the European Identity?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By heronm
Words 13537
Pages 55
The European Union and its power over opinion: what can Belarus tell us about the European identity?

Contents

Abstract Page 4
Introduction ` Page 5

Chapter 1: Constructing a European identity Page 8
Chapter 2: The European Union as a normative actor Page 21
Chapter 3: The Belarusian problem Page 30

Conclusion Page 49

Bibliography Page 52

Abstract

Europe has embarked upon an unprecedented process of state integration witnessing the widespread deferral of policy making to intergovernmental institutions. The European Union’s institutionalism has facilitated an assimilation of values into an increasingly coherent, if complex regional identity. A normative self-conception has emerged that Brussels has sought to project onto its external relations through the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Brussels increasingly considers itself a transformative actor in global politics offering an alternative to great power realpolitik.
This paper finds that while European multilateralism offers an environment conducive to a normative foreign policy, the extent to which it is able to exert any ideational influence is constrained by the level of engagement it is willing to pursue. Europe maintains a policy of isolating the Lukashenko regime and has failed to engage Belarusian civil society. As a result it has had a negligible impact on Belarusian political culture. Europe’s failure to adequately engage Belarus also suggests a contradiction within the European identity construction.

Introduction

Since the establishment of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), Europe has sought to play an increasingly active role in global affairs. It has demonstrated a growing confidence in its unique political union that has, so far, resisted being undermined by its economics. This union has been founded…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

European Union

...Microsoft Faces Large EU Fine Summary The European Union (EU) continues on its path of not being very popular with outside countries. Recently, the EU filed a formal complaint against Microsoft Corp. for failing to keep a promise that was made three years ago. Microsoft was supposed to offer alternative web browsers in the newest version of Windows for users in Europe. This is not the first time the EU has had an issue with Microsoft, and I do not think it will be the last. Discussion The formal complaint filed against Microsoft could result in maximum fine of as much as 10% of its total annual revenue, or $7.4 billion. I think this amount is excessive for what Microsoft has done. I do not believe the EU should penalize Microsoft at all. It is far too easy for users to download an alternative web browser. The EU’s antitrust chief Joaquin Alumina said that this case is being used as a deterrent to other firms. “This is a very serious message not to infringe the commitments that had been agreed," Mr. Almunia said." Companies should be deterred from any temptations to renege on their commitments or even neglect their duties," he said. He essentially is saying that Microsoft is being used as an example of what not to do. In my opinion, this is not the case to use to prove your point. No one has been harmed by what Microsoft has done. The EU is now in negotiations with Google Inc. on ways to address concerns about its dominance of Internet search and online......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

What Do Europeans Think About Us Presidential Race?

...Presidential elections. After all, Europeans will not have a vote coming this November. Numerous poles of different European citizens show an overwhelming support for the current president, Barrack Obama, over his Republican challenger, Mitt Romney. "If Europeans could vote in November's election, 75% would vote for Obama while only 8% would vote for Romney" (World views). While many ideas and opinions are given for the overwhelming support of President Obama it is mostly due to cultural, historical, and foreign policy views of European. The US Democratic Party is much more secular and closer to European idea of thought and government. They believe the federal government has much more of a role to play in providing some basic services, similar to the ideas common in Europe (European Conservatives). The US Republican Party has more of an individualist approach, where federal government plays a smaller role of individuals. Romney has been portraying Obama as wanting to turn America into a European-style entitlement society. Stating he wants to ensure that America remains a free and prosperous land of opportunity (European Conservatives). This has done nothing but get Europeans to support Romney even less. Europeans have historically sided with the Democratic candidate in the US presidential race. This European perception of Republicans was made worse during the Bush administration, largely because of widespread European disapproval of the war in Iraq (European......

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The History of Germany in the European Union

...the various forms of media. These issues affect us directly. Germany as a whole has developed greatly in recent years, in it’s society, it’s economy and other important areas. In my speech I will address many points that discuss Germany’s evolvement into a European economic superpower. I will discuss most importantly the history of Germany in the European Union and how it’s connected to the role of the economy in German history, exploring how Germany has developed in areas such as foreign policy, Gross Domestic Product and Inflation figures, the great divide between East Germany and West Germany after World War II and then Reunification. I will explore and refer to journals, books and popular press sources in Germany throughout my speech. After the First World War, Germany was left in a vulnerable state. Germany was economically devastated after a gruesome defeat in World War I. The economy was completely ruined. The Versailles Treaty didn’t help matters and forced Germany to give up 13% of its land, a very valuable resource. At first Germany attempted to recover from the war by increasing social spending. Germany began creating transport projects; new gas works projects and other social projects. These aided unemployment rates. Other countries introduced tariffs and this further deepened the depression of the German Economy. With Germany at it’s weakest and most vulnerable state, Hitler seized the opportunity to rise to power. He put forward many proposals and......

Words: 2992 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

European Union

...The European Union (EU) is the umbrella organization encompassing the European countries that have eliminated economic, trade, and immigration barriers between the member countries of the union. The European Union is a unique economic and political partnership between 27 European countries. It has delivered half a century of peace, stability, and prosperity, helped raise living standards, launched a single European currency, and is progressively building a single Europe-wide market in which people, goods, services, and capital move among Member States as freely as within one country. The EU was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: countries that trade with one another are economically interdependent and will thus avoid conflict. In 1950 French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposes integrating the coal and steel industries of Western Europe, 1951 The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) is established, with six members: Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Netherlands. A supranational body, called the High Authority, is created to manage the coal and steel industries, 1957 the six members of the ECSC sign the Treaties of Rome, creating the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community. The EEC member states aim to remove trade barriers between them and form a common market, In1967 The institutions of the three European communities are merged, creating a......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

European Union

...European Union and Turkey Introduction to European Union In this globalization era, the world seems to be borderless, especially in Europe. This further confirmed by the formation of the European Union, which serves as a binding substance between the countries contained in the European continent. European Union is a political and economic based union, established in 1993 after the ratification of Maastricht Treaty. The international organizations are working together to create economic and political stability among member states. During its development, the European Union may not run smoothly. The emergence of the economic problems that rocked the euro zone, then Spain and Cyprus emerged as a "burden" in these economic problems. Another emerging issue is productivity, border policy, and the exchange rate that makes this organization stability unsteady. Another issue that emerged is the exclusivity of the organization. Another issues arising from the exclusivity of membership expansion problem. Preceded by the six founding countries, EU has 28 members now, as Croatia joined on 1st July 2013. The membership number is certain to grow rapidly with the number of countries that volunteered to become a member. Regardless of all the problems it faces today, the EU is still believed to be an organization that brings positive impact to its members. States' desire to be able to join the candidate can not be separated from the success tale of the European Union, particularly in the......

Words: 2769 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

A “Real” European Union

...1 A “real” European Union World order is going to change in the near future. This year 2012 will be remembered as the year the European Union become a reality. There are three big events occurring this year that are promoting a larger economic, political and social unity inside the EU. A united Europe is a project that has taken a long time to create and that had overcome many difficulties. All the indefinitions in the EU in the past have created many problems in the present, but now they work as a pressure mechanism to conclude the project and correct those indefinitions. If this goal of a united Europe is reached, the consequences will be tremendous because the EU will become the largest economy of the world, and it will have enough power to change the world in different ways. The development of the essay will follow a chronological perspective. First are going to be analyzed the problems in Europe before the EU and show the developments as a clue to develop new theories of what can happen in the future. This future is going to be a consequence of the events happening this year and it will be the second point of analysis. The third one will be the theory of the future creation of a real European Union after this year events. Finally, the consequences and importance in the future of the EU created due to the events of this year. Past In a diachronic perspective, the European Union was something difficult to think as a reality when the project was being born, but the overcome...

Words: 2787 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

European Union

...The European Union, also known as the EU, is a unique, treaty-based union that represents and manages economic and political collaboration among its member countries. The EU was created following the Second World War and was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993. Before the EU was created, the first task was to establish economic cooperation so that countries that trade with one another are more likely to steer clear of conflict. The European Economic Community (EEC) was created in 1958 to merge separate national markets into a single market that would guarantee the free movement of goods, people, capital, and services. Cooperation between Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands began to increase and soon developed into what the EU is today as it still continues to grow. The euro was introduced, representing the consolidation of European economic integration and the successful delivery of peace, prosperity, and stability for over half a century. The union also continued to grow through their employment and social policy. With the removal of barriers, the determination to complete the single market was partnered by social legislation in order to ensure workers a certain standard of health and safety across all member states. Regardless of the growth and progress that the EU has made, they still face challenges today. The EU and US are very similar. Both are committed to promoting peace, democracy and respect for human rights, and to fighting......

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

European Union

...Lyn Klein Economics for Global Managers Professor Victoria Vernon Module 3 Case Study: European Union 7/3/14 The EU is facing a banking crisis. There are insolvent banks in Ireland and Spain, as well as other nations. They lent out too much money, often against real estate. There were real estate bubbles then the value of real estate fell and borrowers could not always pay back the loans. The Greek banking crisis was caused by the government spending too much and borrowing too much money. The economy collapsed causing the banks to be insolvent. Before the collapse banking was conservative. When a nation has insolvent banks belonging to the Euro zone make that problem much worse. There were silent funs on Greek banks, with capital flight; people are pulling their money out of the Greek banks and sending it elsewhere, making the Greek economy worse. The common currency zone escalates the problems. There are also capital and trade imbalances. Germany is exporting a great deal more than it imports, causing capital flows into Germany. Spain and Greece import more than they export so capital flow is out of the country. They need to become more productive at exporting, which is not always easy. In the 2000’s money flowed into periphery countries, borrowing rates were low and capital inflow brought rising standards of living. By 2010’s money was flowing out of the periphery countries and back into Northern Europe. Periphery economies were starved for investment...

Words: 8065 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

European Union

...The European Union was founded and created in 1951, after two World Wars and numerous conflicts and wars within Europe. Though it was not created as a union for all of Europe, but as a treaty signed by six European countries; Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and was then called the “Coal and Steel Treaty”. The Treaty would then as time went by be joined by more countries and eventually, as the situation in Europe changed, it went from “Coal and Steel Treaty” to the European Union with the power and influence it actually has today. The work of the European Union might not show in the everyday life for a typical citizen, but it is there, and does actually affect the situation, not only considering the huge amount of money that is put into the union every year. Every year, all the member countries are to put money into the union in order for it to be able to function properly, and long-time budget lasting from 2014 to 2020 has been set up with the sum of 960 billion euro1, of which a large percentage comes from the rich countries2. But the EU is not only costing the member countries money. The Union is the reason Europeans are able to move freely over European borders, the United Kingdom being the only exception, and European citizens are also allowed to move and seek for employment in other European countries. The EU is also a trade bloc, and thereby makes trading easy since no tariffs or quotas are required. Because of free trade and people......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

European Union

...European Union The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC) formed by six countries in the 1950s. In the intervening years the EU has grown in size by the accession of new member states, and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental decisions negotiated by the member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states. It ensures the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital, enacts legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. A monetary union, the eurozone, was established in 1999 and is currently composed of seventeen member states. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy the EU has developed a limited role in external relations and defense. Permanent diplomatic missions have been established around the world and the EU is represented at the......

Words: 1143 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

European Union Idendity

...European Identity The European Community, now known as the European Union, was created in the 1950’s after the world wars. After World War II europe wrose us and decided to come together to prevent anything like that from ever happening again. Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands came together and established the European Coal and Steel Community to control these resources in order to control the countries’ production of weapons. This made sure that no country produced weapons to start another World War. The European Community was formed to keep Germany under control and make sure another Nazi Party never formed ever again. The European Union was supposed to make peace between these countries and slowly grow over time. The goal was to make the these countries codependent of each other economically, so that it would prevent them from going to war with each other. If the countries depend on each other to keep their individual economies alive they would not be tempted to start a war. However, an identity for all these joined countries is the most idea idea to keep them united and at peace. “The European Commision introduced the concept of European identity already at the Copenhagen summit in 1973” (Pawel Karolewski). The goal was the from a European vision of the United States by making requirements that need to be met to join the Union, like like democracy and human rights laws, and also bringing the people together with programmes that have......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

European Union Influence over Tourism Employment. Tourism

...This is the pre-published version – For final version see: Andriotis, K. (2004). European Union Influence Over Tourism Employment. Tourism - An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 52(3): 277-284. ABSTRACT This paper examines the role of the European Union (EU) in influencing employment in the tourism industry of its member states. Tourism in EU accounts for about 5% of GDP and approximately 7.4 million persons are directly employed in tourism. The figure of persons directly employed in tourism varies from 1.7 to 7.8 depending on the member state. Due to the potential of EU tourism for generating jobs in this paper undertakes a review over the problems related to tourism employment in member states and analyses the formation and development of EU policies and initiatives towards tourism employment. Finally, this paper discusses the implications of the findings for tourism employment in EU and provides the conclusions of the study. Keywords: Tourism, employment, European Union, policies. INTRODUCTION The greatest diversity and density of tourist attractions has made Europe the most visited destination worldwide and tourism among the leading growth industries in the European Union (EU). Tourism in EU accounts for about 5% of GDP and approximately 7.4 million persons are employed in enterprises such as hotels, catering establishments, travel agencies, car rentals, and various tourist attractions and leisure outlets. However, tourism employment patterns vary......

Words: 4605 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

The European Union and Governance

...Questions: 1. Who has the power to represent the EU internationally? The president of the European Commission, the high Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the head of delegation of the EU to third countries (e.g. the US),and the president of the European Council. 2. Of which of the following international organisations is the EU a (full) member? The FAO and WTO, two conditions need to be fulfilled: 1) The EU must have the power (as conferred by the Member States in the Treaties) to become a member, 2) the international organization must allow the EU (which is not a state) to become a member. Consult, for instance, Art. 4 of the UN Charter 3. What is the EU in international law? Rights and obligations. It is not a state or is a regional integration organization with a very extensive measeur of international legal personality (at 47 TEU) 4. Who represents Europe in the world, in external affairs and treaty negotiations with 3rd countries or international organizations, High representative of EU for foreign affairs and policy: created by the Lisbon treaty , it is also the vicepresident to the European Comissions. Head of state, Europe is represented by 2 persons: permanent president of European Council and President of the European Commission (more for classical competences of the EUUU). And Rotatic council. World wide diplomatic network of the European Union: EU ambassadors, EU delegations of the European Action Service......

Words: 9149 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

What Can Psychology Tell Us About Business Ethics?

...This article review is about an article entitled “What can Psychology Tell us About Business Ethics?” by David Messick (2009). This article was published in the Journal of business ethics. The article explores the relationship between business ethics and psychology through examining the concepts of discrimination and conflict of interest and how they influence ethics in business settings. The article affirms that as much as numerous studies have explored these two concepts from a psychological perspective; there is very limited information on how they influence decision making in business settings. The researcher explores various circumstances related to the two concepts while highlighting scholarly positions to position his arguments. The article is concluded by asserting that analysis of business ethics from a psychological perspective can enhance the ability of promoting high ethical standards business decision-making The position taken by the author is well founded as it is generated through amalgamation of relevant scholarly sources in the positioning of the relationship between business ethics and psychology (Fassin et al., 2011; Shakeel et al., 2011). The author also highlights individual circumstances where his individual unconscious thoughts may have influenced his decision-making. This not only enhances the authenticity of the work, but also its effectiveness to address the research issue. For this reason, it is a good read both in writing and content. Based......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

European Union

...INTRODUCTION ―The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.‖ - Article 6, Treaty on European Union The European Union is not a federation like the United States. Nor is it simply an organization for cooperation between governments, like the United Nations. Neither is it a State intended to replace existing states, but it is much more than any other international organization. The EU is, in fact, unique. Never before have countries voluntarily agreed to set up common institutions to which they delegate some of their sovereignty so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at a higher, in this case European, level. All EU decisions and procedures are based on the treaties agreed to by all EU countries, under which sovereignty is shared in specified areas. The result is a union of 27 Member States covering 1.6 million square miles with roughly half a billion people producing almost a third of the world‘s gross national product and speaking more than 23 1 languages, bound together by a desire to promote peace, democracy, prosperity, stability, and the rule of law. The EU embraces the fundamental values shared by its Member States across a multitude of cultures, languages, and traditions. The Member States agree that democracy is the best form of government. They believe in societies that......

Words: 8089 - Pages: 33