Free Essay

The Effectiveness of Mccloud’s Appeal

In: Novels

Submitted By wbblitz
Words 1942
Pages 8
The most common art forms artists and writers utilize to express their ideas and creativity are fine arts, novels, and films. They are widely accepted and pedestrian. All three have renowned awards ceremonies for the best in their field, displays in galleries and museums, recognition in the news through the media, and have classes teaching or analyzing them in schools. Against traditional media that have already achieved international public acceptance, a relatively new, and different art form like comics, does not stand a chance in gaining the respect it deserves. However, there are some people who have tried to build a reputation for comics and help others better understand them. Scott McCloud’s work Understanding Comics is his audacious attempt to address and overcome the general public’s ignorance about comics. However, the various characteristics of his book such as the comic book format, dialogue, and tone prove to effectively convey the definition and understanding of comics to a younger audience such as teenagers and college students rather than older adults, the parents and grandparents of the younger audience. If only certain groups of people are likely to accept McCloud’s method, then his intentions of establishing a better reputation for comics have failed.
At first it may seem that creating a book enlightening the reader about comics in the comic book format is an exceedingly clever method. If the reader could easily comprehend what McCloud was trying to say about comics, the act itself of reading Understanding Comics could be a lesson. McCloud argues that comics can effectively communicate information but also admits to once having perceived them as “crude, poorly-drawn, semiliterate, cheap, disposable kiddie fare,” (McCloud 3). Yet, this seemingly clever attempt also has a backfiring effect. Because Understanding Comics is written in comic book form, it is unlikely to even draw the attention of the majority of the adult population. Even in bookstores, this book is placed in the “Graphic Novel” section, where adults rarely browse. However, it is common for teenagers and college students to frequent that section, and be interested by what is available there.
For teenagers and college students who have not strayed too far from their childhood memories when they were exposed to cartoons and picture books, reading a comic book is both more alluring and relaxing than an assigned 500 page novel or complex textbook. In contrast, an adult would be much more likely to pick up a more serious looking novel filled with pages of text rather than one with a plethora of cartoons, pictures and colors accented with short inserts of conversation and narration. Unsurprisingly, there is usually a lack of picture books in the areas of the library or bookstore where most adults are frequently seen browsing, for example, the fiction and nonfiction areas. Even the young adult sections lack books with pictures but possess plenty of thicker text-filled novels. However, the children’s sections are stocked with books packed with color and illustrations. Even McCloud himself recognizes the fact that many adults do not respect comics, and shows this with a small panel on page 3 depicting two middle-aged men using the phrase “comic book talk” to regard some “talk” as unworthy (McCloud 3). Comics essentially fulfill all the characteristics adults use to deem a book unimportant and easily dismissive. In this case, the comic book form of the pedagogical Understanding Comics fulfills those characteristics and can easily be dismissed by adults but rather welcomed by teenagers and college students.
The comic book format is not the only technique that McCloud employs that ends up appealing to the younger crowd. Throughout Understanding Comics, there is one drawing on almost every page—the cartoon depiction of McCloud himself. This mechanism’s original intention might have been to smoothly lead the reader through all of McCloud’s points, and to act as a tour guide and facilitate clarity. Yet, the simple character with basic features and glasses dressed in a checkered blazer and black pants is too “cute” for an older reader. McCloud tries to depict himself as plainly as possible to seemingly create an unbiased, neutral tour guide, but the cartoon ends up as more of a likeable and aesthetically pleasing character than anything else. The cartoon McCloud never just stands there and states his thoughts, instead he performs different body movements and gestures, creating a certain degree of interaction with the reader. McCloud’s cartoon presence and behavior throughout suggests a childish nature to the book. However, adults do accept instructions as they learn new things, but usually in a more formal manner. For example, if a doctor was learning about a new form of cancer treatment, he or she would read articles and books showing diagrams. A computer programmer learning a new computer language would read a professional book explaining the language. Most occupations do require people to accept instructions as knowledge of that field expands, but most of those instructions are conveyed by text and accompanied by serious diagrams and certainly not with cartoon characters. Thus, the many gestures and actions that cartoon McCloud does is more of an appeal to teenagers and college students than to adults not only because of the “cute” appearance but also because his role as a tour guide is very similar to a teacher or professor doing an interesting and engaging lecture in a school setting.
There are a series of panels where the cartoon McCloud demonstrates his concepts in a visually endearing way. On page 5, he draws himself in the arrows (McCloud 5) to lead the reader through the definition of “sequential art”: if he had drawn just basic arrows, that would have been sufficient in conveying his point, but instead he adds his face into the arrows. Then when he tries to separate form from content, he portrays himself drinking the mixture of ideas and images from the “comics pitcher” and then vomiting it back out (McCloud 6).McCloud did not have to draw seven panels of himself drinking and spitting out to accentuate his goal of separating form from content. There are many other examples of him doing other movements such as kneeling down in a praying position, appearing in a Wizard of Oz scene, sitting on a beach, falling in a bottomless pit, etc., (McCloud 30, 31, 39, 94). All of these and many more movements and gestures cartoon McCloud used only added to his appeal to the younger audience by creating amusement. At the same time, it is this very same amusement that may cause adults to dismiss McCloud’s attempts as lighthearted, childish or even laughable. When things come off as childish, adults are less inclined to take seriously. It’s the same as when adults don’t believe something a child says just because it’s coming from a child. In this case, although McCloud is not a child, his method comes off as childish, thus harder to take seriously. Similarly, it would be more difficult for an employee to take their boss seriously if he or she was doing cartwheels while giving out assignments or direction for a project.
The even more apparent characteristic that adults might find inane would be McCloud’s tone and style of prose. If all the pictures were taken away, it is blatantly obvious that he uses lots of bolding and italicizing effects, exclamatory remarks and onomatopoeia. These types of formatting and literary go along with the visual aspect of the comic book format and aren’t deemed as ‘bad’ writing, but come off as unprofessional. There are so many italicized and bolded words are that it’s difficult to differentiate McCloud’s main points since he almost highlights every other word, which only adds to the overall cartoony aspect of Understanding Comics. There are many examples of McCloud employing onomatopoeia such as “Glug, glug. Ptu!! Gaak! Wheeeez! Kaf! Kaf! Glugh …” when he trying to separate form from content to create a dictionary definition of comics (6) and “Chop! Chop! Chop! Tik! Tik! Tik! Tik!” when he was describing the theory of closure (88). Amongst these techniques, he also uses a very colloquial prose style to emphasize his key points. These mechanisms may be able to help him clarify his thoughts in a simple and concise way, but the onomatopoeias and colloquial prose style, in particular, may be viewed by an adult reader as a flippant attempt to explain comics.
McCloud’s tone and style themselves appear to be directed more effectively toward a younger audience rather than adults. The many inflections created by the use of bold and italicized words and rhetorical questions make McCloud’s tone very casual and unprofessional. McCloud is trying to appear appealing by imitating the role of a friend to the reader, but at the same time these characteristics of his prose appear unprofessional and nonchalant, which may appeal less to adults and more to teenagers and students. In some cases, his unprofessional and almost childish tone appears condescending especially toward an adult reader. For example, at one point, McCloud talks about how everybody wears a mask and never clearly sees himself or herself. To demonstrate his point, he asks the reader to smile:
All set? Good. Now, smile. C’mon nobody’s looking. Good. Now, what changed when you smiled? What did you see? Nothing, right. Yet, you know you smiled! Not just because you felt your cheeks compress or the crinkling around your eyes! You know you smiled because you trusted this mask called your face to respond! But the face you see in your mind is not the same as others see! (McCloud 35)
In this small excerpt, McCloud gently convinces the reader to open his or her eyes, like he is speaking to a younger person who has no idea what he or she is doing. In addition, the informal speech with which he does this contributes to the effectiveness of appealing to a younger audience.
These same characteristics are also observed when McCloud is on stage trying to craft the literal definition of comics: “Eisner’s term seems like a good place to state. Let’s see if we can expand it to a proper dictionary-style definition. Any ideas? ... How’s this? ... Hey, what about animation?! Beg pardon? ... Okay, how about this? ... You tell ‘im Bob!” (McCloud 7, 8). In this nonchalant bantering of possible counterarguments, random beings such as Bugs Bunny and “Bob” were some of the proprietors of the counterarguments. It is an amusing method to come up with the definition of comics, but it lacks credibility and professionalism, which makes it less likely to appeal effectively to adult readers.
McCloud’s Understanding Comics is a bold and laudable attempt to increase the comprehension of the comic art form that is often disrespected and overlooked. However, this endeavor, although effective to a certain degree, appeals mostly to teenagers and students rather than adults. Many adults who have no interest in comics probably never noticed its existence at all since it is considered a comic book, but if they did, the many childish characteristics of the book were not enough to convince them. The comic book format, the cute cartoon McCloud tour guide, casual writing style and tone were much more effective in getting McCloud’s message across to the younger audiences. Since Understanding Comics appeals well to the younger people of today, the future adults, the future views and understanding of comics seem bright and optimistic. It is highly possible that comics may one day receive the respect that fine arts, novels, and films now receive (but also lacked at one point), but for now, only time will tell.

Works Cited
McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1994.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Appeals

...An appeal is a petition for reconsideration of a legal action that has been determined by a court of law, in which a sentenced defendant is requesting for a higher court to examine the case that a lower court decided on. An appellate court is the court that hears and see’s the cases on appeals and make a decision to see if the appeal will be approved or not. After the appeal is accepted it goes to a new trial and they review the case on record to make sure that the findings were truthful and in accordance to the law. It can also be concluded that an inaccuracy in trial transpired and can be referred back for a new trial. I believe if the appeals were eliminated from the system we would have a great deal of individuals in prison or sentenced to death that did not need to be there and were wrongly accused at times. And there would be a lot of people in prison that are mistakenly accused. Because of the advancement of technology in the this day and age has improved drastically and because of this advancement we can do more with evidence and DNA that were not capable of revealing before this new technology and too me this has made the appeal process even more necessary and so do eliminate the appeal process now would definitely hurt our criminal justice system because these individuals would have no second chance to prove that they are innocent....

Words: 252 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Appeals

...The appeal process is used to challenge a medical claim that has been reduced, denied, or is a down code claim. The appeals process begins when the provider request a review of the payers decision to deny a claim. The person that files the claim is known as a claimant or appellant depending on if it is a provider or patient who files the claim. Procedures for handling medical claim appeals may vary between the payer and the reason for the appeal. There is a required time frame for the appeals process after the claim determination. Most payers have a structure of appeals consisting of the complaint, appeal, and grievance. There are three levels involved during the medical claim appeals process. Most payers require a minimum amount to be set so take is not used for small dispute amounts. The appeal process can result in a reduced or denied payment of a medical claim. There a several reasons a medical claim may be denied by the payer. If the patient has other primary medical insurance or, the patient as a workers’ compensation claim or, an automobile claim there is specific information that is required. The scheduler has to ensure they have the patients’ correct and updated information. Workers’ Compensation and auto accident claims require the patients claim number, adjusters’ name, and all services require preauthorization. An error in relation to this example is considered a billing error. Another example of a billing error is the absence of a referral on file because most...

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

For a Retail Organization of Your Choice Evaluate the Elements of Its Retail Marketing Mix, in Terms of the Effectiveness with Which They Are Used to Appeal to the Core Target Market

...SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT Learning to make a difference MKIB: 230 Retail Marketing Coursework assignment: “For a retail organization of your choice evaluate the elements of its retail marketing mix, in terms of the effectiveness with which they are used to appeal to the core target market” ZARA – flagship chain store List of Contents I. Introduction: 2 II. Background 2 III. Retail Marketing Mix 3 1. Merchandise assortment 3 2. Location 3 3. Price 4 4. Store design and Visual merchandising 4 5. Advertising and promotions 5 6. Customer service 5 IV. Competitors 6 V. Conclusion 6 References 7 Appendix I………………………………………………………………...…..9 Appendix II…………………………………………………………………..10 Appendix III…………………………………………………………………11 I. Introduction: The following report is about the evaluation of the marketing mix of “ZARA” clothing, which is considered to be one of the most successful clothing brands in the UK nowadays. This report will focus your attention on the main elements of the its retail marketing mix. The main objective of the report is to show how effectively those elements are used by Zara to appeal to the core target market. For the report were used primary and secondary researches. The secondary data was derived from various academic books, journals, websites, Internet resources, annual reports. The primary data was collected through qualitative approaches. Some observations of the stores were made, as well as exploring the......

Words: 2548 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Appeals

...Appendix 1 Northumbria University : Student Appeals Pro Forma This form is to be completed in support of appeals made by students in accordance with the University’s Student Appeals Procedure, Section 7 of the Handbook of Student Regulations. Please read this before completing this form. Personal Details Name: ______________________________________ Student Number: ______________ Faculty: _____________________________________ Programme of Study: _____________________________________________________ Contact Address: __________________________________________________________ Contact Telephone Number____________________________________________________ Contact e-mail Address: ______________________________________________________ Date of the Examination Board at which your results were considered: __________________ 2. Grounds for Appeal An appeal should normally be lodged within 20 working days of the meeting of the relevant PAB. Only exceptionally will an appeal be considered after 20 days. Please note that you may only appeal on the basis of one or more of the five grounds as indicated in regulation 7.2.3 of the Handbook of Student Regulations. You may not base an appeal on the questioning of academic judgement. Please indicate on which grounds you are appealing by ticking the appropriate box: (a) Procedural or organisational irregularities in the conduct of the assessment1 ( (b) Examinations have not been conducted in......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Appeals Process

...Appeals Process Nikole Robinson Criminal Justice and Security (CJS)/220 February 9, 2014 Tony Sanders Appeals Process According to University of Phoenix Appeals (2003), an appeal is a proceeding in which a case is brought before a higher court for review of a lower court’s judgment for the purpose of convincing the higher court that the lower court’s judgment was incorrect. An appeal is done when a defendant’s attorney tries to get him/her a lighter sentence in exchange for something in return, for instance a guilty plea. This is the defendant’s way of trying to get a lighter sentence for the crime he/she has committed. Appeals are important because they are one of the principal avenues in which legal issues, such as law are shaped. Often an appellate decision in one jurisdiction is a source of guidance to courts in other jurisdictions. The first step to appeal is to file a notice of appeal within a specific amount of time after the conviction. Next the appellate files the trial court record and all documents supporting the appeal to the appellate court. Then the appellant and appellee each file briefs, basic facts of the case and the argument made by that particular party. After the briefs are filed the judge may want to hear a short oral argument from each party in the case and finally the court will issue a decision which will be given with a written opinion describing the reasoning for the decision. The appeals factor into the overall criminal......

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Advertising Appeals

...What is an Advertising Appeal? An advertising appeal refers to the approach used to attract the attention of consumers and/or to influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause. It's something that moves people, speaks to their wants or need, and excites their interest. Often it is the underlying content of the advertisement; think of it as a “movie script”. Don’t confuse this with executional framework, that will be another topic. When y'all are deciding on a direction for your submissions, review the Creative Brief (specifically objectives section) for tone, the nature of the product, the preferences of the client (very important). Most importantly though, use your common sense and gut feelings. There are two major types of appeals. They are: Emotional Rational Emotional Appeal 67advertising messages, usually based on imagery rather than information, which attempt to achieve the advertiser's objectives by evoking strong emotionsl feelings (fear, anger, passion, etc) rather than by a rational appeal. This relates to the customers’ social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a product or service. This appeal is so effective because many consumers’ motives for purchase decisions are emotional. Many advertisers believe an emotional appeal to work better at selling brands that do not differ markedly from competing brands. Witin the emotional appeal, there are two subsets - the personal and the social. These are made up of: Personal - Safety,......

Words: 717 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Appeals Processing

...Appeals Process Paper Patricia Velez University Of Phoenix Punishment Philosophies An appeal is an application or request made by a losing party in a court case to a higher court seeking a reversal of a lower court’s ruling in the case. In trials by federal courts, the losing party is entitled to a chance to make a plea to the court of appeal, whereby either party may be against the decision in a civil case while only the defendant has the chance to make a petition whereby a criminal case is concerned. Most appeal cases are picked for a session of oral arguments by both parties before the court. This oral claim takes the form of a structured discussion conducted between appellate lawyers and judges of the court focusing on legal principles involved in the dispute. Ideally, both sides are allocated a small amount of time during which they present their opinions before the court. In most circumstances, appeals are final, and the decision made by the court of appeals ate taken as the final word except when it refers the case back to trial courts or whereby the Supreme Court is involved (Barendrecht, Bolt, & Hoon, 2010). Appeals factor in criminal procedures and overall trial processes in different ways depending on the structure and principals of the legal system involved. Ideally, the appeal process is upheld for its benefits for the conflicting parties, the system of public justice, as well as the future users of...

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Appeal

...TO: FROM: DATE: September 19, 2012 SUBJECT: Academic Appeal – Letter of Explanation To Whom It May Concern, I am writing this letter to appeal to you for reconsideration of my academic suspension and request another opportunity to complete my Master’s in Network and Communications Management at Keller Graduate School of Management. In addition, I am also writing this letter in an attempt to appeal my academic probation so that I may be permitted to receive financial aid towards the continuance of my college education. My last completed course at Keller was not a good one; during this class, I experienced a death in the family that took a heavy toll. This required me to travel back and forth from Georgia to Louisiana to not only help with burial plans as well as bury a loved one, but also to help settle some of the personal affairs of that same loved one.  These circumstances undoubtedly contributed greatly towards my focus shifting from education to settling family business.  A few months later, I experienced another death which happened to be that of a close friend. His death came as a shock being that he was diagnosed with cancer one month, the cancer rapidly spread, and his doctor gave him thirty days to live. Respectfully, the doctor was almost exactly right; my friend made it to thirty-six days. These two experiences coupled with my company downsizing at that time as well my regular family responsibilities created a test of fortitude during a......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Court of Appeals

...Court of Appeals An appeal is entitled to an individual (defendant) who has been found to be guilty by the court for some of all of the charges put against him or her. This person can appeal one or more levels of the appellate court. An appeal can occur in several levels of the courts. An example of this is the appealing to the circuit court of appeals first then going up to the next level. This process can continue until it has reached the United States Supreme Court. An appeal is known as a formal letter of request in which a highest court must review the decisions that had been made by a lower court. Usually the defendant in a lower court who had been found to be guilty of a crime will make an appeal. Some reasons that an appeal maybe made is insufficient evidence, how the jury handled the case, any violation of rights or the possibility of a mistake that was made by the judge hearing the case. An appeal can influence the processes and procedures of a court if the guilty defendant’s appeal has been won over by the higher courts. The entire trial will have to be examined at the beginning in detail, looking for any errors that may exist and had a factor in the ending verdict of that case. After this long drawn out process has ended and a winning of an appeal has occurred then some cases maybe completely retried. Sometimes an appellate court may decide that some of the elements of the case that has been reexamined, shouldn’t have even been within the trial at...

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Appeal Process

...Courts, 2002). Federal authority covers laws linked to patents, labor issues, pensions, and profit sharing. The state authority covers business association, contracts and trade secrets. Concurrent authority manages tax law, security law, and employment law (American Legal System, 2004). The Federal Judicial System consists of the United States Supreme Courts, Court of Appeals, District Courts, and Bankruptcy Courts. The federal judges once appointed remain there for life, except when congress observes treasons, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors and has the judge removed from office through impeachment. The Supreme Court comprised of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices listen to a limited amount of cases the court has been asked to decide. The Court of Appeals consists of ninety-four judicial districts structured into twelve regional districts and each regional district maintains a Court of Appeals. The District Courts and decisions of federal administration agencies allocate appeal cases to a Court of Appeals located in the same circuit. Furthermore, the Court of Appeals have nationwide jurisdiction for the federal circuit in specialized cases that involve litigations determined in the Court of International Trade, Court of Federal Claims, and patent laws. The District Courts and Trail Courts have jurisdiction to attend to virtually every category of federal cases as well as civil and criminal issues. Each state contains at......

Words: 1814 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Appeals

...Appeals Process Many times during a court hearing, were an offender has been convicted of a crime, errors could occur during the trial. There are many cases were innocent offenders have being send to prison to pay for a crime they have never commit. The offender has the option to fight for his or her innocents by filling a claim to the state that his or her case was not processed correctly by the lower court system during his or her trial or arrest. The criminal justice court process allows offenders to file a claim for their case to a higher court for the purpose of overturning the lower’s court decision; this is what the court system calls the appeal process. Meyer and Grant states in the book named The Courts in Our Criminal Justice Systems that an appeal is “a proceeding in which a case is brought before a higher court for review of a lower court’s judgment for the purpose of convincing the higher court that the lower court’s judgment was incorrect” (Meyer & Grant, 2003, p. 465). An appeal is designed to make sure that all offenders’ rights were protected since the beginning of the trial to the end of the sentences trial. This is a very important court process for an offender because during the appeal process the offender has the possibility of having his or her sentence reduced or even removed. The way that the appeal contributes into the criminal procedures and processes is by......

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Appeals Process

...| APPEALS PROCESS | Describing the appeals process | | Ashlee Flemimg | 2/12/2012 | Abstract An appeal in the criminal law system is a defendant’s way of challenging the court’s decision. In this paper I will discuss what an appeal is, how it factors into the overall procedures and process of the criminal system. How the appeals process may be improved. Steps in the appeals process and an example case of an appeal. And why the example case appeal did or did not succeed. Introduction A defendant can challenge is conviction by filling an appeal to have the conviction overturned. The first appeal filed in most cases in the Federal System and most State Court systems is an appeal of the Statutory Right. If they lose the appeals under the statutory right they may then appeal to the State Supreme Court or the U.S. Supreme Court. But in most cases a defendant does not have the right to file such an appeal. The Supreme Court must agree to hear the defendant’s case. But defendant needs to remember that an Appeals Court is not automatically required to review a case. What is an appeal? An appeal is a petition to a higher court for review of a case that has already been decided by a lower court of law. The petition is made for the purpose of having the lower court’s decision overturned. How do appeals factor into the overall criminal procedures and processes? Merely filing an appeal does not automatically mean that a defendant will find it easy to have the......

Words: 1804 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Effectiveness

...Effectiveness Susan Doan MGT/330 July 16, 2012 Cedrina Charbonnet M.A. Effectiveness Wal-Mart uses controls to effectively meet the needs of its customers, employees and supplies. They enable Wal-Mart to keep its edge in the business world as well as creating confidence among suppliers, employees and their customers. Effective management audits enable Wal-Mart to reduce prices and keep an edge over their competition. The effectiveness of this mechanism results in a decrease in audit risks. Internal and external audits are used to maintain audit compliance. Internal audits evaluate performance in the organization by using all functions of management. External audits involve external vendors performing an evaluation. (Bateman & Snell 2007) The creation of an internal auditing system using quality assurance methods helps to lessen the risk for each store. Market control involves pricing mechanisms that regulate activities in an organization: similar to economic transactions. (Bateman & Snell 2007). Market control involves pricing mechanisms that regulate activities in an organization. The use of this mechanism helps organizations establish market controls on a corporate and business level. Wal-Mart uses markets controls in its organization in order for their managers to set prices. Wal-Mart also uses market control as a way to show they can effectively show positive and negative effects in the marketplace... Performance standards are the first steps in......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Effectiveness

...Abstract This paper compares the effectiveness of online forum discussion between quantitative and qualitative subjects offered to learners of Open University Malaysia (OUM). OUM adopted by OUM for its open and distance learning (ODL) comprises three components; self-managed learning, face-to-face interactions and online learning through myLMS to facilitate teaching and learning process. The nature of online learning requires high commitment from the learners, especially self-managed learning and collaborative online learning. Learning quantitative subjects such as mathematics or finance in a conventional environment is very demanding and it is difficult to grasp by a majority of learners compared to learning qualitative subjects such as management or marketing. The same problem existed in learning these subjects through e-learning. Therefore, interactions between the academic staff or tutors with the learners and also amongst learners are important. Thus, it is critical that quality and effective teaching and learning progression take place in online forum discussion. Community of Inquiry (CoI) is the most accepted model for online learning. The model as suggested by Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) stated that online learning occurs through the interaction of three domains: teaching presence, social presence and cognitive presence. Research findings indicate that there the mean score for all the three domains of CoI are relatively the same for both quantitative and......

Words: 2844 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Shock Appeal

...SHOCK APPEAL IN ADVERTISING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CONSUMERS PERCEPTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION Due to globalization and competitiveness in business, organizations roll out different commercials in other to break through the advertising clutter so as to be noticed by the consumers thereby subjecting them to thousands of adverts on daily basis. As a result, they exceed what is considered ethical and the commercial is considered to be very provocative. This has lead to the aim of this research which is to unravel how consumers perceive provocative advertising when shock appeal is used as a conductor. According to Pickton and Broderick (2005), they opined that advertising is a form of communication used to influence individuals to purchase products or services, support ideas and pass relevant information or caution across to the targeted audience. In delivering those messages highlighted above, ad agency adopts different appeals that can help them reach large number of the targeted audience without encountering high cost. Such appeals adopted are rational appeals, emotional appeals, sex appeal, fear or anger appeal etc. However, for the course of this research, emphasis will be laid on shock appeals . 1.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE To identify shock commercials strategies and the extent organization use them. To define shock advertising and why organization use them. To identify the relationship between consumer perception of shock commercial. Using gender and age of target......

Words: 3742 - Pages: 15