Free Essay

The Educational Value of Field Trips

In: Other Topics

Submitted By fatama
Words 1934
Pages 8
The school field trip has a long history in American public education. For decades, students have piled into yellow buses to visit a variety of cultural institutions, including art, natural history, and science museums, as well as theaters, zoos, and historical sites. Schools gladly endured the expense and disruption of providing field trips because they saw these experiences as central to their educational mission: schools exist not only to provide economically useful skills in numeracy and literacy, but also to produce civilized young men and women who would appreciate the arts and culture. More-advantaged families may take their children to these cultural institutions outside of school hours, but less-advantaged students are less likely to have these experiences if schools do not provide them. With field trips, public schools viewed themselves as the great equalizer in terms of access to our cultural heritage.

Today, culturally enriching field trips are in decline. Museums across the country report a steep drop in school tours. For example, the Field Museum in Chicago at one time welcomed more than 300,000 students every year. Recently the number is below 200,000. Between 2002 and 2007, Cincinnati arts organizations saw a 30 percent decrease in student attendance. A survey by the American Association of School Administrators found that more than half of schools eliminated planned field trips in 2010–11.

The decision to reduce culturally enriching field trips reflects a variety of factors. Financial pressures force schools to make difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce resources, and field trips are increasingly seen as an unnecessary frill. Greater focus on raising student performance on math and reading standardized tests may also lead schools to cut field trips. Some schools believe that student time would be better spent in the classroom preparing for the exams. When schools do organize field trips, they are increasingly choosing to take students on trips to reward them for working hard to improve their test scores rather than to provide cultural enrichment. Schools take students to amusement parks, sporting events, and movie theaters instead of to museums and historical sites. This shift from “enrichment” to “reward” field trips is reflected in a generational change among teachers about the purposes of these outings. In a 2012‒13 survey we conducted of nearly 500 Arkansas teachers, those who had been teaching for at least 15 years were significantly more likely to believe that the primary purpose of a field trip is to provide a learning opportunity, while more junior teachers were more likely to see the primary purpose as “enjoyment.”

If schools are de-emphasizing culturally enriching field trips, has anything been lost as a result? Surprisingly, we have relatively little rigorous evidence about how field trips affect students. The research presented here is the first large-scale randomized-control trial designed to measure what students learn from school tours of an art museum.

We find that students learn quite a lot. In particular, enriching field trips contribute to the development of students into civilized young men and women who possess more knowledge about art, have stronger critical-thinking skills, exhibit increased historical empathy, display higher levels of tolerance, and have a greater taste for consuming art and culture.

Design of the Study and School Tours

The 2011 opening of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Northwest Arkansas created the opportunity for this study. Crystal Bridges is the first major art museum to be built in the United States in the last four decades, with more than 50,000 square feet of gallery space and an endowment in excess of $800 million. Portions of the museum’s endowment are devoted to covering all of the expenses associated with school tours. Crystal Bridges reimburses schools for the cost of buses, provides free admission and lunch, and even pays for the cost of substitute teachers to cover for teachers who accompany students on the tour.

Because the tour is completely free to schools, and because Crystal Bridges was built in an area that never previously had an art museum, there was high demand for school tours. Not all school groups could be accommodated right away. So our research team worked with the staff at Crystal Bridges to assign spots for school tours by lottery. During the first two semesters of the school tour program, the museum received 525 applications from school groups representing 38,347 students in kindergarten through grade 12. We created matched pairs among the applicant groups based on similarity in grade level and other demographic factors. An ideal and common matched pair would be adjacent grades in the same school. We then randomly ordered the matched pairs to determine scheduling prioritization. Within each pair, we randomly assigned which applicant would be in the treatment group and receive a tour that semester and which would be in the control group and have its tour deferred.

We administered surveys to 10,912 students and 489 teachers at 123 different schools three weeks, on average, after the treatment group received its tour. The student surveys included multiple items assessing knowledge about art as well as measures of critical thinking, historical empathy, tolerance, and sustained interest in visiting art museums. Some groups were surveyed as late as eight weeks after the tour, but it was not possible to collect data after longer periods because each control group was guaranteed a tour during the following semester as a reward for its cooperation. There is no indication that the results reported below faded for groups surveyed after longer periods.

We also assessed students’ critical-thinking skills by asking them to write a short essay in response to a painting that they had not previously seen. Finally, we collected a behavioral measure of interest in art consumption by providing all students with a coded coupon good for free family admission to a special exhibit at the museum to see whether the field trip increased the likelihood of students making future visits.

All results reported below are derived from regression models that control for student grade level and gender and make comparisons within each matched pair, while taking into account the fact that students in the matched pair of applicant groups are likely to be similar in ways that we are unable to observe. Standard validity tests confirmed that the survey items employed to generate the various scales used as outcomes measured the same underlying constructs.

The intervention we studied is a modest one. Students received a one-hour tour of the museum in which they typically viewed and discussed five paintings. Some students were free to roam the museum following their formal tour, but the entire experience usually involved less than half a day. Instructional materials were sent to teachers who went on a tour, but our survey of teachers suggests that these materials received relatively little attention, on average no more than an hour of total class time. The discussion of each painting during the tour was largely student-directed, with the museum educators facilitating the discourse and providing commentary beyond the names of the work and the artist and a brief description only when students requested it. This format is now the norm in school tours of art museums. The aversion to having museum educators provide information about works of art is motivated in part by progressive education theories and by a conviction among many in museum education that students retain very little factual information from their tours.


Recalling Tour Details. Our research suggests that students actually retain a great deal of factual information from their tours. Students who received a tour of the museum were able to recall details about the paintings they had seen at very high rates. For example, 88 percent of the students who saw the Eastman Johnson painting At the Camp—Spinning Yarns and Whittling knew when surveyed weeks later that the painting depicts abolitionists making maple syrup to undermine the sugar industry, which relied on slave labor. Similarly, 82 percent of those who saw Norman Rockwell’s Rosie the Riveter could recall that the painting emphasizes the importance of women entering the workforce during World War II. Among students who saw Thomas Hart Benton’s Ploughing It Under, 79 percent recollected that it is a depiction of a farmer destroying his crops as part of a Depression-era price support program. And 70 percent of the students who saw Romare Bearden’s Sacrifice could remember that it is part of the Harlem Renaissance art movement. Since there was no guarantee that these facts would be raised in student-directed discussions, and because students had no particular reason for remembering these details (there was no test or grade associated with the tours), it is impressive that they could recall historical and sociological information at such high rates.

These results suggest that art could be an important tool for effectively conveying traditional academic content, but this analysis cannot prove it. The control-group performance was hardly better than chance in identifying factual information about these paintings, but they never had the opportunity to learn the material. The high rate of recall of factual information by students who toured the museum demonstrates that the tours made an impression. The students could remember important details about what they saw and discussed.

Critical Thinking. Beyond recalling the details of their tour, did a visit to an art museum have a significant effect on students? Our study demonstrates that it did. For example, students randomly assigned to receive a school tour of Crystal Bridges later displayed demonstrably stronger ability to think critically about art than the control group.

During the first semester of the study, we showed all 3rd- through 12th-grade students a painting they had not previously seen, Bo Bartlett’s The Box. We then asked students to write short essays in response to two questions: What do you think is going on in this painting? And, what do you see that makes you think that? These are standard prompts used by museum educators to spark discussion during school tours.

We stripped the essays of all identifying information and had two coders rate the compositions using a seven-item rubric for measuring critical thinking that was developed by researchers at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. The measure is based on the number of instances that students engaged in the following in their essays: observing, interpreting, evaluating, associating, problem finding, comparing, and flexible thinking. Our measure of critical thinking is the sum of the counts of these seven items. In total, our research team blindly scored 3,811 essays. For 750 of those essays, two researchers scored them independently. The scores they assigned to the same essay were very similar, demonstrating that we were able to measure critical thinking about art with a high degree of inter-coder reliability.

We express the impact of a school tour of Crystal Bridges on critical-thinking skills in terms of standard-deviation effect sizes. Overall, we find that students assigned by lottery to a tour of the museum improve their ability to think critically about art by 9 percent of a standard deviation relative to the control group. The benefit for disadvantaged groups is considerably larger (see Figure 1). Rural students, who live in towns with fewer than 10,000 people, experience an increase in critical-thinking skills of nearly one-third of a standard deviation. Students from high-poverty schools (those where more than 50 percent of students receive free or reduced-price lunches) experience an 18 percent effect-size improvement in critical thinking about art, as do minority students.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

3 Day Field Trip

...College of Engineering School of Technology Field Trip Reaction Paper Plantinos, France Richard S. B.S Computer Engineering October 10, 2012 3 Day Field Trip Last September 25-27, 2012, we held a 3-day field trip in Baguio, La Union and Ilocos. On the first day we left Batangas at 12am so we can arrive early in Baguio. It’s a 7-hr sleepy trip but we arrived safely. We checked-in at rajah soliman hotel and ate our breakfast there. We went to our designated rooms to put our heavy bags and we back to bus to visit our first company. The first company that we visited is PAGASA Baguio. They are one of the branches of PAGASA. The speaker discussed about how they monitor the weather and how they measure the strength of the rain. They discussed about the gadgets and machines that they are using to gather information such as barometer, anemometer, etc. After we saw and learned about the things that PAGASA Baguio are doing. We went to the 2nd company. The SITEL. SITEL is calling center in Baguio. Their clients are mostly foreigners and journalist in popular newspapers around the world like The New York Times. The speaker only told and discuss us what are the future that awaits you if you apply to their company. He discussed the qualifications that they want for you to work for SITEL. One of the qualifications is that you have to speak fluently in English. Because it is the second general language that we are using. And the clients you are speaking are mostly......

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Independent Field Trip

...SCI 204: Week 7: Lab 1: Independent Field Trip Name: Al Llereza Independent Field Trip The place that I chose to go for the Independent field trip was the John G. Shedd Aquarium but this was not my first choice. Instead, I was planning to go to the Linkin Park Zoo because it was free admission but the weather conditions were not favorable as it was raining. Nevertheless, I paid for a general admission ticket that cost a whole $5 because I am a Chicago resident. This only gave me access to the Caribbean Reef, Waters of the World and Amazon Rising exhibits. The atmosphere inside this building was amazing due to curiosity of the wide age group. People were interested in the different types of reptiles and aquatic life and wanted to know more, so did I. The first stop I came across was the Amazon Rising exhibits. The first aquarium that caught my eye was the green anaconda because it is believed to be the largest snake in South America and possibly in the world. Green anacondas reside in the sluggish waters of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers. Because liquid supports their weight, they can outgrow such tree-dwelling snakes as the large pythons. People are not on the menu, but caimans (similar to alligators), capybaras (100-pound South American rodents) and deer are. After downing just one of these animals, the green anaconda can survive for months before eating again. Also, in this exhibit, I saw a really long fish that spike my interest. It is called the......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Multicultural Field Trip

...Tionna Shivers EDU-230 November 18, 2012 Michelle Jervell Multicultural Field Trip The APEX Museum The APEX Museum is known as “African American Panoramic Experience Museum” (APEX, 2012). The museum contains timelines about the African American culture. There is a time line describing the accomplishments of Africans. Some accomplishments include: mastering basic arithmetic, cultivating crops, carving the first colossal sculpture, and creating glass windows. The museum also shows pictures and artifacts from that time period as well. The museum also describes the process in which Africans were brought to America through the Middle Passage. In addition, it shows how they were shackled, the type of “money” that was used to pay for slaves, a badge from the plantation police, and the door of no return. It describes the story of Henry “Box” Brown, the African American who was shipped up north in a box. There is also a section of the museum which describes the goods that were of value such as cotton, tobacco, and sugar. Also, there is a replica of a slave ship. In addition, there is a Wall of Achievement which outlines every African American who made some type of contribution to Georgia’s history. Invasion Before the invasion of the surrounding countries, Africa was separated by tribes. Some of the tribes were: Kush, Ghana, and Lake Kingdom. France and Britain invaded majority of Africa during that time period. Other countries who invaded Africa were: Portugal, Germany,...

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Field Trip

...Outdoor Education remains my favorite field trip of all time due to all of the memorable activities we experienced. For instance, I was able to touch and hold a wide variety of animals that I had never seen until I visited their science center. One animal was a blue tongue skink that reminded me of leather because it was dry and smooth. The chinchilla was also smooth, yet its fur was also the softest that I had ever felt. This goes to show that one can find similarities in unusual places. I would have never guessed that a reptile and a mammal would have anything in common, but their bodies were pleasing to the touch in different ways! In addition, I also was able to scale to great heights when I visited the high ropes course deep in the forest. Once I had my safety harness and helmet, I surged upward on ladders and nets. The nets were not as challenging as the balance beam which turned out to be my favorite because of the patience and determination that were needed. I realize now that even something difficult can be fun. I hope to use this thought in other areas of my life because now I might achieve even more than before. Finally, I loved splashing around Lake Peters in the canoe with my partner. The direction on how to hold the paddle and how to steer were not that hard, but actually doing it on the lake was difficult. It became less difficult with the help of my partner because we had to work together to be successful. This means......

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fermentation Field Trip

...Abraham Cervantes Biology 107 Mr. Koningsor November 17, 2013 Field Trip: Fermentation On my public tour at the Ballast Point I had a great tour guide that told me many interesting facts about different ways of fermentation. I was only told of the ways of fermentation but not on how they worked or for what. One of the productions of fermentations that I learned about was known as ethanol fermentation which produces lactic acid for alcoholic beverages. Ethanol fermentation is the transfer or conversion of pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The second fermentation method I learned was lactic acid fermentation where two bases of fermentation are being used. There is the heterolactic fermentation where many acids can be produced and also many alcohols can be produced too. There is also the homolactic fermentation where lactic acid is being produced from the pyruvate. When I was first learning about fermentation I didn’t know that there was so much to it like I learned at the tour and also researching up on the process. I am a beer connoisseur and the fact that I was able to see all the methods and ingredients of the beer being applied and fermented was astonishing. Now I completely understand the process of fermentation, where the anaerobic digestion generates adenosine triphosphate ( ATP) then creates a compound such as carbohydrates. The ingredients of making beer is hops, yeast, sugar, water, and malted barley but there is other breweries that can add......

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Field Trip Report on Religions

...Field Trip Report on The Calvary Chapel, a Christian Church Prepared for: Professor Shaw Prepared by: Julian Aguirre DeVry University Comparative Religions Field Trip Report February 15, 2013 Memorandum To: Professor Shaw (DeVry University) From: Julian Aguirre Date: February 15, 2014 RE: Field Trip Report on Calvary Chapel, Ranch Cucamonga CA! ______________________________________________________________________________ Introduction The objective of this report is to contrast and compare the culture of the Calvary Church with Catholicism, which is the religion that I practice. A field trip was taken to the Calvary Chapel in Rancho Cucamonga On February 12 of 2013, in which a clear observation of its services was performed. Though the primary belief of the religion is based on the teachings from Jesus Christ, some of its services are different than Catholicism. My overall experience was satisfying, but not convincing enough to have doubts about my own faith. There was a spiritual feeling throughout the church, but it wasn’t too fulfilling for me. The church had no architectural Christian nature, no religious symbols, but the word of God was felt. The church Realistically, as the church was approached, the building itself had no religious appeal. The exterior front looked like an entrance to a hotel, where cabs drove up to drop off and pick up people. There was no religious vibe. My first impression of the church was that it was an industrial building......

Words: 1323 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Field Trip

...Field Trip REGLI/448 DeVry University Daniel Henke December 8, 2013 For my field trip I chose to visit a Catholic Church St Peter located in Waldorf, MD. I took my two children with me and while driving to the church I explained to them that this was a field trip for my assignment. The look on their faces was priceless. Of course my five year old did not understand what I was talking about but she just knew that this experience was going to be different. I was excited that you asked the class to go on this journey to see how others worshiped. A friend of mine called me country for not venturing out to other places to see what was out there. To me it was not necessary to do because my past relationships did not require me to step out of my denomination and my entire family is Baptist so why would I? Well I am happy I did and plan to in the near future attend a mosque service just out of pure curiosity. For this trip I wanted to experience it but they were located in DC and I did not want to travel that far. Driving up to the location was pretty much what I had expected, beautiful temple, spacious parking and a mix crowd of worshipers. As the girls I got dressed that morning, I wondered without sharing with them, how the people would dress. Do they wear jeans or pants, or should I wear a long skirt or dress? Needless to say as I parked my car I noticed that other people were dress like me, jeans and a nice top or blouse. Last Sunday was a beautiful......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Virtual Field Trip

...Virtual Field Trip Project |Grade Level: 6th | |Topic: Pearl Harbor | |Standards: | |USII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by | |a) identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor; | |b) locating and describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific; | |c) Describing the impact of the war on the home front. | | | |Objective: Learn more on attack of Pearl Harbor and what it looks like today. ...

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Field Trip//the Things They Carried

...  Field  Trip   Closure  is  a  necessity  when  it  comes  to  coping  with  tragedy  because  unless  certain   measures  are  taken,  the  sorrow  and  pain  never  fade.  In  O’Brien’s  case,  visiting  the  field  provided   him  with  closure  because  he  had  something  he  could  place  blame  on,  which  in  this  case  was  a   specific  location.  This  blaming  is  seen  as  O’Brien  states,  “Over  the  years,  that  coldness  had   never  entirely  disappeared.  There  were  times  in  my  life  when  I  couldn’t  feel  much,  not  sadness   or  pity  or  passion,  and  somehow  I  blamed  this  place  for  what  I  had  become,  and  I  blamed  it  for   taking  away  the  person  I  had  once  been.”  (176)  By  pointing  fingers  at  the  field  for  this  tragedy   and  what  the  war  did  to  him,  he  can  take  the  regret  and  sadness  he  feels  and  transform  it  to   something  else.  He  directs  his  feelings  to  a  form  of  hatred  towards  this  location,  so  that  he  can   move  on  and  leave  his  pain  in  the  past.  But  closure  will  not  occur  solely  over  time,  as  time  does   not  always  heal,  and  that  is  why  these  certain  measures  are  to  be  taken.  This  is  seen  as  O’Brien   reflects,  “For  twenty  years  this  field  had  embodied  all  the  waste  that  was  Vietnam,  all  the   vulgarity  and  horror.”  (176)  O’Brien  had  waited  twenty  years  since  the  war,  and  the  memories   still...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Religion Field Trip Paper

...Field Trip 1. I have driven by the mosque many times. It is only a couple minutes from my house. There have been times where I had to drop off my friends at the mosque or pick them up. I always thought the outside was beautiful. The mosque is white, blue and yellow with a yellow dome over it. I come from a church where there are crosses all around the entrance, on top of the church on the doors, so it is obvious that it is a church. When you pass by the mosque you wouldn’t really know what it is because there was nothing distinct about it. So to answer the initial question, the architecture did not lend itself the worship because there was nothing really special from the outside about it. 2. The inside of the mosque are the same colors. It is very bright inside. There was no pictures or portraits of Mohammad. There are a few plaques on the wall and there is a bookshelf of Qurans. The minute you walk in you must take off your shoes. After you take off your shoes, you then go to the area where you pray. The men and woman are both separated. Men are upstairs and the woman is downstairs. Even if the girls do not wear the scarf permanently, when they are praying they have to wear it. Before you pray they have to do something called the Wadu. A wadu is a cleaning ritual done before the prayer. The way to perform the wadu is to speak in the holy name of Allah and to use your right hand first and wash your hands 3 times. You then wash your mouth 3 times, your nose 3 times, your......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Field Trip

...climb the first set of stairs. Craven Hall was named after one of it’s founders. His name was Senator William Craven. After we all met up at Craven Hall, we got into groups and began our tour. We first went around the store and bookstore. After that, we went to the student lounge. We also went to the food court. After that we went to the Founders’ Seal. To conclude our tour,we visited the Kellogg Library. I loved the library. That thing was huge. It was five stories tall if you include the dungeon. The dungeon is the bottom floor that happens to be underground. After the tour was over, they let us walk around the campus a little bit. The first thing I did was go get food. After that I just explored the campus. Overall, it was a great trip, and I had a lot of fun....

Words: 266 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Field Trip Tp France

...Field Trip Report My field trip report is on a Broadway musical that my husband took me to see just last week in New York City. Based on the popular 1994 film of the same name, Priscilla Queen of the Desert follows two drag queens and a transsexual who buy a run-down old bus (they call it Priscilla) and set out on a road trip across the Australian Outback when one of them, Tick, is invited by his ex-wife to perform his drag show at her far-away resort. I like this musical because it presents my beautiful costumes and the scenes are so magical. The way that this musical is done just shows the talent and dedication these dancers have in the play. Featuring dance and disco tunes from the likes of Madonna, Cyndi Lauper and Donna Summer, Priscilla is filled with incredibly imaginative and over-the-top costumes, drag makeup and dance numbers that maintain an energetic pulse throughout the show. A life size bus even moves around onstage. I went to go see the show and let me tell you that it was the best thing I have ever seen. The costumes, design, facility, and many other things were just amazing. When my husband and I got there to New York City was just beautiful. I have just seen New York in magazines or in television but never in real life. I was just surprised and over helmed of how beautiful time square was. I just felt like if everything was possible in that moment. As we moved further to see the show and went inside the view that we got of the show was just very good. We...

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cultural Field Trip

...Cultural Field Trip Karen Wethington Sociology-111-40F Kreider Cultural Field Trip- Damask Cafe For my cultural field trip I chose a different cultural dining experience. My son had gone on a missions trip last year to Chicago. While he was there, he was introduced to the Indonesian culture through worship and fellowship with an Indonesian family. He was invited to their home and had dinner with them,they also had Indonesian food at the church as well. When he came home all he could talk about was the food. He truly enjoyed it. So I thought it would be nice to have family and friends share a meal together from a different culture. Originally, I had chosen "The Nile Restaurant", I thought Egyptian food sounded interesting, unfortunately, they were closed for the fourth of July weekend. So we went to Damask Café instead. Damask Cafe is an, "Eastern Mediterranean Eatery". Damask is referred as the fabric of royalty, Damask is the rich, elegant cloth used in clothing, tapestries and upholstery throughout the ages. The fabric is intricately woven so that its mirror image appears on the back side; it is reversible! Damask takes its name from Damascus, Syria, where the twelfth century Europeans found its finest examples. It was carried on the silk road from Damascus and has decorated the royals' and their castles' from the Middle East to China, to Italy and the rest of Europe. Just as Damask fabric is made by the interplay of colors and weaves, Damask Café......

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Field Trip

...Field Trip Report Hackensack University Medical Center, part of the Hackensack University Health Network was founded in 1888. It is the best hospital in New Jersey and the third Best Hospital in Metro Area. In the national hospital ranking, Hackensack University Medical Center is one of the Top 50 hospitals in the United States. It is also one of the National’s Largest Cancer Centers, a National-Renowned Children’s Hospital and an Environmentally-Friendly Hospital Designed Just for Women. On April 7th, 2015, under the directions of Dr. Ramnarayanan, we had a trip to Hackensack University Medical Center to see how supply chain is used in the running of one of the best hospital in the United States. In the trip, the Vice-President of Supply Chain Management showed us how the supply chain works in HUMC to help them to improve their work efficiency, and told us about the benefits that the supply chain bring to HUMC. With the new technology used into the supply chain system in HUMC, automating manual processes become possible. Before, HUMC used paper work for the input and output of the medical device from the storage, the statistic of the medical device cost a lot of time and labor. Right now, they use the new technology to make this work much easier. The new handheld device can scan the barcode of each medical device, record the input and output of the medical device at the first time, then, send the data to the computer for statistic. Also, this can help the doctor to......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Rsabg Field Trip Paper

...Nicholas Rojes Geo 351 Professor Garver March 3, 2010 Field Trip California is a state of enormous diversity. From the coast to the mountains and the forests to the deserts, California is full of a wide array of plant life. California is the third largest state in the United States and thus has a major variation in climate resulting in the many plants found. Not only are there many plants found here, but many of those plants cannot be found anywhere else. There are also many nonnative plants that have become a part of the scenery in California. The best way to understand the state’s vegetation is to first understand the floristic provinces. In North America there are 12 floristic provinces with four of those found in California (Map #1). California itself has five major biomes, some of which can be found at RSABG. Four of them are in the California floristic province and the fifth is in both the Great Basin and the Sonoran floristic province. Each of which contains many different types of communities in them. The California floristic province has the coniferous forest biome, the oak woodland biome, the grassland and marshland biome, and the chaparral and coastal sage scrub biome. The Great Basin and Sonoran floristic province has the desert scrublands and woodlands biome. All of the five biomes (Map #2) in California have different climates. The Coniferous forest is highland with a cool or warm Mediterranean, while the Oak woodlands is semi-arid, but also has a......

Words: 1509 - Pages: 7