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The Effects of Exercise on the Obese

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The Effects of Exercise on the Obese
Obesity has become a problem in the United States with 35.7% of American men and women being obese (Ogden, Caroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2012). An individual's BMI is calculated based on his or her height and weight. Therefore, if an obese individual lost weight it would be an efficient way to lower his or her BMI and promote a healthier life style. The decision to start an exercise program or plan can positively affect one's health. This is even more accurate for those individuals who are obese as it can promote weight loss, increase cardiovascular functions and reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors.
In order to lose weight, an individual must be in a caloric deficit. A person who maintains a consistent weight is said to be in a state of caloric balance. In other words, he or she is eating around the same amount of calories as being used. The key to be in a state of caloric deficit, the individual is not only reducing the amount of calories consumed but also increasing physical activity throughout the day. A caloric deficit of 3,500 calories will allow a person to lose one pound. This means that a caloric deficit of around 500-1000 calories per day is required to lose one to two pounds per week (Hussman, n.d.).
People who suffer from obesity are at risk of not having a healthy cardiovascular system. Exercise has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system when combined with a healthy diet which can lead to better cardiovascular health. (Watts, Jones, Davies, & Green, 2005) Aerobic exercises work on the heart by causing it to pump blood at a faster rate to keep up with the oxygen needs of the muscles. This works out the heart like any other muscle building strength and endurance. It may even keep the heart working longer (McClelland, 2011).
Being obese also puts them at risk of having health problems such as high cholesterol, hypertension, severe artery inflammation, and a heart attack or stroke. Oxidized LDL cholesterol burrows into the artery wall then the body sends inflammatory cells, monocytes, to heal the injury. After that the monocytes turn into macrophages which consume the LDL cholesterol. This forms a fatty streak on the arteries wall and over time more cholesterol and cell debris accumulate and turn into plaque which eventually are covered by fibrous muscle cells which form a cap that the microphages begin to break down. When the cap ruptures a clot is formed around the rupture blocking off the artery. This is when a stroke or heart attack happens. Exercise, especially aerobic exercise, helps reduce inflammation in obese men and woman (Liebman, 2011). Exercise has also been found to reduce high blood pressure and reduce bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol (Balady & Shepard, 1999). These three benefits from exercise help prevent stroke or heart attack by dealing with the health problems that lead up to them.
In conclusion, exercise has many benefits for those who suffer from obesity including creating a calorie deficit by increasing physical activity on a daily basis and bringing their BMI into healthier levels. It also helps strengthen the heart by working it like any muscle. Finally, exercise reduces the risk factors of Cardiovascular Disease by reducing blood pressure cholesterol and keeping the arteries healthy by lowering high inflammation.

Balady, G. J., & Shepard, R. J. (1999). Clinical cardiology: New frontiers exercise as cardiovascular therapy.Circulation, Retrieved from on August 11, 2013
Hussman, J. (n.d.). Caloric deficits and fat loss . Retrieved from on August 11, 2013
Liebman, B. (2011). Fighting inflamation. Nutrition Action Health Letter, Retrieved from on August 11, 2013
McClelland, J. (2011, July). Give your heart a healthy beat. Retrieved from on August 11, 2013
Ogden, C. L., Caroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009–2010 (No. 82). Retrieved from National Center for Health Statistics website: on August 11, 2013
Watts, K., Jones, T. W., Davies, E., & Green, D. (2005). Exercise Training in Obese Children and Adolescents: Current Concepts. Sports Medicine, 35(5), 375-392.…...

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