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Term Paper for Social Change

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Standard 1: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community. The effective administrator:

1.1 Uses research about best professional practice.

Cooperative Learning "Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning."
WHAT IS IT? Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement.
WHY USE IT? Documented results include improved academic achievement, improved behavior and attendance, increased self-confidence and motivation, and increased liking of school and classmates. Cooperative learning is also relatively easy to implement and is inexpensive.
HOW DOES IT WORK? Here are some typical strategies that can be used with any subject, in almost any grade, and without a special curriculum: Group Investigations are structured to emphasize higher-order thinking skills such as analysis and evaluation. Students work to produce a group project, which they may have a hand in selecting. STAD (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions) is used in grades 2-12. Students with varying academic abilities are assigned to 4- or 5-member teams in order to study what has been initially taught by the teacher and to help each reach his or her highest level of achievement. Students are then tested individually. Teams earn certificates or other recognition based on the degree to which all team members have progressed over their past records. Jigsaw II is used with narrative material in grades 3-12. Each team member is responsible for learning a specific part of a topic. After meeting with members of other groups, who are "expert" in the same part, the "experts" return to their own groups and present their findings. Team members then are quizzed on all topics.
WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC PROGRAMS? These are just a few of the successful programs available that use specially developed material: • Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI) in Mathematics: An elementary, individualized program that provides direct instruction within a cooperative learning setting, emphasizing concepts, real-life problems, and manipulatives. TAI is for grades 3-6 and older students not ready for algebra.
What is the teacher's role?
Initially, the teacher carefully designs meaningful tasks that require active participation of each student in the group toward a common end. At the beginning of a cooperative lesson, the teacher's role, often in cooperation with the class, is that of "task setter." As groups work on tasks, the teacher acts as a facilitator/coach moving from group to group to monitor the learning process. The teacher also provides students with on-going feedback and assessment of the group's progress.
What is performance-based assessment?
Performance-based assessment is an approach to the monitoring of students' progress in relationship to identified learner outcomes. This method of assessment requires the student to create answers or products which demonstrate his/her knowledge or skills. This differs from traditional testing methods which require a student to select a single correct answer or to fill in the blank.
What are the characteristics of an effective performance assessment task?
The Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress defines performance assessment as “any form of testing that requires a student to create an answer or a product that demonstrates his or her knowledge or skills.” According to Stephen K. Hess, Director or Criterion Referenced Evaluation and Testing for Frederick County Public Schools, the goal of effective performance assessment is “to develop important tasks that are worthwhile and engaging for student, requiring the application of skills and knowledge learned prior to the assessment.”
Experts in the field emphasize that any effective performance assessment task should have the following design features: • Students should be active participants, not passive “selectors of the single right answer." • Intended outcomes should be clearly identified and should guide the design of a performance task. • Students should be expected to demonstrate mastery of those intended outcomes when responding to all facets of the task. • Students must demonstrate their ability to apply their knowledge and skills to reality-based situations and scenarios. • A clear, logical set of performance-based activities that students are expected to follow should be evident. • A clearly presented set of criteria should be available to help judge the degree of proficiency in a student response.
|Learning Theories and |
|Instructional Strategies Matrix |
| |

| |Behaviorism |Cognitivism |Constructivism |
|Representations of the |Stimulus-Response |Cognitivist Learning Perspective |Inquiry-based |
|Learning Process |Reinforced Behavior |Information Processing |Discovery learning |
| |Antecedent Behavior Consequence |Schema | |
| |Sequenced knowledge and skills |Mental Models | |
| |presented in logical limited steps | | |
|Relevant Frameworks |Programmed Instruction (logical |Events of Instruction (Conditions of |Cognitive Apprenticeship |
| |presentation of content, overt |Learning) |Cognitive Flexibility |
| |responses, immediate knowledge of | |Situated Learning |
| |correctness) | |Zone of Proximal Development |
|Key Principles |Learning happens when a correct |Learning is a change of knowledge |Learners build personal interpretation |
| |response is demonstrated following the|state |of the world based on experiences and |
| |presentation of a specific |Knowledge acquisition is described as |interactions |
| |environmental stimulus |a mental activity that entails |Knowledge is embedded in the context in|
| |Emphasis is on observable and |internal coding and structuring by the|which it is used (authentic tasks in |
| |measurable behaviors |learner. |meaningful realistics settings) |
| | |Learner is viewed as an active |Create novel and situation-specific |
| | |participant in the learning process |understandings by "assembling" |
| | |Emphasis is on the building blocks of |knowledge from diverse sources |
| | |knowledge (e.g. identifing |appropriate to the problem at hand |
| | |prerequisite relationships of content)|(flexible use of knowledge) |
| | |Emphasis on structuring, organizing | |
| | |and sequencing information to | |
| | |facilitate optimal processing | |
|Goal of Instruction |Communicate or transfer behaviors |Communicate or transfer knowledge in |Build personal interpretations of the |
| |representing knowledge and skills to |the most efficient, effective manner |world based on individual experiences |
| |the learner (does not consider mental |(mind-independent, can be mapped onto |and interactions (constantly open to |
| |processing) |learners) |change, cannot achieve a predetermined,|
| |Instruction is to elicit the desired |Focus of instruction is to create |"correct" meaning, knowledge emerges in|
| |response from the learner who is |learning or change by encouraging the |relevant contexts) |
| |presented with a target stimulus |learner to use appropriate learning |Learning is an active process of |
| |Learner must know how to execute the |strategies |constructing rather than acquiring |
| |proper response as well as the |Learning results when information is |knowledge |
| |conditions under which the response is|stored in memory in an organized, |Instruction is a process of supporting |
| |made |meaningful way. |knowledge construction rather than |
| |Instruction utilizes consequences and |Teachers/designers are responsible for|communicating knowledge |
| |reinforcement of learned behaviors |assisting learners in organizing |Do not structure learning for the task,|
| | |information in an optimal way so that |but engage learner in the actual use of|
| | |it can be readily assimilated |the tools in real world situations |
|Instructional/ |Behaviorism |Information Processing Model |Modeling |
|Learning Strategies |Instructional cues to elicit correct |Explanations |Collaborative Learning |
| |response |Demonstrations |Coaching |
| |Practice paired with target stimuli |Illustrative examples |Scaffolding |
| |Reinforcement for correct responses |Gestalt Theory |Fading |
| |Building fluency (get responses closer|Matched non-examples |Problem-Based Learning |
| |and closer to correct response) |Corrective feedback |Authentic Learning |
| |Multiple opportunities/trials (Drill |Outlining |REALs |
| |and practice) |Mneumonics |Anchored Instruction |
| |Discrimmination (recalling facts) |Dual-Coding Theory |Cognitive Flexibility Hypertexts |
| |Generalization (defining and |Chunking Information |Object-based Learning |
| |illustrating concepts) |Repetition | |
| |Associations (applying explanations) |Concept Mapping | |
| |Chaining (automatically performing a |Advanced Organizers | |
| |specified procedure) |Analogies | |
| | |Summaries | |
| | |Keller's ARCS Model of Motivation | |
| | |Interactivity | |
| | |Synthesis | |
| | |Schema Theory | |
| | |Metaphor | |
| | |Generative Learning | |
| | |Organziational strategies | |
| | |Elaboration Theory | |
| | |Links to prior knowledge | |
|Theorists |Skinner |Gagne |Vygotsky |
| |Bandura |Bruner |Lave & Wenger |
| |Thorndike |Anderson |Piaget |
| |Pavlov |Gardner |Bransford, Hasselbring,etc. (CTGV) |
| | |Novak |Grabinger |
| | |Rummelhart |Spiro and colleagues |
| | |Norman | |

1.2 Recognizes the uniqueness and educability of each learner in a pluralistic society.
If the intent of the No Child Left Behind Act — to increase and sustain high levels of student achievement — is to be reached, states need to move beyond merely complying with the Act's provisions. This brief considers how thoughtful implementation of four key aspects of the Act — accountability and testing, flexible use of resources, school choice, and quality teachers and quality teaching — can move schools closer, not simply to compliance, but to raising achievement for all students. • NCLB appears to move the nation closer to federal control of schools and may lead to federal testing and a federal. curriculum • The public thinks that consistent standards are important in a highly mobile society. • Many members of the public have lost faith in public schools. • Most principals view being designated as a low-performing school as a chance to do better.

– In a pluralistic society, many groups with different value systems come together to strive for important common goals.

1.3 Plans for continuous, comprehensive, systemic school/district improvement. o Selecting and Implementing Research-Based Instruction o one of the most popular and one of the most effective classroom instructional strategies: cooperative learning. Like all strategies in this book, it is not always used successfully.
Research-Based Innovations
Two factors greatly influence the success of comprehensive school reform. Selecting or developing an effective, research-based model or innovation is vitally important. Equally important, however, is adopting a model that matches school needs and goals.
District and school leaders may be asking, “How do I know whether a model is effective, based on research, and likely to work for us?” This is an essential question. Answering it involves critically examining the model in terms of the underlying theory, its successful implementation and replication, its effect on student achievement, and the studies validating its claims of effectiveness. (See sidebar.)
Although this process takes time, given the amount of resources that will be invested in reform, it’s well worth the effort. Don’t be reluctant to ask hard questions of model developers or to press for more evidence that a program will be effective. Thoroughly investigating the strengths of a proposed model upfront can save a tremendous amount of time and money later, help ensure higher student achievement, and increase teacher morale and community support in the long run.
Recently, a number of leading education organizations commissioned a study of comprehensive school reform models to examine claims made by model developers (see American Institutes for Research, 1999). Of the 24 models reviewed, only three offered “strong evidence” of positive effects on student achievement. Five models showed “promising evidence” of positive effects. Six offered “marginal evidence.” One offered “weak evidence.” For the remaining nine models, there were no methodically rigorous studies that demonstrated higher student test scores.
The message here is “buyer beware.” Before investing a great deal of time and money on a comprehensive school reform approach, district and school leaders should thoroughly study a proposed model to assess the likelihood that it will meet identified goals.
Evaluating Innovations in Instruction
Theory
Are there materials available that explain the underlying theory and that include references to research?
Implementation
Has the model been fully implemented in multiple sites for a number of years?
Has the model been implemented in sites that are similar to the target school (e.g.,in terms of grade levels and demographics)?
Replication
Has the model been replicated successfully in a wide range of schools and districts (e.g., urban, rural, suburban)?
Evaluation
Is there evidence of student achievement gains at the sites that have implemented the model?
Validation
How many reliable studies validate or refute claims of effectiveness?
Source:Adapted from Catalog of School Reform Models,by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory,1998,Portland,OR:Author.
THE ROLE OF DISTRICT LEADERS
Selecting a research-based approach that best meets the needs of individual schools should be left to those who closely work with students: teachers and school leaders. Nonetheless, there are a number of things district leaders can do to help school-level teams make wise, well-informed decisions.
Guidelines for District Leaders • Help principals and other staff members gather information about comprehensive school reform models, especially evaluations of their effectiveness. Comprehensive School Reform 11 Criteria for Choosing Models: 1. Comprehensive Design With Aligned Components. Every component of the CSR approach supports a clear vision of school improvement. All aspects of school functioning—from curriculum, instruction, and assessment, to governance and management, to parent and community involvement—are designed to move the school toward its chosen destination. These components fit together into a schoolwide reform plan designed to enable all students to meet challenging content and performance. 2. Support Within the School. The school's faculty, staff, and other critical stakeholders support the approach and are committed to its implementation. 3. Measurable Goals and Benchmarks. The approach has measurable goals for student performance and benchmarks for meeting those goals. 4. Strategies That Improve Academic Achievement. The methods and strategies of the approach result in significant improvements in school achievement. The program must meet one of the following requirements: (1) The program has been found, through scientifically based research, to significantly improve the academic achievement of participating students, or (2) the program has been found to have strong evidence that it will significantly improve the academic achievement of participating children. 5. Proven Methods and Strategies Based on Scientifically Based Research. The approach employs proven methods and innovative strategies for student learning, teaching, and school management that are based on reliable research and effective practices. These methods and strategies have been replicated successfully in schools with diverse characteristics. In this guide, we further subdivide this criterion into four categories: o Curriculum o Instruction o Assessment o Governance and management 6. Professional Development. The approach provides high-quality and continuous professional development and training for teachers and staff. 7. Support for Teachers, Administrators, and Other School Staff. The approach provides training and support both in and outside the classroom, including administrators and other staff. 8. External Technical Support and Assistance. The approach uses high-quality external support and assistance from an organization with experience or expertise in schoolwide reform and improvement. 9. Parent and Community Involvement. The approach provides for the meaningful involvement of parents and the local community in the improvement of the school. 10. Coordination of Resources. The approach identifies how other resources (federal, state, local, and private) available to the school will be aligned and used to support the school reform effort. 11. Evaluation Strategies. The approach includes a plan for evaluating its impact on student learning. • Give school leaders the data they need to identify specific school strengths and challenges. Dropout rates, attendance rates, and data on student performance are particularly useful. • Sponsor staff development activities that help school leaders, teachers, and staff members strengthen their ability to analyze research, interpret data, and draw appropriate conclusions. • Emphasize that using research-based practices is a core district value and commitment.
Decision-making process about comprehensive school reform: 1. Laying the Groundwork. You decide who will be involved in the process, what kind of outside help you need, and what sort of timeline to set. 2. Evaluating Your Current Situation. Your school takes a look at where you stand in three categories: your students' learning and accomplishments, your current school program, and the support for school improvement in your external environment. 3. Profiling. You create a profile of an ideal comprehensive school reform approach for your school. 4. Deciding. Based on your profile, you conduct research on a variety of comprehensive school reform models and make a decision about what to pursue.
Use the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory’s Self-Evaluation Tool - examine your current situation and pinpoint your highest priorities
THE ROLE OF SCHOOL LEADERS
School leaders must ensure that quality research guides any reform initiative. They must lead the process of carefully reviewing research studies to determine their validity, reliability, and fit with the needs and goals of the school.
Guidelines for School Leaders • Set a clear expectation that high-quality research will guide the school’s comprehensive school reform effort. • Understand the characteristics of high-quality research. • Seek out research that informs all aspects of the school’s comprehensive school reform efforts. • Gain more knowledge and skills in analyzing and interpreting research findings. Help teachers and school staff develop these strengths as well. • Lead the process of evaluating the strengths of comprehensive school reform models that might be adopted. • Help teachers become good consumers of research. Share information about research-based innovations in meetings, newsletters, and via e-mail.
Driving Comprehensive School Reform
A comprehensive school reform effort involves making significant changes on a number of fronts, such as classroom practices and instructional strategies, how the school is organized, school governance, and values and beliefs. This section focuses on how to design, conduct, and evaluate professional development activities by using the following guidelines:
1. Adults learn more effectively when they work as a team to solve a problem that represents a shared concern and when they are involved in planning how they will learn.
Strong, effective implementation of new practices and higher motivation on the part of those involved in using the new practices will result when professional development: • Is directed toward a job-related problem that represents a collective concern (Snyder, Brookfield) • Involves participants in planning the activities (Little, Teachers' Professional Development) • Encourages and supports collaborative approaches to solving the problem • Provides support following the initial training (Joyce, Showers, Student Achievement through Staff Development)
A planning team might ask the following questions: – What do our teachers and staff see as problems worth solving as they implement the model and our plan? – How will teachers and staff be involved in planning the professional development activities necessary? – How will teachers and staff work together in these activities?
2. Change is personal. It creates legitimate concerns for individuals and groups. The idea is to support people as they experience change rather than just supporting the change.
Everyone involved in change experiences a range of concerns (Hord, et al.). The support an individual needs varies according to the type of stress he or she is experiencing. Early in the process of learning new ways of doing things, an individual will probably need straightforward information and reassurance that he or she is not alone in feeling apprehension. Later, that same person will want opportunities to connect with others who can work with him or her in a collaborative approach to solving problems. Providing the right kinds of support costs little but pays enormous dividends
A planning team may want to verify that a plan is in place to: – Provide information about this change up-front – Help people deal with how the change will impact them personally – Provide practical answers to "how-to" questions as they arise – Determine how teachers will get feedback on how this change is impacting students – Provide opportunities for teachers to work together so the desired impact of the change is multiplied
3. Professional development can be structured in a variety of ways. Choosing the most effective structure means matching what you are trying to do with the strengths and weaknesses of the different structures or models. While the training model is the most familiar, there are at least four other good models of professional development, including: • Individually Guided • Observation/Assessment • Involvement in Curriculum Development or School Improvement Process • Inquiry Model
A planning team will ask
What are the desired outcomes of the professional development activities we are providing, and which structure is most effective in producing these types of outcomes?
The fourth guideline speaks to building a culture for continuous improvement.
4. New practices are learned most effectively when the school becomes a professional learning community where everyone is committed to learning and to supporting others in their learning—where learning is a way of life.
A professional learning community stimulates ongoing, collective inquiry into teaching and learning. It involves everyone in highly visible learning experiences. Teachers, administrators, and staff members learn from each other, with each other, and for each other. When the faculty and staff are learning together they model lifelong learning for students. Students see significant adults putting a high priority on learning. Finally, being a part of a professional learning community improves the professional lives of teachers; it legitimizes change and makes it an accepted part of school life. For additional information on professional learning communities, see the article, "Educators as Learners: Creating a Professional Learning Community in Your School," and the forward written by Roland Barth. (Note: Barth wrote only the forward; the rest of the article is a compilation from others.) Those who are planning professional development as a part of the comprehensive plan should address this question:
How will we provide adequate time for teachers and others to participate in these professional development activities?
5. Professional development activities should be scheduled when teachers are fresh, not tired. Activities should be conducted in uninterrupted blocks and balanced between school days and non-student-contact days.
Teachers cannot be expected to conduct serious collective study and reflection concerning curriculum and instructional practices only at the end of a regular school day (Raywid). The energy needed to teach today's students leaves little in reserve. Time on professional development needs to be spent in uninterrupted blocks of substantial length. Some professional development activities can be conducted during the summer, but most should occur during the school year so teachers can immediately apply what they are learning. Teachers themselves can come up with many creative, no-cost ideas for using time efficiently so that small groups of teachers are freed from other duties to work on professional development. Engaging teachers in brainstorming or problem solving activities to generate new ways of using time can be an effective strategy. For more information on finding time for professional development, see the Spring 1999 online version of the Journal of Staff Development.
6. Continual assistance will be needed to support teachers as they put the new practices in place and begin to gain skill in using them.
Providing ongoing support for professional development activities is crucial. Joyce and Showers report that without follow-up, only one teacher out of ten will be able to stick with a new strategy long enough to add it to his or her repertoire. But when coaching or some other type of continual assistance is provided, as high as 90 percent of those trained can achieve mastery of a new strategy. The planning team might ask:
What kinds of ongoing support will be available to teachers as they begin using the new practices?
A number of examples are listed below.

|Examples of Continual Assistance |
|I observed a teacher demonstrate the new strategy in his or her classroom. |
|The trainer or another "expert" was available for questions and follow-up sessions. |
|I worked with other teachers to collect and/or analyze information on how students were responding to the new strategy. |
|I collaborated with at least one other teacher in planning to use the new strategy. |
|Another teacher shared materials with me for use with this strategy. |
|A teacher gave me an idea for applying the new strategy in a new way or in a situation different from the ones used as examples in the |
|training activity. |
|A teacher gave me an idea for using materials with the new strategy in a new way or in a situation different from the ones used as |
|examples in the training activity. |
|Someone gave me encouragement and/or moral support related to my use of the new strategy. |
|Someone exerted pressure upon me to use the new strategy or to use it more effectively. |
|I engaged in problem solving related to the new strategy with other teachers. |
|Someone made me feel less anxious so I would keep trying the new strategy, even when things weren't going well. |
|Another teacher was very open in talking about his or her use of the new strategy. |
|Other teachers made me feel like we were "in this together" when it came to using the new strategy. |
|Planning and talking with other teachers about the new strategy made me think more objectively about my own use of the strategy. |
|I joined a study group to help myself and others implement this strategy. |

7. The impact of professional development on the implementation of new practices and student outcomes should be evaluated so professional development provided in the future can be made more effective.
Data on the success of an implementation is essential to deciding professional development activities. If the teachers do not use the new process or if they modify it in such a way that it is different from what was intended, then an evaluation of the impact on student outcomes will be misleading. So the first challenge is to measure implementation. This can be done by direct observation, but a less time-intensive way is through self-reporting by teachers and staff. This may be done through journals, minutes from team meetings where implementation is discussed, and collectively-developed checklists in which each aspect of the new strategies that is being used can be easily identified (Collins). On the other hand, utilizing observations provides another way to confirm or "triangulate" the self-reported data. Building in opportunities for teachers to observe each other also reinforces the idea of being a professional learning community.
The planning team might address these questions: – How will the use of the new practices be measured? What student outcomes are the new practices intended to produce? – How will these outcomes be measured? – Can we measure student outcomes (using the same assessment tools) before and after the new practices are implemented so we can see how much growth has occurred?
Some contend that schools will never change unless those within them feel a sense of urgency. These critics call for doomsday strategies that threaten the very existence of public education. But while such a struggle for survival can generate a feeling of urgency, that feeling is likely to last only until the crisis has passed. A more enduring catalyst for change is a compelling picture of what the school might become—one that projects positive images and practical alternatives that are clearly superior to the status quo. The concept of a professional learning community can provide that picture. DuFour and Eaker, 1998
The evaluation measures growth in student learning to document the impact of comprehensive school reform efforts. This requires assessing student achievement before teachers start using the new practices and measuring again with the same instruments after the new strategies have had time to make an impact (Collins, Guskey, Sparks).
For more on professional development evaluation read "Assessing and Monitoring Progress" in SERVE's Achieving Your Vision of Professional Development.
Creating a Strong Context for Change through Professional Development
Roland Barth describes a professional learning community as a place where all participants—teachers, principals, parents, and students—engage in learning and teaching. School is not a place for important people who do not need to learn and unimportant people who do. Instead, it is a place where students discover, and adults rediscover, the joys, the difficulties, and the satisfactions of learning.
As the school engages in comprehensive school reform, it will be filled with daily examples of people learning from each other, sharing what they are learning, and being excited about and participating in what others are learning. For the school's teachers, staff, and administrators, all of these learning experiences represent professional development. But what does this learning look like? Here are four diverse examples:
Example one: The most common form of learning that is driven by comprehensive school reform efforts is the implementation of new instructional strategies. Implementing new strategies involves taking what is learned through training or some other form of professional development and actually putting it into use in the classroom. The critical component of this aspect of teacher learning is continual assistance, the support teachers receive after their initial training with the new strategy. Teachers who are part of a professional learning community may form peer-coaching study teams to provide each other with the necessary support and assistance to actually begin using a new instructional strategy. This level of support helps teachers persevere through the initial stages of trying something new when their performance may be awkward or not up to their usual standards. The key characteristics of continual assistance are the following: support, clarification of new strategies through observing examples of effective use, collaboration, sharing of ideas, and encouragement.
Example two: A committee of teachers, administrators, and parents may examine different organizational patterns to find one that fits the needs and strengths of the school. Individuals would fan out to locate alternative organizational structures and bring them back to the group for review. As the group members pull together what they have found and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each organizational structure, they are demonstrating one of the key characteristics of learning community members: they are learning from each other, with each other, and for each other.
Example three: Throughout the process of comprehensive school reform, groups gather to talk about what is important to them about school reform and what they believe about schooling in general. These activities—whether their product is called a vision, a mission statement, or a set of tenets or beliefs—are a type of learning or professional development that is part of creating a professional learning community. Identifying and coming to consensus on values and beliefs represents another key characteristic of learning within a professional learning community: open dialogue on important issues and concerns.
Example four: A professional learning community exists when a group of people commit themselves to continual learning and to supporting each other in continual learning. Each of the above examples reveals some aspect of this idea that learning is a joint activity shared by all. Another feature of a professional learning community illustrated by these examples is the job-embedded nature of teacher learning. In a professional learning community, professional development is so intertwined with the day-to-day work of teachers that the distinction becomes blurred. Professional development ceases to exist as an "add-on" that occurs only on designated days of the year and becomes an integrated function of being a member of a professional learning community.

How to Create a Professional Learning Community

Because each school differs in its existing context or professional culture, it is not wise to prescribe a series of steps as "the" way to build a professional learning community. The following ideas were collected from studies and firsthand experience in school renewal and professional learning communities. They are not sequential steps to follow but rather represent a collection of ideas. • Share with teachers and others the key characteristics of a professional learning community and the benefits that can be realized through building a professional learning community. Stress how this type of professional culture makes it easier to learn new ways of teaching. Use the description of a professional learning community at the end of this section or create your own description. Ask teachers what a professional learning community might look like at your school. Use their ideas as building blocks for creating a vision of the kind of learning community they would want to join (DuFour, Eaker). • Encourage teachers to engage in discussions of the new teaching practices that make up the comprehensive school reform model being implemented. Provide opportunities for sharing ideas and time for teachers to watch each other teach. Making these sharing times a regular part of how the school operates is important. Providing a structure for these activities, such as asking teachers to respond to a set of questions or perform a specific task, will increase the effectiveness of teachers' time together. Look for ways to enable teachers to work collaboratively on planning for instruction using the new practices associated with the model. Initial efforts at collaborative planning can be structured by a sequence of questions adapted from those developed by Joyce and Showers. Invite teachers who share a subject area or grade level to work through these questions: 1. Within a specific subject or course, what do you want your students to know or be able to do by the end of the year, semester, or grading period? List those long-term goals that are the same or similar for more than one teacher in the group. What objectives will you need to accomplish during the next grading period to help your students reach your common long-term goals? 2. Which of the new instructional strategies, activities, and materials associated with the comprehensive school reform model are most appropriate for the objectives you have set for the next grading period? What will you use to teach to these objectives? 3. If teachers in the group share some of the same objectives and/or will be using similar strategies, are there ways to "divide the labor" and develop materials, activities, or assessment tools they can share with each other? • Ask teachers to develop collaboratively common assessment tools for measuring how students respond to the new practices. As teachers who teach the same subject generate common tests or performance tasks, they talk about the content, the way in which each presents that content, and how learning can best be assessed. A common assessment also allows teachers to compare how their students are learning. This can be a highly sensitive matter, so it is wise to encourage teachers to talk openly about this practice and their expectations before getting started. • Make copies of samples of student work and have a study team of teachers grade the samples independently and then compare their assessments. Teachers may want to develop a standardized rubric or other grading practices as they talk through how they approach evaluating student work. • Find ways to involve the entire faculty in making important decisions, such as selecting the focus and procedures of collective inquiry or the content of upcoming professional development activities. Deciding together what will be studied, how it will be studied, and what will be done with the results makes a strong statement of shared responsibility and commitment to one another's learning. • Reinforce leadership that emphasizes problem solving over problem hiding or assigning blame. Speak positively about efforts to experiment with new ways of teaching and new approaches to solving long-standing problems. • Encourage shared responsibility for student learning. Collaborative planning and teaming are strong methods of developing shared responsibility. • Engage in collective inquiry and collective action as a way to solve problems that arise in the implementation of the comprehensive school reform model. It is likely that teachers are working independently to solve the same problems. Provide opportunities for them to bring their concerns and questions out in the open and tackle them as a group. Then, help them share the results openly.
Also see Steps to Becoming a Professional Learning Community, Murphy, C. U. and Lick, D. W. (1998). Whole-Faculty Study Groups: A Powerful Way To Change Schools and Enhance Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Conclusion

The professional development needed to transform a whole school involves building a school culture in which everyone is involved in ongoing collective inquiry into how their school can become more effective in using new strategies and practices, and that is a challenging task. This component provides guidance on adult learning and explains how to set up and maintain a culture of continual improvement, a professional learning community.

|The following are additional links for professional development: |
|NCREL's Professional Development: Learning from the Best: A Toolkit for Schools and Districts Based on the National Awards Program for|
|Model Professional Development |
|The Knowledge Loom: What Works in Teaching and Learning, In the Spotlight·Professional Development |

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o Using Standards to Set Clear Student Goals
Long-term planning around clear student goals;
■ Lesson plan design around clear objectives;
■ Building a classroom culture focused on academic achievement;
■ Assessment of student progress; and
■ Specific literacy building approaches.

Nichols, Scheduling Reform. A Longitudinal Exploration of High School Block Scheduling Structures.(2000) This study collected and analyzed student success indicators generated by six high schools from a large, Midwestern school corporation. Schools with clear student goals and enhanced professional development opportunities made more successful transitions to block schedules. High achievers remained successful; low-achievers struggled under block scheduling.

“What is the approach that differentiates successful teachers?” They are getting a grounding in basic teaching skills like how to teach kids to read, how to plan lessons, how to plan a curriculum around clear student goals, how to assess students and such. And not only is pre-service training essential but we’ve seen the critical need for on-going professional development that is tailored to the particular context in which our core members are teaching. o Visionary Leadership and Support Within the School o Bringing the Public Back to Public Schools o Evaluating Comprehensive School Reform Initiatives o entire-school models, which give schools a framework for change affecting most or all aspects of school operations o skill- and content-based models (focusing on an areas such as reading or math) that can be used as building blocks for comprehensive school reform. o assess local needs and develop comprehensive plans that may incorporate one or more external, research-based models that provide maximum local leverage for sustained improvement in student results o Innovative Approaches to Maximizing Resources o Aligning the Components of Comprehensive School Reform o Comprehensive School Reform is a congressional initiative designed to foster coherent schoolwide improvements that cover virtually all aspects of a school’s operations, rather than fragmented approaches to reform. o Schools are required to implement program that includes these elements: ▪ Employs proven methods and strategies based on scientifically based research ▪ Integrates a comprehensive design with aligned components ▪ Provides ongoing, high-quality professional development for teachers and staff ▪ Includes measurable goals and benchmarks for student achievement ▪ Is supported within the school by teachers, admin, staff ▪ Provides for meaningful parent and community involvement in planning, implementing, and evaluating school improvement activities ▪ Uses high-quality external technical support and assistance from an external partner with experience and expertise in schoolwide reform and improvement. ▪ Plans for the evaluation of strategies for implementation of school reforms and student results achieved annually. ▪ Identifies resources to support and sustain the school’s comprehension reform effort ▪ Has been found to significantly improve the academic achievement of students or demonstrates strong evidence that it will improve academic achievement of students. – In the area of systemic school improvement, studies have been to improve the academic success of students in low-performing, high-poverty schools through system wide reform. Strategies include the implementation of research-based curricula and instruction practices; the provision of specialized training for teachers; the establishment of school-based community learning centers; and the provision of school-based substance abuse and violence prevention, intervention, and support services.

Key points to remember when writing learning goals

• Each goal should be concise, and it should be possible to observe the results of achieving it. • Each goal should be expressed as something the student might achieve - not as what the teacher will do. • The verb is crucial in stating a learning goal. Verbs such as 'understand', 'realise' and 'be aware of' should be avoided since they describe behaviour which is not observable. Vague or ambiguous verbs such as 'know' should also be avoided. For 'know' you might substitute 'define', 'list', 'apply', 'extrapolate from' or other more precise words. For the 'unobservable' words try using verbs that show how the understanding (for example) would affect the student's behaviour. • Try to keep to one learning goal per statement. This makes for clearer statements. If there is only one goal in a statement then probably the goal will be stated in a single sentence using a single verb. Sometimes two or three goals will link logically into a single statement. In this case the touchstone is clarity. The goal must be intelligible to students of the course on the first reading.

1.4 Uses data for vision-driven change. – Data-driven decision-making is about gathering data to understand if a school or district is meeting its purpose and vision. – “focused acts of improvement,” which occur when schools are clear about their purpose, about what they expect students to know, and about what they expect students to be able to do. – In data-driven districts, superintendents work side by side with other administrators, teachers, principals and parents to ensure all children achieve. – Data provide quantifiable proof, taking the emotion and rancor out of what can be tough calls for superintendents and school boards (e.g., dismantling a popular but ineffective program or closing a school). – Data also provide the substance for meaningful, ongoing dialogue within the educational community. – Data help district and school leaders craft a sound blueprint with measurable results for continuously improving schools so decisions are no longer based on incomplete or biased information. – How well are we doing? look at student achievement results – Are all students learning?” look at the general student achievement analysis to a deeper level, looking at the distribution of scores to understand which students are scoring below mastery, and how far they are scoring below mastery. – superintendents understand which instructional strategies are creating the best results and see where additional training might be needed – Determining what data to collect is based largely on first figuring out what is important to know about student performance, teacher quality, parent and community satisfaction and other issues tied to district goals. – Starting Point: o understanding what data exist o what data I can get easily elsewhere(state education department) o demographic data, such as enrollment and attendance figures. o Administer online questionnaires to students, staff and parents and set up a comprehensive database to store and analyze the data – a longitudinal analysis will show whether a reading program is sustaining its impact over time. – Disaggregating data by different student populations will show which students are excelling and which are falling behind. – Testing: o Norm-referenced tests, the most common form of educational achievement tests used, compare individual student performance with a national sample of others in the same grade. Results often are described as “students scored in the 62nd percentile,” meaning that they scored higher than 61 percent of the students who took the test (Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Stanford Achievement Test, etc.). o Criterion-referenced tests measure an individual’s performance against a well-specified set of standards. Results often are described as “62 percent of students met or exceeded the standards” (National Assessment of Educational Progress, state proficiency tests, Advanced Placement exams, etc.). o Performance tests require students to demonstrate their abilities (via portfolios, presentations, experiments, etc.). o Reacting to a single test score is perhaps the most common mistake made when interpreting data. o Longitudinal measurement — conducted consistently from year to year — is necessary to properly measure progress, growth and change. o Methods for data collection vary; many superintendents start with the question: What do I want to know and what data will help answer this question? o A district wide accountability plan provides for objective measurement of performance and holds boards, superintendents, principals, teachers, parents, students and others accountable for results. o Teachers, principals, district staff and the community should be involved in gathering, analyzing and discussing data. o Success in promoting data-driven school improvement depends on educating parents and community members about what information different data convey. o Understanding what data the community uses to measure whether schools are improving helps superintendents avoid major disconnects in communicating information with taxpayers, business leaders, parents and other community members. o The most effective strategy for listening to community concerns is a face-to-face meeting with different or multiple constituencies, such as a focus group, a community forum, a study circle or a superintendent leadership council. o Crafting a comprehensive strategic communications plan helps superintendents identify key messages, audiences, results, effective tools (e.g., web-based data charts) and timelines. o In many districts, school-based management teams — often called councils or committees — are taking up data along with the other tools they use to help make decisions for their campuses. The superintendent generally: ▪ Translates the board’s vision for the school district into measurable goals based on data. ▪ Works with district faculty, staff, parents and other community stakeholders to craft plans for meeting goals by certain dates. ▪ Collects data to show clear, steady progress. ▪ Celebrates successes, evaluates shortcomings and revises plans for improvement based on data, along with the board. The school board generally: ▪ Establishes a vision for the school district based on data showing what has been achieved so far and what progress is necessary. ▪ Spells out — for the superintendent and other employees and stakeholders how district performance will be evaluated. ▪ Reviews relevant data to evaluate district progress toward identified goals. ▪ Revises goals and plans for improvement based on data. Data-Driven Decision-Making Using a variety of data effectively, Using information to improve instructional practice, Using data to affect student performance, Relating investments, outcomes and improvement strategies

1.5 Promotes personal reflection (open to continuous review and revision through thoughtful study of one’s beliefs and practices).
Basic Overview of Typical Phases in Planning
1. Reference Overall Singular Purpose ("Mission") or Desired Result from System
During planning, planners have in mind (consciously or unconsciously) some overall purpose or result that the plan is to achieve. For example, during strategic planning, it's critical to reference the mission, or overall purpose, of the organization.
2. Take Stock Outside and Inside the System
This "taking stock" is always done to some extent, whether consciously or unconsciously. For example, during strategic planning, it's important to conduct an environmental scan. This scan usually involves considering various driving forces, or major influences, that might effect the organization.
3. Analyze the Situation
For example, during strategic planning, planners often conduct a "SWOT analysis". (SWOT is an acronym for considering the organization's strengths and weaknesses, and the opportunities and threats faced by the organization.) During this analysis, planners also can use a variety of assessments, or methods to "measure" the health of systems.
4. Establish Goals
Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall mission of the system, planners establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities, while building up weaknesses and warding off threats.
5. Establish Strategies to Reach Goals
The particular strategies (or methods to reach the goals) chosen depend on matters of affordability, practicality and efficiency.
6. Establish Objectives Along the Way to Achieving Goals
Objectives are selected to be timely and indicative of progress toward goals.
7. Associate Responsibilities and Time Lines With Each Objective
Responsibilities are assigned, including for implementation of the plan, and for achieving various goals and objectives. Ideally, deadlines are set for meeting each responsibility.
8. Write and Communicate a Plan Document
The above information is organized and written in a document which is distributed around the system.
9. Acknowledge Completion and Celebrate Success
This critical step is often ignored -- which can eventually undermine the success of many of your future planning efforts. The purpose of a plan is to address a current problem or pursue a development goal. It seems simplistic to assert that you should acknowledge if the problem was solved or the goal met. However, this step in the planning process is often ignored in lieu of moving on the next problem to solve or goal to pursue. Skipping this step can cultivate apathy and skepticism -- even cynicism -- in your organization. Don't skip this step.
Model One - “Basic” Strategic Planning
This very basic process is typically followed by organizations that are extremely small, busy, and have not done much strategic planning before. The process might be implemented in year one of the nonprofit to get a sense of how planning is conducted, and then embellished in later years with more planning phases and activities to ensure well-rounded direction for the nonprofit. Planning is usually carried out by top-level management. The basic strategic planning process includes:
1. Identify your purpose (mission statement) - This is the statement(s) that describes why your organization exists, i.e., its basic purpose. The statement should describe what client needs are intended to be met and with what services, the type of communities are sometimes mentioned. The top-level management should develop and agree on the mission statement. The statements will change somewhat over the years.
2. Select the goals your organization must reach if it is to accomplish your mission - Goals are general statements about what you need to accomplish to meet your purpose, or mission, and address major issues facing the organization.
3. Identify specific approaches or strategies that must be implemented to reach each goal - The strategies are often what change the most as the organization eventually conducts more robust strategic planning, particularly by more closely examining the external and internal environments of the organization.
4. Identify specific action plans to implement each strategy - These are the specific activities that each major function (for example, department, etc.) must undertake to ensure it’s effectively implementing each strategy. Objectives should be clearly worded to the extent that people can assess if the objectives have been met or not. Ideally, the top management develops specific committees that each have a work plan, or set of objectives.
5. Monitor and update the plan - Planners regularly reflect on the extent to which the goals are being met and whether action plans are being implemented. Perhaps the most important indicator of success of the organization is positive feedback from the organization’s customers.
Note that organizations following this planning approach may want to further conduct step 3 above to the extent that additional goals are identified to further developing the central operations or administration of the organization, e.g., strengthen financial management.
Developing a Mission Statement - overall purpose of the organization
Developing a Vision Statement - culture-specific description of the state and function of the organization
Developing a Values Statement – beliefs
Basics of Identifying Strategic Issues and Goals
Basics of Action Planning (who, when)
Writing and Communicating the Plan
Basics of Monitoring, Evaluating and Deviating from Plan

Strategic Planning Process

• Where are we? • What do we have to work with? • Where do we want to be? • How do we get there?

Probe existing or perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Threats and Opportunities.
Data-driven decision making: • Module 1: Where are we? • Module 2: Where do we want to go? • Module 3: How fast are we moving and in what direction? • Module 4: Are we leaving anyone behind?
1.6 Uses fundamental principles of interpersonal communication, consensus building, conflict resolution, and organization change.

Five basic principles

• Be hard on the problem and soft on the person • Focus on needs, not positions • Emphasise common ground • Be inventive about options • Make clear agreements
Respond not React
Re-focus on the issue

Effective Schools Work to Build the School as the Center of the Communities in Partnerships with Families:

|Parent Involvement |Parents view schools as a setting that invites them to volunteer, become life-long |
| |learners, and be vital partners in the education of their children. |
|LSC Involvement |LSC members and school staff engage in a planned and structured manner that enables |
| |their children and students to meet high educational expectations. |
|School-Community |Effective local partnerships with businesses, interfaith organizations, universities, |
|Partnerships |city agencies, not-for-profits, and health care providers are formed to leverage all |
| |available resources to enhance academic, technological, physical and behavioral well |
| |being of the school community. |
|Community Schools |Schools and all aspects of the community come together with a comprehensive strategy to |
| |develop Community Schools that are open to families and community members beyond the |
| |schools' day to promote learning, recreation, and wellness. |
|Community-Wide |All community and public agencies that serve students make academic support a core |
|Educational Strategies |focus. Community agencies use the district's literacy and mathematics frameworks and |
| |work to align to cohesion and articulation in their learning experiences. |

Standard 2: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school/division culture and instructional program conducive to student learning and staff professional growth. The effective administrator:

2.1 Identifies and codifies varied instructional strategies.

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PlasmaLink Web Services provides the Glossary of Instructional Strategies as a resource for all educators. http://glossary.plasmalink.com/glossary.html Current number of strategies and methods: 880
Last updated: 12 February, 2004
©1996-2004 PlasmaLink Web Services
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10 + 2 (Ten Plus Two) Direct instruction variation where the teacher presents for ten minutes, students share and reflect for two minutes, then the cycle repeats.
1st TRIP (First TRIP) A reading strategy consisting of: Title, Relationships, Intent of questions, Put in perspective.
3-2-1 (Three-Two-One) Writing activity where students write: 3 key terms from what they have just learned, 2 ideas they would like to learn more about, and 1 concept or skill they think they have mastered.
5 + 1 (Five Plus One) Direct instruction variation where the teacher presents for five minutes, students share and reflect for one minute, then the cycle repeats.
A-B-C Summarize A form of review in which each student in a class is assigned a different letter of the alphabet and they must select a word starting with that letter that is related to the topic being studied.
Absentee Management In addition to recording and reporting student absences according to their particular school's rules, teachers can also employ strategies designed to encourage students to attend class regularly. One approach is to call parents during the evening as soon as the student misses a day of school. This call can also be used to allow the teacher to get to know the parents better and to collect information to be used in the preparation of make-up materials for the child.
Abstracting
A thinking skill that involves summarizing and converting real-world events or ideas into models.
Academic Dishonesty Clarification Any activities through which the teacher explains to the student what constitutes academic dishonesty for a particular class. Clarification is necessary because different forms of collaboration are allowed in different classes and for different activities and different levels of "copying" from sources are allowed in different classes and at different grade levels.
Accelerated Reading A commercially produced reading program that includes quizzes administered via computer and student selection of books. Accelerated Reader
Acronym Memory Method Example: ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet Enhancing School Success with Mnemonic Strategies
Acting Out a Problem Students can act out mathematical, scientific, or social problems to improve their comprehension. Kinesthesis in Science: Where Red Rover Meets Quantum Mechanics
Action Projects A project where ideas learned through research are tested and applied in a real- world situation. ERIC as a Resource for the Teacher Researcher. ERIC Digest Action Research - NCREL Action Research and Standards of Practice for the Teaching Profession: Making Connections - Fran Squire Action Research in Language Teacher Education - C. Thorne and W. Qiang
Activating Prior Knowledge Helping learners connect to concepts about to be taught by using activities that relate to or determine the level of their existing knowledge.
Active Learning Any approach that engages learners by matching instruction to the learner's interests, understanding, and developmental level. Often includes hands-on and authentic activities.
Adaptive Learning Environments Model (ALEM) Combination of individual and whole class approach which helps to integrate students with special needs into the classroom. Adaptive Learning (ALEM)
Adaptive Scheduling No one wants to take a test the morning after prom night or the big football game. When scheduling exams, ask students for suggestions about what would be good days and what days are already full with other activities. Some schools keep three month calendars in the office to let teachers know in advance when "big" activities are coming up and to allow adaptive scheduling of tests and activities.
Admit Slips/Exit Slips Teacher helps in the synthesis of learning by reading anonymous student writings aloud to begin or end a class. Admit/Exit Slips
Advance Organizer David Ausubel's guidelines for an abstract introduction. Designed to activate prior knowledge and help students become more receptive to the learning that is to follow. David Ausubel: Advance Organizers
Affinity
A brainstorming approach that encourages less verbal members of a group to participate. First, all members of the group write responses to the problem or question on separate cards, then the cards are silently grouped by each member while the others observe. After a discussion, the agreed upon arrangement is recorded as an outline or diagram. Affinity
Affirmations
Technique for motivating students by helping them believe they can "do things." Introduction to Affirmations
AGO (Aims, Goals, Objectives) Edward de Bono's strategy to help students analyze the reasons behind actions. AGO - behavior analysis form (PDF)
Agree/Disagree Matrix A formal approach to discussing and researching issues. Students are polled for agreement or disagreement with a statement and their responses as a group are recorded in the matrix. Students research the topic, and again their responses are recorded. Finally, small groups to meet to to discuss the results and changes. Agree/Disagree Matrix (PDF)
Agreement Circles Used to explore opinions. As students stand in a circle, facing each other, the teacher makes a statement. Students who agree with the statement step into the circle.
Aims, Goals, Objectives (AGO) Edward de Bono's strategy to help students analyze the reasons behind actions. AGO - behavior analysis form (PDF)
Air Drawing Students draw or motion in the air to demonstrate how they will carry out a procedure before they actually do so. Used in science labs, home economics, and classes where students use tools or musical instruments.
ALEM (Adaptive Learning Environments Model) Combination of individual and whole class approach which helps to integrate students with special needs into the classroom. Adaptive Learning (ALEM)
Alphabet Summary Each student is assigned a different letter of the alphabet and asked to generate a word starting with that letter that is related to the topic being discussed. Students share their terms with the class.
Alphabetic Foods Teams Brainstorm the names of 26 foods (apple, bread, etc.). A paper is passed within the group and individuals write appropriate names in alphabetical order. Can be adapted to other categories (authors, cities, etc.).
Alternative Assessments Any of a variety of assessments that allow teachers to evaluate their students' understanding or performance. Examples include: performance assessments, portfolios, journals, and authentic assessments. Alternative Assessment - NCREL
Alternative to Recitation Similar to recitation, but the questions are generated by the students. Usually included : preparation (students read and generate questions), review, quiz, and evaluation.
Analogies
A thinking skill demonstrated by a student when he or she can give examples similar to, but not identical to a target example. For example, the Internet is analogous to the post office (because in both, multimedia information is delivered to specific addresses). Analogy Graphic Organizer
Analyzing Perspectives A thinking skill that involves considering a problem or topic from various perspectives. Related to "Point of View."
Anchored Instruction A form of constructivism where learning is tied to the students' real world "anchors" (such as social or work experiences). Anchored Instruction - John Bransford & the CTGV
Andragogy
Instructional theory by Malcolm S. Knowles dealing with the psychology and special needs of adult learners. Malcolm Shepherd Knowles, 1913 - 1997 Andragogy (M. Knowles)
Anecdotes
A motivational technique to encourage creativity or empathy students. Anecdotes can be about the teacher's life or excerpted from biographies to help students make real-world connections.
Anticipation Guide Checklist written by teacher to activate existing knowledge. Examples of Anticipation Guides Anticipation Guides
Application Cards At the end of instruction, students write a real world application for the knowledge on a small card and submit the card to the teacher.
Application Teaching A constructivist approach centered on activities which involve learning which proceeds from more basic ideas to more complex. The expected products generated by the students are determined by the teacher.
Applied Behavior Analysis For purpose of modifying student or class behaviors Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Imagination Technique to stimulate creativity. Includes the use of questions as prompts to enable people to consider many, apparently unrelated, options. Question Summary: "Applied Imagination" - Osborn
Apprenticeships
Students work in the workplace under the guidance of mentors or tutors who take responsibility for the professional development of their apprentices. Youth Apprenticeship Youth Apprenticeship
Argument Paper Type of writing which presents a thesis, then supports that thesis with evidence or proof. Writing an Argument Paper
Argument Table A table used to organize logical statements. Used in teaching logic in geometry and in expository writing classes. Sample Argument Table - Jim Burke
Artifact Strategy The teacher presents carefully selected objects (artifacts) to the students, poses a problem, and allows students to collect information about the object, then formulate answers to the presented problem. Artefact Strategy
Assemblies
Meetings of large groups, typically an entire student body, for the purpose of describing future events, sharing values, and recognizing achievement.
Associations
Finding or making association between concepts.
Assumption Smashing List assumptions, then eliminate one. What might happen? (for example, "All forms of transportation are now free." What is the effect on society?) Creativity Techniques - Assumption Smashing
Attributes
Listing attributes of concepts. Creativity Techniques - Attribute Listing
Audio Tapes Educational audio tapes are most often used in language and music classes, but are also useful in social studies, physical education, and in building vocabulary in many fields.
Audio-visuals
Includes many categories of educational materials including: posters, paintings, slides, videos, films, audio tapes, and videotapes.
Authentic Instruction Instruction which is meaningful to students. Focuses on higher order thinking, depth of knowledge, real-world applications, and social interactions. Authentic Learning and Visual Art
Authentic Questions Questions generated by learners in response to natural curiosity about the content. Questions spontaneously asked by learners without prompting by teachers.
Author's Chair Students sit in a chair at the front of the class and present their work to the class.
Autobiographies
Students can write their life stories as a writing activity, or explore the lives of prominent people by reading published autobiographies. Biographies and Autobiographies: Life Models in the Classroom
Awards
Any tangible object given to students to reward positive behavior or achievement. May include certificates, plaques, trophies, or ribbons. Awards and Certificates
Bag-It
Game using manipulatives to reinforce mnemonic approach. Bag It: A rapid-fire game
Baggage Claim Members in a new group are asked to write five interesting facts about themselves on a note card. For several minutes, people walk around the room, introducing themselves and sharing the facts on their cards. They then exchange cards (baggage) and move on to introduce themselves to others in the group. When time is up, the teacher or moderator collects all the cards and either returns them to their owners, or reads the facts and asks people to identify the owner of the card (baggage). Baggage Claim - "first day" activity (PDF)
Basadur Simplex A problem-solving strategy. Steps include: problem finding, fact finding, problem defining, idea finding, evaluating and selecting, action planning, gaining acceptance, taking action. Mind Tools - Simplex - A Powerful Integrated Problem-Solving Process
Be Here Now David B. Ellis's method for focusing student attention when it begins to wander from the task at hand. Be Here Now!
Before, During, and After A metacognitive approach to reading that guides students to explore text Before reading to activate prior knowledge, monitor comprehension During reading, and summarize the reading After reading. Before, During, and After - NCREL
Behaviorist Models Based on the philosophy that learning is a change in behavior. Student behaviors which are rewarded will be repeated. Behaviors which are punished or ignored will decrease. Model stresses the importance of the environment in learning and treats the student's mind as an unknowable "black box." Behaviorism
Biopoems
Poems written by students about any specific person or object (character in book, living or inanimate objects). To summarize student knowledge of topic. Biopoem handout (PDF)
Bloom's Taxonomy An approach to ranking learning by the sophistication or depth of learning required or accomplished. Activities at Various Cognitive Levels of Learning (LoL) Bloom's Taxonomy Applying Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy
Book Box Boxes of books, kept in the classroom, to be explored by students at their own pace.
Book Club Groups who meet to discuss books. Book Clubs - Guides to Get You Started
Book Ends Pairs of students discuss and make predictions before an activity, then meet after the activity to review and compare reactions.
Book Reports A factual, written summary of a book. Writing a Book Report Writing a Book Report - First Steps
Books on Tape Audio tapes of books that have been read aloud.
Brain Lateralization Because different hemispheres of the brain perform different functions, individual's learning styles and preferences are related to the functioning and dominance of the different halves (hemispheres) of their brains. Instruction can be adapted to fit variation in individual's brain preferences. Right Brain vs. Left Brain Whole Brain Teaching Right Brain/Left Brain Left Brain vs. Right Brain -- Which Side Are You On? (lesson plan)
Brain-based Learning An instructional model based on the idea that instructional activities are more effective if they occur in an environment compatible with the way the brain is designed to learn. Brain-based Learning Brain-Based (Compatible) Learning
Brainstorming
Group process where all ideas are accepted and recorded. Mind Tools - Brainstorming Brainstorming BRAINSTORMING
Brochure
Students research a topic then create a brochure to explain the topic to others.
Buddy Program Students are typically paired with a slightly older child for most of the year. The buddies meet once every week or two to work together on reading or spelling. The younger children benefit from individualized attention and the older children benefit by being able to act as a role model. Teaching recently learned skills reinforces and strengthens those skills, so the older children in such programs typically show as much improvement as their younger buddies. Literacy program a boon for budding young readers Reading Buddies
Buddy System Pairing students during the first week of class to create pairs who are responsible to help each other get missing assignments due to absence, or watch out for each other during field trips.
Budget Preparation Students research and prepare budgets to understand costs and values. PET PROTECTION KIT for GRADES 4-5
Bulletin Boards Boards or wall space where information or materials can be posted to inform, excite, guide, or motivate students. Bulletin Board Ideas and Links Appealing Bulletin Board Ideas for Secondary Students
Business
Teachers and programs can guide students in beginning a small business. The Pie Shop - How to become an entrepreneur. Start Your Own Business
Buzz Sessions Small, informal group discussions.
C-4 Yourself Collaborative project strategy with four components: challenge, choice, collaboration, and creation. TRANSFORMING GRAND CONVERSATIONS INTO GRAND CREATIONS (C-4 Yourself lesson plan)
C-SOOPS
Acronym is useful to help students remember which aspects of their writing they should check when editing. C-SOOPS stands for: Capitalization, Sentence structure, Organization, Overall format, Punctuation
CAF (Consider All Factors) Edward de Bono's guided approach to decision-making that encourages individuals or groups to increase the number of factors or variables they consider before making a decision. Consider All Factors - decision-making form (PDF)
CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) Students learn at own pace with interactive computer programs. Computer-Assisted Instruction
Calculator
For use in computation, or for demonstrating skill with the calculator.
Capitalization/Organization/Punctuation/Spelling (COPS) Acronym is useful to help students remember which aspects of their writing they should check when editing.
Capsule Vocabulary A teaching strategy to explore a few vocabulary words related to a specific topic. Capsule Vocabulary
Career Exploration Activities, guides, and counseling to assist students make decisions about choosing their future professions, and how to get jobs in their chosen fields. The Online Job Search...
Carolina Teams Improvement Scoring method where students receive bonus points for exceeding their individual target and team bonus points if their team's combined score exceeded their team's target.
Carousel
Collaborative problem-solving using teams of three students.
Carousel Brainstorming Subtopics or questions about a topic are posted throughout the room. Student groups brainstorm as they visit each of the subtopics. Carousel Brainstorming CAROUSEL BRAINSTORMING CAROUSEL BRAINSTORMING
Cartoons
Reading or creating cartoons. Editorial Cartoons in the Classroom Cartooning and Creativity
Cascade
Cooperative analysis of short, but critical, passages of text or graphics.
Case Studies Case studies are real life problems that have arisen in the workplace that students must solve. Can also be used to explore interpersonal relationships. Case Studies Method: Not Just for Business Schools Anymore Case Method/Studies
Categorization
Thinking skill that allows students to sort objects or concepts into categories according to a variety of criteria.
Cause and Effect A pattern showing the relationship between two actions or occurrences. Teaching Cause and Effect Cause-and-Effect Writing Challenges Students
Celebrations
Classroom and school-based celebrations provide an opportunity to teach students more about their own cultures and that of their classmates. Multicultural Calendar 2003
Chant
Rhythmic text, repeated orally by individuals or a group to improve recall. Songs for Teaching - Cheers, Chants, Raps, and Poetry
Character Analysis Character analysis in education has two meanings. The most commonly used is to describe activities designed to help students understand characters in their fictional reading. The second meaning is analysis of the student's own character with regard to ethics and values. Character Analysis: The Search for Self
Character Education Activities designed to develop character, compassion, ethics, and responsibility in youth. Character Education The Character Education Partnership (CEP) Character Education - Free Resources
Characterization
In critical thinking, characterization a form of analysis of critical features of an object or concept. In writing, characterization is the creation of believable fictional characters. Characterization Unit
Cheat Notes Summarization technique. Students prepare a single note card of information they believe will be on test. Students are allowed to bring these notes to test. As students gain confidence, withdraw use of cards during test.
Checklist
Checklists can be used to satisfy many objectives. They are useful as a memory tool or in encouraging creativity. They can also be used directly as assessments, or as a review tool in preparing for assessments. Checklists - A Creativity Technique Self-Assessment with Essay Question/Assignment (PDF) Student Writing Checklist (elementary, printable)
Choice Theory Glasser's updated Control Theory. Choice Theory - AKA Control Theory
Choral Response In response to a cue, all students in the group respond verbally at the same time. The response can be either to answer a question, or to repeat something the teacher has said. Often used in learning languages and in repeating of computational facts.
Chronological Sequencing An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners in chronological order. Compare to: General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Chunking
A memorization technique. Five Simple Techniques to Improve Your Memory
Chunking
A writing technique. Chunking Example
CIRC (Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition) A cooperative approach to reading in which students work in pairs for practice and to prepare for assessments. Teacher-administered assessments are not taken until the student's teammates decide they are ready for the assessment. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) - Reading
Circles of Knowledge Graphic organizer that prompts students to write: 3 Facts I Know, 3 Questions I Want Answered, and Answers to My Questions. Student Activity Sheet: Circles of Knowledge Student Activity Sheet: Circles of Knowledge
Circles of Learning Cooperative learning method devised by Roger and David Johnson which combines whole class learning plus heterogeneous small groups. An extension of Johnson and Johnson's "Learning Together." Comprises eighteen steps designed to guide teachers through the team building and managing process.
Clapping
Can be used as a signal BY the teacher or as a response FROM student to signal attention.
Clarifying Table Graphic organizer to help students connect the current concept to related concepts or examples. The Clarifying Table (completed) Clarifying Table (blank)
Class Meetings When students are allowed to contribute to the operation of the classroom through class meetings, they have the opportunity to learn responsibility and decision-making skills. Class Meetings
Class Publication Students collaborate to create a written work to be published. Formats might include: magazine, newspaper, brochure, map, newsletter, or yearbook. Creating Class Publications
Classification
When objects or concepts are classified, they are grouped with other, similar things, and the group is given a label. As a thinking skill, classification requires the application of knowledge. When students invent their own classifications, they practice discovery and invention along with being able to apply prior knowledge about the objects or concepts being classified. Animal Classification Lesson Plan CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES -Grade 6 - Classification Module 2. Classifying Principles for Learning Concept Classification
Clean Up Song To signal to students that it is time to begin cleaning up for the day, start a song for them to listen to while they clean up. Clean Up Song
Closure
Any activities which help students summarize key points learned and how the new knowledge relates to the objectives to be learned. Anticipatory Set and Closure Typical Teaching Outline
Cloze Procedure An activity created by the teacher to give students practice with language usage. The teacher selects a passage of text, marks out some of the words, then rewrites the text with blank lines where the marked out words were. The result is a "fill in the blank" that should be enjoyable for the student while at the same time giving the teacher information about the student's language skills. CLOZE Procedure -- Example (Step 1)
Clubs
4-H, Chess, Science, etc. National 4-H Headquarters Official Web Site of Girl Scouts of the USA (Official Web Site of Girl Scouts of the USA) Boy Scouts of America (BSA) National Council - Official Site After-School Science Clubs Exeter Chess Club Coaching Page
Clue
Group problem-solving with each team member given a different clue. Animal Clue Game
Clustering
Graphic way of organizing concepts proposed during brainstorming. Similar to concept-mapping. Clustering (graphic organizer)
Co-op Co-op Cooperative learning method where teams work to prepare and present a topic to the whole class. Emphasis is on student selection (of topics, partners, division of labor, methods of presentation, etc.). An Introduction to Collaborative Learning (ten steps of Co-op Co-op in the middle of the article)
Coaching Model A model of instruction where the teacher is a guide and collaborator in the student's learning, not the sole director. Cognitive Coaching Modeling / Coaching / Scaffolding
Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive apprenticeships take many forms, but the two key components are social interactions to allow students to work on problems that may be too difficult for them to handle individually, and a focus on real world problems using real-world tools. Cognitive Apprenticeship A Cognitive Apprenticeship Approach to Literacy (PDF)
Cognitive Dissonance Leon Festinger proposed this model to explain why people change their beliefs when two or more of their beliefs are in conflict with each other. Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Learning Models Based on the philosophy that learning occurs when there are changes in mental structure. Learning occurs as the result of interactions between the learner and the environment.
Cognitive Map The psychological definition of a cognitive map is the framework in the human mind through which we interpret objects, events, and concepts. The phrase "cognitive mapping" has also been used to describe concept maps. COGNITIVE MAPPING
Collaborative Learning Any kind of work that involves two or more students. Differences Between Collaborative and Cooperative Learning
Collages
Students gather images (clippings from magazines, photographs, or their own drawings) and organize them to illustrate a concept or point of view. Collages
Collections
Could be after class student project or could be classification of classroom collection (books or plants, for example).
Color Coding Labeling learning materials or concepts with color tags to assist identifying objects or ideas that belong together.
Comic Books Useful for engaging visual learners and encouraging a wide variety of students to become involved in discussions of literature and the wide range of social, scientific, and historical topics covered in comic books. How Comic Books Can Change the Way Our Students See Literature: One Teacher's Perspective (PDF)
Committees
Volunteering to work on a student committee can teach students about values, decision making, interpersonal skills, and help them make important connections to the community at large.
Community Work Student as volunteer. Students gain self-esteem and valuable experience through volunteer work. Service Learning
Comparing
To observe or consider the characteristics of objects or concepts, looking for both similarities and differences. Comparing and Contrasting (PDF) Module 1. Comparing
Comparison Matrix A graphic organizer that can assist students in gathering information and comparing objects or concepts. Comparison Matrix
Competitions
Competitions can be useful in motivating some student to learn. Team competitions especially effective in the classroom if they are tied to a collaborative practice or review activity before the competition. Organizing Quiz Team Competitions
Completed Work Chart Make and publicly post a chart that lists all assignments along the top and students' names vertically along the left.. When a student finishes an assignment, the teacher marks out the box for that assignment on the chart so students can quickly see if they are missing any work. In this approach, grades are never publicly posted, and if work is so late it will no longer be accepted, the box is also marked out. The chart is used only as a reporting mechanism to let students know about work they need to do that will still be accepted for credit.
Component Display Theory David Merrill's highly structured approach to designing instruction. Component Display Theory Component Display Theory
Compositions
A written work by a student to demonstrate some literary or linguistic knowledge. Also, any type of music written by a student. Teaching Composition: A Position Statement Teaching Composition Examples of Student Compositions and Online Mentoring Discussions (Music)
Computer Games Educational computer games can be purchased for students to use to review or explore concepts. Student can also design and create educational computer games to share with fellow students. Constructivism at Work through Play (Kids Designing Computer Games)
Computer Simulations Simulating events or situations on a computer enables students to experiment with concepts or materials quickly and safely. The use of computer simulations in General Chemistry
Computer Software Design Students design and create computer programs to learn more about writing, syntax, logic, design, and technology. RoboLab (Learn Programming Through the Use of Robotics)
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Students learn at own pace with interactive computer programs. Computer-Assisted Instruction
Computing
Finding solutions to problems involving numbers by carrying out the indicated operations. Computation and Picture Books
Concentration
Pairs of cards are created (name of concept on one, description on other for instance). Students take turns. On each turn student chooses 2 cards from face- down arrangement. Students keep pairs which they correctly identify as matching.
Concept Attainment Model Inductive model of instruction where student are presented with examples and non-examples of a concept. Students generate hypotheses and attempt to describe (and sometimes name) the concept. Concept Attainment Concept Attainment
Concept Cards Cards created by students that link terms to the use of that term in context. Instructional Reading Strategy: Concept Cards
Concept Circles Challenge students to either name the concept or complete the missing section(s) of the circle. Concept = colors CONCEPT CIRCLES
Concept Development Model Inductive teaching model. Concepts are taught using the sequence: list items, group items, label, regroup, synthesize, and evaluate (can students generate and group on their own?)
Concept Folders Key concepts for course are each assigned a folder. Examples or illustrations of the concepts are kept in the folder for students to explore.
Concept Formation The process by which we learn to identify concepts and which instances are examples of that concept. Concept Formation
Concept Map Any of several forms of graphical organizers which allows learners to perceive relationships between concepts through diagramming keywords representing those concepts. Originally developed by Joseph Novak in the 1960's. Concept Mapping as a Mindtool for Critical Thinking (PDF) The Projectile Launch Project - Concept Maps Assignment An Introduction to Concept Mapping for Planning and Evaluation
Concept Matrix A two-dimensional approach to organizing information to solve problems or make connections between concepts. The Concept Matrix
Concept of Definition Students construct organizing maps to explore meanings or definitions of words. Concept of Definition Map
Conceptual Change Model Constructivist approach which involves identifying and clarifying student misconceptions, then using an activity to challenge these misconceptions.
Conclusions
A logical process in which students analyze facts and generate new facts based on what is known. For example: It is a dry, sunny day. The neighbors are watering their yard using a sprinkler. Our dog is leaving wet footprints on the porch. Conclusion, our dog has been in our neighbor's yard, running through the sprinkler.
Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne's theory explaining the different types of learning and proposing that they require different types of teaching. Conditions of Learning Conditions of Learning
Conferences
Conferences are face-to-face discussions. Conferences may occur between teachers and students to enable teachers to give individual guidance, or they may be meetings between parents, teachers, and (sometimes) the student for the purpose of discussing the student's progress and issues relating to how to improve the educational experience for the student. Student-Led Conferences: A Growing Trend Portfolio Practice (student-teacher conferences) Parent-Teacher Conferences: Five Important Questions
Conflict Chart Conflict charts are used in three areas of education. Most commonly, they are used as a graphical tool to help students understand the motivation of real people or fictional characters, but they are also used as a tool to insure that students are scheduled for exactly one class per period with no "conflicts," and finally, they are used as a social and behavior management tool to analyze interpersonal conflicts. CONFLICT CHART - WAY TO UNDERSTANDING THEME SHORT STORIES : THE PUZZLE PIECES OF LIFE - Appendix B
Conflict Mediation Mediation involves discussions in the presence of a mediator who is trained to help individuals find solutions to their differences. Conflict Mediation
Connectionism
Edward L. Thorndike's behavioral theory that learning occurs as the result of connections made in the mind between stimuli and responses. Edward L. Thorndike Connectionism
Consequence and Sequel Edward de Bono's guided approach that allows groups to explore both short term and long term effects of actions. Consequence and Sequel - analysis form (PDF)
Consider All Factors (CAF) Edward de Bono's guided approach to decision-making that encourages individuals or groups to increase the number of factors or variables they consider before making a decision. Consider All Factors - decision-making form (PDF)
Construction Spiral A three-step process: individuals record their own thoughts, then small groups share ideas, finally, the whole group's ideas are written on the board. Corrections during the recording should be by the group and with no judgments by the teacher. If refinement of understanding is needed, a new question is posed.
Constructions
Geometric constructions involve the copying or manipulation of geometric shapes using only a straightedge and a compass. Constructions Defining Terms - Geometry
Constructivist Models Based on the philosophy that knowledge cannot be transferred from the teacher to the student but must be constructed by each individual. Connections must be made between the student's existing conceptual network and the new material to be learned. Characteristics of Constructivist Learning & Teaching - Elizabeth Murphy Constructivist Learning Model - Yager Constructivism
Context Clues When students encounter unfamiliar words, those words usually exist in an environment that includes many clues to word meanings. Meaning can be deduced or guessed by analyzing the context (the environment around the word). Context Clues Chapter 3: Guessing Word Meaning by Using Context Clues
Contextual Model Based on philosophy that culture and other environmental contexts must also be considered in teaching child.
Continuum
Students take keywords and arrange them to form a continuum based on a variety of criteria. For example, "beaver, rattlesnake, deer, plankton" would be arranged as "rattlesnake, deer, beaver, plankton" if asked to arrange according to their preference for water, and "plankton, rattlesnake, beaver, deer" if asked to arrange according to size. Continuum (graphic organizer)
Contracts
Contracts are formal agreements between individuals or entities. For a contract to be effective or valid, usually some action is performed by one party of the contract and in exchange the party performing the action gets something of value in return. In a school setting, the student typically performs the "service" of behaving in a desirable way, and if successful, the student is rewarded. Contracts
Contrasting
Exploring or describing differences between objects or concepts. Comparing and Contrasting (PDF)
Control Theory Glasser's theory explaining that, in an attempt to satisfy basic needs for survival, belonging, power, freedom, and fun, people will act to control their behavior to satisfy those needs. Control theory is related to Choice Theory. Control Theory Control Theory; A New Explanation of How We Control Our Lives
Cooking
Hands-on activity that helps students make connections between the math, reading, and science they do in the classroom and a real-world application that most people do daily. Cooking in the Classroom (PDF)
Cooperative Conflict Resolution Cooperative approach to learning about how to prepare arguments and discuss arguments. Cooperative Conflict Resolution
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) A cooperative approach to reading in which students work in pairs for practice and to prepare for assessments. Teacher-administered assessments are not taken until the student's teammates decide they are ready for the assessment. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) - Reading
Cooperative Learning Model In this approach, students share knowledge with other students through a variety of structures. Cooperative Learning, as a phrase, originated in the 1960's with the work of David and Roger Johnson. True cooperative learning includes five essential elements: positive interdependence, face-to-face interactions, individual accountability, some structured activity, and team-building (group processing) skills. Similar to the "Social Learning Model." What Is the Collaborative Classroom? Cooperative Learning - Huitt Cooperative Learning Strategies and Children. ERIC Digest. Cooperative Learning - Houghton Mifflin What is collaborative learning?
Cooperative Review Groups take turns asking other groups questions. Often conducted as a game where points are awarded. Some Examples of Methods for Cooperative Learning in the Classroom
COPS (Capitalization/Organization/Punctuation/Spelling) Acronym is useful to help students remember which aspects of their writing they should check when editing.
Copying
Reproducing drawings, text, motions, etc. Used to encourage students to look more carefully at something.
Corners
Students are asked to select (by standing next to their choice)from four options which are posted in the corners of the room. Students then defend choices and listen to others' choices.
Creative Thinking Reading Teams of students work together to solve assigned problems using text provided by the teacher.
Criterion-referenced Assessment Performance is compared to a set standard or objective. It is possible for all students to earn the highest possible grade if all meet the established criteria for that grade. (compare to Norm- referenced assessment) Criterion-Referenced
Critical Instances Critical thinking is a process whereby the learner considers a variety of possibilities, then chooses from those possibilities using unbiased, rational thinking. Resources for Teaching Critical Thinking Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking. ERIC/AE Digest. What is Critical Thinking?
Criticizing
A thinking skill involving judging or analyzing. Critical Thinking - Section 3 - Criticizing an Argument
Cross-Age Tutoring Older students act as tutors to younger students. Often carried out in the form of a "buddy" program where all the fourth graders in a school may have a first grade "reading buddy" with whom they work. The Literacy Club: A Cross-age Tutoring/Paired Reading Project
Cross-Checking
Using multiple sources of information.
Cross-Pollination
Have students share ideas during investigation of problems.
CROWN
A closure technique that encourages students to reflect on the completed lesson. CROWN = Communicate what you learned. Reaction. Offer one sentence that sums up what the whole lesson was about. Where are some different places you could use this? Note how well we did today.
Cubing
A six-part technique to explore different aspects of a topic. The six parts include: describing, comparing, associating, analyzing, applying, arguing. Cubing WRITING APPROACHES OR STRATEGIES - Cubing
Cueing
Various means used by the teacher to let students know that particular material is important.
Cumulative Cases A structured preschool program based on a series of thematic units Curiosity Corner
Cumulative Final A cumulative final exam is an assessment for which the students are expected to know all concepts taught during the course. Some instructors have a policy of passing any student who can pass a cumulative final exam. The advantage to this approach is that students have a chance to pass up until the very end of the course. The disadvantage to this is some students will not do classwork because they can survive the course by taking a single test.
Current Events Discussion or student work centered on events in recent news. Why Teach Current Events?
Daily Message Early in the day, the Principal or Vice Principal start the day by addressing students. These short speeches are typically on such themes as "respect," handling peer pressure," or "being kind to others." GHS Students Get a Daily Message via Project Wisdom
Daily Outline By posting a written overview of what will be done during the day, students can be prepared in advance. These overviews typically include a list of any work that should be done by the beginning of class, a list of work that will be done during the day, a list of work to be done as homework, and a brief description of the concepts to be covered and the resources needed (books, handouts, tools, and so on).
Dance
Dance can be used to teach coordination and discipline. Dancing in groups encourages students to become more observant and strengthens social bonds. Memorization of lengthy dance routines and the music associated with them stimulates parts of the brain involved with creativity. When is the right time to enroll your child in (dance) class?
Data Analysis Having students gather and analyze data can connect them to real-world problems and also improve their critical thinking skills. Collecting and Analyzing Data - The Soda Survey
Data Gathering Students collect information in an organized way for use in statistical analysis, scientific research, or as support for arguments in social studies or other fields. How to Collect Data Student Generated Data
Days
Special days during the school year when all activities center around a theme. Pi Day LOWER SCHOOL GRANDPARENTS' DAY Ten Great Activities for Grandparents Day
Debates
Debates are arguments carried out according to agreed upon rules and used in the classroom to engage students and help them make connections to the curriculum. Rules of Engagement for Classroom Debates (PDF) Great Debates (PDF)
Debriefing
A form of reflection immediately following an activity. DEBRIEFING SIMULATIONS ...a generic guide to uncovering the dynamics of a system.
Decision Making Helping students learn to make better decisions improves their problem-solving skills and helps students be more effective in confronting choices outside the classroom. Decision Theory and Decision Trees Improving Students' Decision Making Skills
Decision-Making Matrix Method for assigning numerical values to criteria, and the extent to which alternatives satisfy criteria.
Decision-Making Tasks A Meaningful Use Task where students identify criteria and alternatives then reevaluate the alternatives to make a decision.
Deduction
Starting with general ideas and moving to more specific ideas within a topic. (compare to induction) Deductive and Inductive Thinking
Deductive Inquiry A form of inquiry with four basic components: presentation of a generalization, discussion of core elements of the generalization, student exploration of the elements, student generation of relevant examples of the generalized concept. Deductive Inquiry
DEFENDS
A writing strategy by Edwin S. Ellis. DEFENDS: A Writing Strategy
Defining
Any activity that requires students or teachers to state the meaning of a word or phrase. Making Definitions in the Classroom
Deliberations
Ask students to support one point of view on topic, then take and support opposing point of view. Then write position paper. Deliberations - An Academic Challenge Teaching Strategy
Demonstrations
An activity to show students how things work or how they happen. Demonstrations are often used in science classes. Chemical Demonstrations in the Classroom
Descriptions
Telling about something. When done by teachers, descriptions are usually used to introduce new information. When done by students, descriptions are used to demonstrate knowledge of a concept. Descriptive Techniques for Writing
Design Contests In addition to design contests within the classroom, many corporations sponsor design contests to encourage creativity and innovation at many levels of education. Student Contests and Competitions
Designing
A form of planning. Classroom Compass - Design in the Classroom
Devil's Advocate To initiate or stimulate a discussion or debate, the teacher proposes or defends an extreme or unpopular viewpoint. For example, in a class on environmental issues the teacher might suggest that the nearby wetlands be drained because of the many mosquitos that breed there.
Dialectical Journal A two column note-taking or journal method that features quotes or ideas from the text in one column, and ideas from the reader in the other column. Dialectical Journal Dialectical Journals
Didactic Instruction Teacher-centered instruction in which the teacher tells the student what to think about a topic. Used for the delivery of factual (not debated) information.
Didactic Questions Questions which tend to have a single answer and allow students to demonstrate lower order thinking like recall.
Dioramas
A three-dimensional scene, usually created by the students, and acting as a miniature model.
Direct Instruction Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation. Summary of Principles of Direct Instruction - Huitt
Direct-Interactive Teaching Model A direct teaching approach that typically follows a cycle that includes: checking previous work, presenting new material, student practice with new material, feedback from the teacher, independent practice, regular reviews. 7.3 Direct-Interactive Teaching Model
Directed Paraphrasing Students are asked to summarize or explain a concept or theory to a specific (imaginary) audience. For example, a medical student might be asked to explain what neurotransmitters are, and phrase the explanation so it would make sense to a hospitalized patient.
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) Throughout reading, questions are used to activate students' existing knowledge. Students are encouraged to make predictions.
Directions
Instructions given by the teacher to the students describing what the students should be doing. On Giving Good Directions
Directive Model A teacher centered model that focuses on student activities being guided by teacher directions and direct transmission of information.
Discovery Teaching A constructivist approach. Students begin learning with an activity designed to lead them to particular concepts or conclusions. Students acquire basic and advanced knowledge in random order.
Discussion
Classroom discussions typically begin with the teacher describing the goal or purpose of the discussion. Sometimes discussions may be initiated by the posing of an open-ended question. Teachers can employ a number of techniques to encourage students to participate in discussions, including calling on specific people, or assigning students to be an "expert" or leader for various parts of the discussion. Many cooperative activities include a "small group" discussion as teams work together. Class Discussions - NCREL
Discussion Groups In the classroom, a discussion group is formed when a discussion is carried out by only a part of the class. Outside the classroom, discussion groups are composed of individuals with similar interests. These groups meet regularly to discuss a variety of literary or social issues.
Discussion Web A form of discussion that starts out with individual students formulating a response, then each student pairs with one other, then the pairs pair to form groups of four. Finally, when the groups have refined their answers, they share their thoughts with the whole class. Webs (The Discussion Kind!) in the Classroom
Dissections
To cut apart and analyze an animal. plant, device, or idea. Make a Frog Sandwich - Bowersox
DO IT Define problem, Open self to new ideas, Identify best solution, Transform idea to action. DO IT - Olson
Double Cell Diagram A form of graphic organizer linking two items. Double Cell Diagram
Drafts
Students complete writing or creative work in stages to facilitate progress from capturing ideas quickly to the use of more detailed revision and editing skills. (See Quintilion Progression) Writing Drafts Reviewing a Draft
Dramatizing
Students act out roles from stories or historical events. Can we act it out?
Drawing
Students can illustrate text they have read, draw diagrams of problems they have heard, or simply draw to stimulate creativity.
Drill
Practice by repetition. Often used to reinforce grammar and basic math skills. Online drill in math, language, social studies, and chemistry
Driting
Drawing and writing. About "Driting"
Drive Reduction A theory of learning developed by Clark Hull which describes the drives (needs) individuals have and that learning occurs because individuals strive to reduce their drives (satisfy their needs). Drive Reduction Theory
DRTA (Directed Reading Thinking Activity) Throughout reading, questions are used to activate students' existing knowledge. Students are encouraged to make predictions.
Dyads
A group consisting of two students. COOPERATIVE METHODS: PEER LEARNING AND TEACHING
E-mail
A technique to connect students to people around the world to collaborate on projects or distance learning. E-mail can also be used to provide a direct communication link between the teacher and the students' parents. What is an e-mail project?
Elaboration
A thinking skill that involves adding to, improving, or completing an idea or process. Elaboration
ELVES
Technique to increase creativity: be at Ease, make Lists, Vary the lists, Eureka, Select.
Empiricism
John Locke's philosophical assertion that all knowledge is based on experience. John Locke
Envelope, Please An activating strategy used prior to beginning a new topic. Envelope, Please
Error Analysis Error analysis takes two basic forms in the classroom. In the most common form, teachers analyze the errors students make (in mathematical computation, grammar, language, literature interpretation, and so on) and use that analysis to guide further instruction. In science classroom, some teachers teach students to analyze experimental errors to improve critical thinking skills.
Essays
A short, written work, centered on a single subject.
Estimating
Proposing an approximate answer to a problem or question. 1989 NCTM Standards: Grades K-4 Standard 5: Estimation
Estimation Lineup An activity designed to activate students' prior knowledge before new material is presented.
Evaluating
A critical thinking skill involving judging to place a value on ideas or work.
Exaggeration
Used to help identify key attributes when employed by the teacher in a discussion. Can also be used in writing or drawing projects to produce unique and memorable projects.
Examples
Ideas or objects drawn from a group of ideas or objects to represent core features of the group from which they are drawn. Exemplification and the Example
Expectation Outline A pre-reading activity in which students skim the assigned reading, then write down some questions they expect to be able to answer, or key concepts they expect to learn about, as the result of completing the reading. Expectation Outline (online example)
Experiential Learning Carl Roger's theory that there are two types of learning: cognitive (memorizing or studying simply because work is assigned) and experiential (learning to satisfy the needs and wants of the learner). Studying a book with commonly used phrases in Norwegian is experiential if you are planning a trip to Norway, but the same activity is cognitive if you are taking a language class and the teacher assigns reading from the book. Carl Rogers Experiential Learning
Experimental Inquiry As a Meaningful Use Task it includes observation, analysis, prediction, testing, and re-evaluation. As a variation of inquiry, experimental inquiry involves generating and testing hypotheses to explain phenomena. EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY
Experiments
Tests to demonstrate or discover something. Experiments Skill Handbook : Practicing Scientific Processes
Explanation
An explanation answers a question. Good explanations take into account the prior knowledge of the questioner and the "intent" of the question. Explanations are given by both teachers and students in the classroom. Students are often asked to explain a concepts as part of assessing their knowledge. Teachers are asked for explanations during all phases of instruction. Explanation
Extended STaR Expanded version of Story Telling and Retelling - A Success For All approach. EXTENDED STaR: Kitaq Goes Ice Fishing - by Margaret Nicolai (example of approach)
Extension Teaching Extension teaching takes two forms. The most common form is outreach programs where educators travel to the student's location to provide instruction on topics of professional or personal interest. Agricultural extension experts who travel from their home college to provide onsite support to farmers are the classic example of this approach. Another form is a constructivist method related to application teaching. It is centered on activities which proceed from more basic ideas to more complex. The expected products generated by the students are more variable than in application teaching. Ten Guiding Values of Extension Education Welcome to the Journal of Extension
Extrapolation of Data Given a set of data, students are asked to predict what would occur outside the range of that data.
Facilitative Questioning To "facilitate" means to help another person accomplish something. Facilitative questioning is an approach whereby a teacher or counselor poses open-ended questions to the student to allow them to explore ideas that may be complex or emotionally difficult. In writing classes, the purpose of facilitative questions is to allow the teacher to give assistance to the students without actually contributing new ideas to the work being written. In counseling, the purpose of facilitative questions is to allow the student to generate their own solutions to problems or tasks without being unduly influenced by the counselor's ideas. Facilitative questioning is used most often in situations where there is no right answer but the solution is dependent on what is best for the individual. Facilitative Language (to guide student writers) Adult Bullying: Examples of useful facilitative questions
Fairs
A theme-based event that includes exhibitions of products or skills, along with some "fun" aspects. The tone can range from purely academic (as is typical of science fairs) to carnival-like (as is typical of culture fairs). Fairs provide an opportunity for students to perform and to learn about long-range planning of events, in addition to the underlying subject content that forms the theme of the fair. Science Fairs homepage Science Fair Central from Discovery.com Culture Fair Multimedia Project ScienzFair (TM) Project Ideas
Feedback
Any means by which a teacher informs a student about the quality or correctness of the student's products or actions. Different forms of feedback include formal assessments (Example: a written grade on a student project), oral and written guidance (Example: "Good, but needs more work on the Conclusion"), and casual comments or nonverbal signals (Example: a nod indicating correctness or agreement).
FFOE
A creativity technique using the acronym FFOE: Fluency (many ideas), Flexibility (variety of ideas), Originality (unique ideas), and Elaboration (fully developed ideas). Brainstorming Strategies
Field Guides A useful student project is to guide students in the creation of a field guide. Field guides typically provide information that would be needed outside the classroom in the study of such diverse fields as plants, animals, architecture, cultures, or business practices. Normal components of a field guide include: common names, formal names, definitions, graphic illustrations, explanations of the range (where you expect to find things), relevant dates, key facts, warnings, and "interesting notes." Create a Field Guide of Local Plants A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects
Field Observations Students leave the classroom to observe events, organisms, and objects in their natural surroundings. Field observation usually includes the collection and recording of data in a field journal. Using A Field Journal
Field Trips A field trips is any activity that occurs outside the classroom for the purpose of providing hands-on experience with objects or people that only occur in certain places. Target locations for field trips can include museums, zoos, places of business, farms, nearby colleges, theaters, historical monuments or buildings, forests, wetlands, nature parks, or the grounds of the school itself. Field Trip to School Going To A Museum? A Teacher's Guide. Field Trips
Films
Motion pictures can be used to enhance learning of literature, language, or historical events. Film in the Classroom
Filmstrips
A form of presentation, in which a series of still images are projected onto a screen. To accompany the images, usually an audio tape is played that includes cues to advance the film to synchronize the image and audio portions. This format is still used in a few places, but has largely been superseded by videotapes and interactive web pages.
Find Someone Who A variation of the Human Scavenger Hunt. Usually this activity is used to encourage students to seek out the students in class whop know the answers to specific content questions. This works most effectively if each student is an "expert" on a different topic or sub-topic than the others in the class. FIND SOMEONE WHO Find Someone Who... Warm-Up: "Find Someone Who"
Find the Fib Team activity where groups of students write two true statements and one false statement, then challenge other teams (or the teacher) to "Find the Fib." Find the Fib - team activity
Find the Rule Students are given sets of examples that demonstrate a single rule (like "i before e except after c.") and are asked to find and state the rule.
Finding and Investigating Problems One key element of scientific research is finding and investigating problems. Exposing children to real life data and asking them to "create" problems from this data can result in more meaningful problem-solving and a deeper understanding of "what science is."
Finding Clues in a Picture An activity where the teacher guides students to find clues about reading by asking a series of leading questions. Finding Clues in a Picture - How to
FIP (First Important Priorities) Edward de Bono's process for listing, then prioritizing options. Useful in decision-making and in strengthening critical thinking skills. FIP - activity sheet (PDF)
First Important Priorities (FIP) Edward de Bono's process for listing, then prioritizing options. Useful in decision-making and in strengthening critical thinking skills. FIP - activity sheet (PDF)
First TRIP (1st TRIP) A reading strategy consisting of: Title, Relationships, Intent of questions, Put in perspective.
Fishbone
An organizing tool to help students visualize how many events can be tied to or contribute to a result. Fishbone Mapping
Fishbowl
Discussion format where students are selected from the class. They sit in front of the class as a panel to discuss topic while class observes. Then discussion is opened to whole class.
Five Plus One (5 + 1) Direct instruction variation where the teacher presents for five minutes, students share and reflect for one minute, then the cycle repeats.
Five Whys? Asking a chain of "why questions," with each question deeper into the root cause of a problem. Five Whys? problem-solving sheet (PDF)
Five Words - Three Words Students list five topic-related words independently. Students are grouped and share words. Groups pick best three words and explain to class. Five Words - Three Words (PDF)
Flash Cards Traditional flash cards are note cards with a question, problem, or fact on one side, and the answer or a related fact on the other side. Flash cards can be used by individual students for independent practice, or can be used by pairs of students to practice as a team. More recently, online flash cards have appeared on the Internet. Online flash cards take many forms, but typically include either a box where you can type in your answer, or have sets of answers to choose from. Flashcards for Kids Quiz Hub Printable Sign Language Flash Cards Flashcard Exchange
Flow Charts Flow charts are graphical depictions of processes or relationships. Typically flow charts include icons showing particular processes or steps, and arrows indicating paths. Flow Charts DEVELOPING FLOW CHARTS TO DIAGRAM THE THINKING PROCESS
Flowers
A vase with fresh flowers on the teacher's desk or near a window can positively alter the mood of many students. They can also be used as "spur of the moment" manipulatives for many activities. Flowers can be dissected in a science class, used as models in a drawing class, or used as a writing prompt for a writing activity.
Focused Imagining A form of guided imagery where students are led to form mental images under the guidance of the teacher. Can be done either through written directions or step-by-step oral directions from the teacher.
Force Field Analysis A decision-making tool in which all forces for and against a plan are considered and evaluated. Force Field Analysis Force Field Analysis - problem-solving form (PDF)
Forced Analogy Make analogies by comparing problem term to a randomly selected term (for example, compare algebra to a cracker). Then use the new combinations to solve a problem or create something. Forced Analogy
Forced Choice A classroom activity in which a small number of choices are placed around the classroom and students are asked to examine all the choices, then stand next to their choice. Students selecting the same choice then discuss reasons or advantages and disadvantages of their choice. Forced Choice
Forced Relationships A variant of the Forced Analogy approach to generating possible solutions to problems. In Forced Relationships, objects are paired to a seemingly unrelated task and students are forced to use the unrelated objects to accomplish the task. For example, the students might be told they need to water the flowers in the windowsill box using the water from the sink across the room, and their only tools are a flashlight and a piece of paper. Possible solutions would be to take apart the flashlight (placing the parts on the paper) then use the handle as a cup to carry water, or the paper could be folded into a temporary cup then discarded after the watering was done. Forced Relationships
Forecasting
Forecasting is a kind of extrapolation in which current trends (in weather, or in the economy) are analyzed and predictions are made about future events based on those trends. Forecasting Weather Forecasting
Formations
Certain types of information can be illustrated by having groups of students stand in certain positions to make shapes representing answers. If the answer is a "2," for example, students can form the number two by where they stand in the room. In Formations, the teacher asks a series of questions, all of which have "formable" answers, then the students create the answers by their movements. Formations - team activity
Formulas
Formulas are mathematical expressions using symbols to represents real-world quantities. Students can generate, use, or solve problems with formulas. BOXES, BODIES, AND OTHER CONTAINERS - (A STUDY OF SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME)
Forum
A panel in which members talk freely with the audience. Setting up Community Events and Forums
Four Corners Label the four corners of the room with "Disagree, Strongly Disagree, Agree, Strongly Agree." Read a controversial statement and have students write on a piece of paper whether they agree, disagree, strongly agree, or strongly disagree with the statement. When all are finished writing, have students go to the corner representing their point of view. All student sharing a point of view work together to collect evident and present an argument supporting their beliefs. Four Corners - issues analysis form (PDF) Four Corners
Frayer Model Vocabulary development tool in which students use a graphic organizer to categorize their knowledge about a word. Frayer Model Frayer Model - Example Frayer Model
Free Write and Share Students write in response to some stimulus (music, topic oriented, question oriented), then share their writing with the class. Free write and share
Freewriting
Freewriting is a timed activity to stimulate the flow of ideas and words. Students are given a topic and must write everything they can think of about the topic. The rules are that students must not stop writing, even if they "run out of things to say," and they may not do any editing or criticism during the writing. After the time is up, you can either read the writing aloud, or scan what you have written and pull out ideas or phrases you can use.
Fussing with Definitions A formal, cooperative method for rewriting definitions. Fussing with Definitions - activity form (PDF)
Fuzzy Logic Many statements are not true or false but lie somewhere in between. To assign value to statement, false = 0, true = 1, statement can fall anywhere on the continuum between 0 and 1. Also known as Fuzzy Thinking. Fuzzy Thinking
Fuzzy Thinking Many statements are not true or false but lie somewhere in between. To assign value to statement, false = 0, true = 1, statement can fall anywhere on the continuum between 0 and 1. Also known as Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy Thinking
Gallery
Similar to Carousel Brainstorming. Gallery Walk (PDF)
Games
Games can take many forms, but in the classroom, any activity that involves a competition, social interaction, and some form of prize or award would be considered a game. Classroom game activities are typically not graded, and student participation is based on the desire to contribute to a team or to individually achieve some prize or recognition. Usually games have "winners." Ideally, even the "losers" of the game should feel that the experience was enjoyable. Games
Gaps
Students are given sentences or sequences with gaps (missing words, numbers, or symbols) and are asked to fill in the gaps.
Gardens
Students plan, plant, and tend a garden. As a side activity, students also will need to plan what to do with the products of the garden and how (if necessary) to return the land to its original state. Extension Master Gardeners Valued by Teachers in School Gardening Programs School Gardens School Gardens
GATHER Model An inquiry-based model used in the teaching of history. The steps include: Get an overview, Ask questions, Triangulate the data, Hypothesize, Explore and interpret data, and Record and support conclusions. Promoting Historical Inquiry: GATHER Model
General Inquiry A teaching strategy in which students learn to identify and explore problems, then use the discovered facts to form a generalized response to the problem. Inquiry Models of Instruction
General-to-Specific Sequencing An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with general principles and proceeding to specific concepts. Compare to: Chronological, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Generalizing
To restate information to show basic principles. Principles for Learning Concept Classification
Generative Learning Model A four phase method (preliminary, focus, challenge, and application) that encourages students to "do something" with information. This constructivist approach allows students to construct (or generate) meaning through their active use of information.
Generative Vocabulary Strategies Examples include: Possible Sentences, Keyword Strategy, Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy. (VSS)
Genetic Epistemology Jean Piaget proposed that children pass through different stages of cognitive development. For example: during very early stages, children are not aware of the permanence of objects, so hiding an object causes the child to lose interest. Once the child has acquired the ability to think of the object as still existing even when out of sight, the child will begin to look for the missing object. Piaget's Genetic Epistemology Jean Piaget - A Staged Cognitive Theory Piaget
Gestalt Theory Max Wertheimer's theory that deals with the nature of whole problems or concepts. Gestalt theory stresses the importance of the relationship between objects in a group and the relatedness of concepts. Gestalt is about "the big picture" and originated as a response to the traditional scientific approach of breaking things down into their component parts and seeking understanding by analyzing the parts. Systems are more than the sum of their parts, and learners know more than the sum of the bits of knowledge they have memorized. Many of the current holistic approaches are based on Wertheimer's Gestalt Theory. Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer) GESTALT THEORY - by Max Wertheimer (1924)
Gowin's Vee Diagram A form of graphic organizer developed by Bob Gowin to help students develop hierarchies from their reading and prior knowledge and use that knowledge to make sense of their central question or research interest. The Vee Diagram: A Guide for Problem-Solving (PDF) The Use of Gowin's Vee to Improve Post-Graduate Critical Analysis of Research Papers
Grab Bag Near the conclusion of a lesson, have a student draw an object from a bag. The student must explain or illustrate how the object is related to what they have learned. Myth Grab Bag
Grant Writing Grant writing is most often assigned in college or professional courses, but could be done at higher secondary levels. A grant is a financial award, either from government or industry, and intended to fund a project with wide applications. Grant writing, as a process, involves finding and investigating problems, writing persuasive text, researching related work, and demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed work. GRANT WRITING ASSIGNMENT
Graphic Organizer Graphic organizers are visual frameworks to help the learner make connections between concepts. Some forms of graphic organizers are used before learning and help remind the learner of what they already know about a subject. Other graphic organizers are designed to be used during learning to act as cues to what to look for in the structure of the resources or information. Still other graphic organizers are used during review activities and help to remind students of the number and variety of components they should be remembering. Graphic Organizers that Support Specific Thinking Skills Graphic Organizers - NCREL Graphic Organizers - Index Graphic Organizers (benefits and uses) Graphic Organizers - Examples
Graphing
A diagram that represents numerical data. Kids Graphing Page
Greeting Cards Students design and create greeting cards to share with friends and relatives. Lesser-Known Holiday Greeting Cards
Greetings
Greeting each student at the door allows teachers to establish an individual, positive contact with each student that is not possible once the entire class is assembled. Meeting and Greeting Students at the Beginning of Class
Group Investigation The class is divided into teams. Teams select topics to investigate, gather information, prepare a report, then assemble to present their findings to the entire class. Group Investigation
Group Writing Students work in teams of two or three to brainstorm, write, and edit a single document.
Guess and Check One approach to solving math problems is to Guess at an answer, then Check to see if it is the correct solution. Guess and Check Guess-and-Check
Guess Box An object is hidden in a container and students ask questions about the content of the box in order to identify it and its characteristics. Guess Box
Guest Speakers Guest speakers come into the classroom to share specialized knowledge about their profession or their hobbies. Guest speakers help to form connections between knowledge acquired in the classroom and real-world applications. Ideas for using guest speakers in the classroom
Guest Teachers Guest Teacher has two meanings. The first meaning is when a teacher teaches a class on a topic in which he or she specializes and the normal teacher for the class is present to learn from the presentation. An example of this kind of Guest Teaching might occur if a math teacher also happened to be an expert on the American Civil War and had artifacts to share and explain to a a social studies class. More recently, substitute teachers are being referred to as "guest teachers" to remind students that these teachers are guests in the school. National Substitute Teachers Alliance Guest Teacher.com Guest Teacher Rules
Guided Discovery Teaching model where students learn through explorations, but with directions from teacher. Guided Discovery
Guided Discussion Similar to recitations, but the purpose is to help students make interpretations.
Guided Imagery Students are helped to visualize through daydreams "structured" by the teacher.
Guided Practice Guided Practice is a form of scaffolding. It allows learners to attempt things they would not be capable of without assistance. In the classroom, guided practice usually looks like a combination of individual work, close observation by the teacher, and short segments of individual or whole class instruction. In computer based or Internet based learning, guided practice has come to mean instructions presented on the learner's computer screen on which they can act. This action may be to perform some task using a program that is running at the same time, or it may be to interact with a simulation that is embedded in the program or web page. Guided Practice Guided Practice Session - Using and Saving Bookmarks
Guided Questioning A form of scaffolding for reading in which the teacher's questions start out with many clues about what is happening in the reading, and then as comprehension improves, the questions become less supportive. When Your Children Answer Yes or No
Guided Reading Structured reading where short passages are read, then student interpretations are immediately recorded, discussed, and revised. Guided Reading
Guided Writing Guided writing can take many forms. It can consist of a teacher making suggestions to an individual student, or it may be whole class brainstorming followed by a question and answer session to clarify specifically what will be written. In all forms of guided writing, the teacher's role is to encourage student responses. Sample Guided Writing Lesson Guided Reading & Writing
Habits of Mind Habits of Mind centers on the idea that students can learn more effectively if they regulate their own thought processes. Habits of Mind - NCREL The Habits of Mind Or How People Behave Intelligently Habits of Mind
Hands-On
Hands-On means any instructional activity that is emphasizes students working with objects relevant to the content being studied. Variations include: Hands-On Science, Hands-On Math, and so on.
Helper
Assigning responsibilities to students encourages responsibility and serves as a form of recognition and pride for many students. Being "in charge" of the student lunch count or clean-up of the play area helps students to learn leadership skills. Classroom Helpers (printable cards)
Heuristic
Making an educated guess to reduce the amount of time needed to solve some types of problems. Heuristic Search
Hidden Word Game Writing sentences in which a word is hidden. For example: The school mouse ate a cherry for her morning snack. has the hidden word TEACHER (The school mouse aTE A CHERry for her morning snack.)
Hierarchy
A form of classification in which involves ranking a group of objects or concepts. Hierarchy Diagram Classification
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) In the simplest sense, higher order thinking is any thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts. The two key reasons to improve higher order thinking skills are first, to enable students to apply facts to solve real world problems, and second, to improve retention of facts. In addition to the basic meaning of "higher order thinking skills" HOTS is also used to refer to a specific program designed to teach higher order thinking skills through the use of computers and the Socratic Method to teach thinking skills. What is Higher Order Thinking? CHAPTER I H.O.T.S.: Higher Order Thinking Skills Project Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Program
Highlighting
Marking key concepts with a different color to emphasize importance.
Holistic Instruction Involves the use of problems or activities which are multi-dimensional or multidisciplinary. Usually involves long- term and authentic activities. A Holistic Approach to Math Learning for K-2 Whole Language Umbrella Beliefs
Holistic Learning Involves the use of problems or activities which are multi-dimensional or multidisciplinary. Usually involves long- term and authentic activities. A Holistic Approach to Math Learning for K-2 Whole Language Umbrella Beliefs
Homeschooling
In this approach, parents take full responsibility for the education of their children by preparing and presenting lessons at home. Homeschool World
Homework
Homework is work done outside the classroom. Homework tends to fall into one of two categories. The commonest kind of homework is work assigned by the teacher that the student could theoretically have completed in class (given time). This kind of homework is intended to give students extra practice with skills or concepts that have already been presented or demonstrated. The second kind of homework is work that MUST be completed outside the classroom. This type of homework may be a project the student must complete on their own time or may be a kind of work that involves resources outside the classroom. Section 4: Homework and Practice HOMEWORK HELPS
Homework Checking Homework can be checked by students, parents, teachers, or by peers of the student. There are benefits and liabilities to each of these approaches. From the standpoint of liabilities: if the only person checking the homework is the student, inexperience with the material may result in errors, even if a key is used. If homework is checked at home by parents, then the parent would help to correct any mistakes and the teacher (not seeing that the student had difficulty), would proceed too quickly to the next subject. If the only person correcting homework is the teacher, the time consumed for proper checking would take away from planning and preparation for other activities. Finally, allowing peers (fellow students) to check classmates homework bothers many because it results in a decrease in privacy for students who may not want peers to know his or her state of understanding. HELP YOUR KID GET A HANDLE ON HOMEWORK Peer Grading Passes Muster, Justices Agree Justices back grading by students Checking classmates' work not an invasion of privacy
HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills) In the simplest sense, higher order thinking is any thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts. The two key reasons to improve higher order thinking skills are first, to enable students to apply facts to solve real world problems, and second, to improve retention of facts. In addition to the basic meaning of "higher order thinking skills" HOTS is also used to refer to a specific program designed to teach higher order thinking skills through the use of computers and the Socratic Method to teach thinking skills. What is Higher Order Thinking? CHAPTER I H.O.T.S.: Higher Order Thinking Skills Project Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Program
Human Treasure Hunt Often used as an introductory activity. Good for introducing and relaxing students during the first week of class. Human Treasure Hunt
Humor
Humor can be helpful in motivating students and in creating a community spirit. Humour and Creativity Teaching with Fun and Humor
Hypotheses
A tentative explanation for patterns or observations. Hypotheses
I'm Watching Someone Behavior management technique where the teacher tells students that two students have been selected to be carefully observed, and if they behave well, the entire class will receive a reward. If the behavior was positive and there is a reward, the students are told who was being watched. I'm Watching Someone
I've Done Something You Haven't Done An ice breaker in which each student is challenged to describe to the class something they have done that they believe no one else in the class has done.
Ice Breakers Activities designed to help people get acquainted in new situations or environments. Selected Student Generated Ice Breakers and Exercises The Pig Personality Profile
Idea Recording Mechanisms to capture ideas whenever they occur. Idea Recording Strategies
Idea Spinner Teacher creates a spinner marked into four quadrants and labeled "Predict, Explain, Summarize, Evaluate." After new material is presented, the teacher spins the spinner and asks students to answer a question based on the location of the spinner. For example, if the spinner lands in the "Summarize" quadrant, the teacher might say, "List the key concepts just presented."
Ideatoons
Problem-solving and creativity technique where students draw ideas on index cards, then rearrange the cards to search for new, possibly useful patterns. Ideatoons
Identifying
To identify an object or concept involves the student being able to recognize an object or concept to which the student was previously exposed.
Illustrated Talks A form of lecture in which the speaker tells how to do something, or shares information with the audience, but does not "show" the audience how to do anything. The talk is supported by visual aids like charts, diagrams, and photographs.
Illustrating
Using pictures or diagrams to explain or decorate. Tips on Illustrating Your Stories - by Pam Yourell
Imagineering
Fusion of imagination and engineering. Visualize solutions to problems using existing scientific knowledge. Imagineering
Imitation
Copy painting, style of writing, etc. Imitation
Immersion
In language immersion, all learning is carried out in a language that is not the student's native language. Why Spanish Immersion? A Rationale For Foreign Language Education Spanish Two-Way Immersion Program (PDF)
Inclusion
Inclusion is the process of providing all students with the opportunity to participate in the school community regardless of their individual strengths or limitations. Inclusion
Independent Practice Practice done without intervention by the teacher. This approach includes many activities done with a computer.
Independent Reading Programs Programs in which students proceed at their own pace through reading and take assessments when they feel prepared. Accelerated Reading is one example of an Independent Reading Program. In some programs, students may choose their books from a pre-selected pool of books. In other cases, the reading is ordered and students read the books in a particular sequence. Independent Reading Program
Induction
Using information from specific facts or ideas to construct general principles. (compare to deduction) Deductive and Inductive Thinking
Induction Matrix A form of graphic organizer using a grid to compare concepts and categories. The matrix is filled in at the beginning of a lesson and as students learn more, they correct and update the matrix to reflect new knowledge.
Inductive Inquiry Teaching that follows the cycle used in scientific inquiry. Steps usually include: searching the literature, making observations, generating hypotheses, designing and carrying out experiments, then analysis of results and restarting the cycle. Inductive Inquiry - pre-formatted lesson plan guide (page 10) Inductive/Inquiry Planning Template The Logical Cycle of Inductive Inquiry
Inductive Thinking Analyzing individual observations to come to general conclusions. Proceeding from facts to the "big picture." Inferential Strategy Like DR-TA but occurs only before and after reading.
Inferring
A thinking skill, demonstrated when a student can make conclusions based on reading or prior knowledge.
Information Processing Model Information Processing theorists study learning in terms of how memories are acquired and then later accessed. Key theorists in this field include Robert M. Gagne and George A. Miller. Information Processing Theory (G. Miller) Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction
Innovating
Altering text or work in such a way that the original is still recognizable, but new concepts or contexts are introduced.
Inquiry
A system in which students solve problems or answer questions by forming tentative answers (hypotheses), then collecting and analyzing data to provide evidence for or against their hypotheses.

1.7. SCIENCE TEACHING AND INQUIRY Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools
Inside-Outside Circle Review technique. Inside and outside circles of students face each other. Within each pair of facing students, students quiz each other with questions they have written. Outside circle moves to create new pairs. Repeat.
Integrative Learning Model A holistic approach that works to strengthen all aspects of a student's life (academic, physical, personal, and emotional). Edvita Integrative Learning Model Dynamic interactive Learning Model Diagnostic Questionnaire
Interactive Video Any of several systems that allow a user to interact with a video by making choices between video segments. Delivery modes can include: CD-ROM, DVD, or a computer linked to a VHS tape system. Interactive Video: Foundations of Multimedia/Hypermedia
Interactive Writing Collaboration between the teacher and the student, with both writing parts of the final composition.
Interdisciplinary Teaching Traditional elementary and secondary classrooms divide instruction into categories (disciplines) such as "reading," "math," and "social studies." Interdisciplinary teaching involves any effort on the part of an instructor to design learning activities with products and activities to related to more than one discipline. Why Not Interdisciplinary Instruction? What is Interdisciplinary/Cross-Curricular Teaching?
Interpolation of Data Given a set of data, students are asked to calculate an expected value that occurs between two given data points.
Interviews
Interviews may be by the student or may be a form of assessment of the student. Interview form (PDF) Interviews
Intra-Act
Students' valuing of reading is expressed by students responses to opinion questions and their predictions of classmates' opinions on a "game sheet."
Invention
An open-ended problem-solving task. Is the process of creating something to fill a need.
Invention Teaching A constructivist approach. Students begin learning with an activity (as in Discovery Teaching), but students may generate many possible solutions. Students acquire basic and advanced knowledge in random order.
Inventory Questioning Inventory questions are designed to collect information about students' interests, to activate prior knowledge, or to help students become aware of their existing beliefs and background. Often used when dealing with controversial issues, or in the form of a "personal inventory" to explore emotional problems or limitations. SAMPLE INTEREST INVENTORY QUESTIONS
Inverted Pyramid A writing format in which the most important information is presented first, followed by the next most important information, and closing with the least important information. Most commonly used in news reporting, but useful in teaching students to learn to prioritize information. Also called the Journalism Model. Inverted pyramid story format Inverted Pyramid Checklist
Investigation
Identifying what is known about a topic. Three basic types are: Definitional (What are...?), Historical (How...? or Why...?), and Projective (What if...?).
Jeopardy
Like the television game. Many variations (individual or team competitions). Board with "answers" is prepared in advance (for overhead or on large cardboard sheet). Students respond with acceptable "question."
Jigsaw
Cooperative activity. The basic steps include: reading, meeting with expert groups, report back to main team, demonstrate knowledge through a test or report.
Jigsaw II Cooperative activity. Basic steps: Read with group, discuss individual topic with expert groups, report back to team (to teach them what you learned in your expert group), test, team recognition. Jigsaw II (PDF)
Jobs
When working with high school students or adults, making connections between classroom learning and the students' out of class jobs helps students understand the value of what they are learning.
Jokes
Amusing story or description that can be told by the teacher to activate interest. Alternatively, students can create topic-related jokes to demonstrate understanding of concepts.
Journal
A form of writing. Typically done for a few minutes each day. The writing is done in a notebook and is often used to encourage reflection or exploration of ideas of interest to the students. Journal writing is typically not graded, and in some instances, is not read by anyone but the student. In other instances, the journal can be used to establish an ongoing written dialog between the student and the teacher. Journals/Learning Logs JOURNALS Journals in the Classroom
Journalism Model A writing format in which the most important information is presented first, followed by the next most important information, and closing with the least important information. Most commonly used in news reporting, but useful in teaching students to learn to prioritize information. Also called the Inverted Pyramid. Journalism
Judging
A form of critical thinking that involves forming opinions about a topic.
Jumbled Summary Teacher presents randomly ordered key words and phrases from a lesson to students. Students put the terms and phrases in a logical order to show understanding.
Justifying
To explain why one choice is better than another. Typically used as part of an assessment that asks students to "justify" or explain the merits of their answers.
Key Word Asking student to find keywords, or supplying keywords to students
Keyhole Strategy A writing format in which the author begins with the main idea, narrows the idea until the end of the first paragraph, uses the "body" of the writing consists of well-rounded paragraphs, then in the last paragraph, builds to a broad conclusion. Diagrammed, the format looks like an old-fashioned keyhole. The Keyhole Essay Keyhole Strategy in Writing
Keys
In classes where students are allowed to check their own homework, teachers can provide a notebook containing detailed answer keys demonstrating how to do complex problems or examples of desirable answers. Sometimes used in Independent Reading Programs or Mastery Learning to allow students to learn at their own pace. The "Answer Key" books are usually kept on the teacher's desk or a table nearby to ensure that students try problems on their own and only check their answers under supervision.
Keyword Memory Method In the keyword method, students generate keywords that are similar to the concepts to be memorized, then put the keywords into an arrangement that can be mentally "pictured." For example, given the task of memorizing "St. Paul is the capital of Minnesota," the student would first break up the phrase into five related words: saint paul cap mini soda." Finally the student would image their favorite "Paul" with a halo as a cap and drinking a very small soda. Mnemonic Instruction - Keyword Mnemonics Keywords: A Memorization Strategy
Keyword Strategy The use of keyword memory methods to build vocabulary
Knowledge Grammy Awards Near the completion of a unit, students nominate and vote on which knowledge was most useful to them. Using keywords to remember vocabulary
Knowledge Rating Before reading, students skim reading and select words from the reading, then rate their familiarity with the words. In some instances, teachers may give students preselected words to rate. Knowledge Rating Sheet KNOWLEDGE RATING
Known-to-Unknown
An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with known concepts and proceeding to unknown concepts.. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
KWHL
"Know, Want to know, How to find out, Learn" KWHL - NCREL
KWL
"Know, Want to know, Learn" Students identify what they know about a topic, what they want to know,and after reading or instruction, identify what they learned or would still like to learn. KWL - NCREL
Labeling
A form of classification that includes categorizing and then naming a concept, object, action, or event.
Laboratory
Classroom activities performed in an environment that fosters inquiry through experimentation and exploration. Laboratories typically have specialized equipment to permit students to perform experiments in biology, chemistry, physics, meteorology, geology, and occasionally psychology. The Paradigm Laboratory Project
LARC (Left and Right Creativity) Use drawing to stimulate right brain, then harness to left brain to creatively solve problems. LARC - Left and Right Creativity
Lateral Thinking Edward de Bono's approach to problem-solving and creativity. Lateral thinking consists of changing your perspective to solve a problem (for example, if baby endangers Christmas tree, instead of putting baby in playpen, put tree in playpen). Don't limit yourself by only considering "intended uses." Lateral Thinking Lateral Thinking (DeBono)
Learning Centers Individual stations where individual or paired students explore resources. Designed to extend knowledge introduced in whole group instruction. The Basics of Centers One way to set up centers in your classroom:
Learning Contract A form of individualized, active learning, in which the student proposes a course of study to satisfy an academic requirement and a teacher checks and approves the contract. The student typically works independently until assistance is needed from the teacher, at which point it is the responsibility of the student to ask for help. This form of instruction is becoming more common in universities and in distance learning. A second variety of learning contract is sometimes undertaken with elementary or secondary students in which the teacher takes a more active role and the function of the contract is to focus the student's attention on specific skills or concepts to be learned. Learning Contracts Learning Contract Generator
Learning Labs A learning lab is an environment that provides tools and educational support to enable learners to explore content at their own pace. There are many varieties of learning labs. Computer learning labs typically consist of rooms full of networked computers or work stations along with at least one human assistant. Math learning labs may be nothing but an empty classroom with a few reference books and one or more math tutors who roam the room to assist learners as they work. Language learning labs typically provide audio playing and recording equipment to allow learners to listen to the language they are learning. Tutoring Services
Learning Log Students write responses to teacher questions as summary of what they have learned or what they do not understand. Used for reflection and to inform teacher of progress. Journals/Learning Logs
Learning Modules Like a portable learning center. Many are designed to be used as the primary instruction on a subject and aren't preceded by whole class instruction.
Learning Packets Designed by a teacher to help student make up missed work due to absence.
Learning Stations Individual stations where individual or paired students explore resources. Designed to extend knowledge introduced in whole group instruction.
Learning Style Inventory Assessments taken by students to learn about their learning styles and preferences. LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY (printable) Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire Keirsey Temperament Sorter LEARNING STYLES RESOURCE PAGE
Learning Styles While each of us learns differently, we can categorize an individual's strength and weaknesses for a number of different factors which affect the way we learn. It is possible to refer to someone as a "visual learner" or a person who prefers "step-by-step" directions. By assessing, and then planning for each student's individual learning style, a teacher can improve the chances that each student will learn. Pedagogy: Learning Styles: Preferences The Four Learning Styles in the DVC Survey Keirsey Temperament Sorter II - Online Personality Test Learning Styles Network Learning Styles Learning Modalities Elements of Learning Styles (chart)
Learning Together Learning Together, developed by David and Roger Johnson, is a set of step-by-step instructions to assist teachers in managing a cooperative classroom. Superseded by 'Circles of Learning."
Learning Together and Alone Cooperative learning approach, as outlined by David W. Johnson and Roger T. Johnson. Unlike other cooperative learning strategies which tend to be periodic activities, "Learning Together and Alone" provides guidelines for the creation of a generalized cooperative classroom.
Lecture
A direct instructional method. The teacher talks with the purpose of transmitting information. Lectures may, but often don't, include visual aids or notes to accompany the talking. Lectures and Approaches to Active Learning Lecturer's Guide
Left and Right Creativity (LARC) Use drawing to stimulate right brain, then harness to left brain to creatively solve problems. LARC - Left and Right Creativity
Letter Activities Activities designed to help young children make connections between the appearance of letters and their sounds. Usually includes a tactile or kinesthetic component (making a snake out of clay and forming it into the letter "S" for example). Activities by the Letter
Letter and Sound Relationships Letter activities that concentrate on pairing letters and letter combinations that result in the same sound.
Letter Games Letter activities to which an element of competition or fun has been added. Letter Games Letter games
Letter Writing A writing activity that encourages students to think about a specific audience. Teacher's Guide to Fun Letter Writing
Letters From Last Year's Class At the end of the school year, have students write letters for your future students. These letters can include tips, activities to look forward to, or a description of some of the new concepts they can look forward to learning in the coming year. At the beginning of the next school year, put these letters on the desks of your new students. Letters From Last Year's Class
Library Assistant Acting as an assistant in the library not only provides students with an opportunity for Service Learning, but also teaches academic skills related to reading, categorization, use of computers, and social skills as student volunteers interact with library users.
Library Research Many projects require research in the library to enable students to supplement the information they can find in their textbooks and on the Internet. To further encourage library research, teachers can provide guidelines for projects and writing assignments to encourage students to become familiar with using resources in the library. Advice on Specific Aspects of Library Research: Guidelines for Effective Library Research
Line-Up
Student teams are given concepts that can be put in order. Each team member holds one concept and the members line up to represent the correct order. Line-Up - team activity
LINK (List, Inquire, Note, Know) An activity to help students activate prior knowledge before beginning a new topic.
Link System of Memorization Link one item to another to form a mental link. Uses visualization. The Link Method
List - Group - Label An activity to help students activate prior knowledge before beginning a new topic. Student teams divide list of key words into groups, then label each group. List-Group-Label
List, Inquire, Note, Know (LINK) An activity to help students activate prior knowledge before beginning a new topic.
Listen-Think-Pair-Share
Students listen to questions, individually think about a response, discuss their ideas with a partner, then share their ideas with the class. Listen-Think-Pair-Share
Listening Center Audio center where students can listen individually to books on tape, music, news, language lessons, taped stories, or other audio resources.
Listening Comprehension Activities to promote active and critical listening. Activities often include reading passages aloud, then assessing student understanding through written or oral feedback. ATTENTIVE AND CRITICAL LISTENING: DESCRIPTION
Listing
Making lists of words, objects or ideas. Can be used to organize thoughts before a writing activity, or as an assessments to demonstrate the ability to recall.
Literature Search As a part of inquiry or research, students often need to search existing literature to find what is currently known about a topic. Libraries have specialized search tools students can use for a variety of topics. Internet searches typically use a combination of keyword searches on the Internet along with following a trail of references from known articles to find related work by known authors. How to conduct a literature search
Live Plants and Animals Providing live plants and animals in the classroom gives students the opportunity to learn respect for living things. Caring for living things enables students to learn responsibility. Careful observation and handling of living things in the classroom enhances the learning of many concepts. The care of live animals in the classroom
Locating
Locating is to show or find the position of something. Students can find the location of places on a map, or demonstrate the location of a concept relative to other concepts in a hierarchy.
Long-term Projects These projects are usually centered either on a theme, or to research and propose answers to open-ended questions.
Looping
Looping describes an approach to writing and also describes the practice having a teacher teach the same class for more than one year. As an approach to writing looping encourages writers to write quickly (stream of consciousness), followed by reviewing what has been written and selecting key points from the writing to serve as the basis for another round of quick, but more focused writing. The student continues looping until the product of the writing meets the original specifications. Writing Approaches or Strategies - Looping Looping' Catches On As a Way To Build Strong Ties Looping: Supporting Student Learning Through Long-Term Relationships
Lotus Blossom Technique From central idea, propose eight new ideas. For each of eight ideas, propose and evaluate necessary details to implement ideas. Lotus Blossom Technique
Luck of the Draw All student's names are put into a container. At the end of class, a student's name is drawn at random from the container. At the beginning of the next class the student whose name was drawn is required to present a 3-5 minute review of the previous day's lesson.
Lunch with the Teacher A good way for the teacher to get to know each student in a casual environment. Individual students or pairs of students eat lunch and socialize with the teacher. For young children, this experience is often enhanced if the teacher brings some small treat (a few cookies) to to share
Magazines
Used as a real world source of information.
Managing
Having students manage an activity or group to give students experience with management and planning skills.
Manipulatives
Manipulatives are objects used in the classroom to allow students to make connections to concepts through touch. Examples might include a bag of beans for counting, or a microscope for scientific inquiry. How to Make the Most of Math Manipulatives
Map Making Student map making can be tied to many objectives related to mathematics, social studies, art, reading, and problem solving. Map Making/Floor Plans/Map Reading - Lesson Plans Treasure Hunt
Map Reading As a classroom activity, older students can be given maps and asked to find places or resources. Younger students can be given maps to local places and taught to orient themselves using the maps (orienteering). Maps and Compasses - Maps and Charts - Map Reading Physical Activity in The Curriculum
Mascot
Creation or selection of a class mascot to promote a group identity.
Mastery Learning Objectives for learning are established and communicated to students. Students progress at own speed and continue to work until their performance indicates they have mastered each set of objectives. (see criterion-referenced assessment) Mastery Learning - Huitt Mastery Learning
Match Mine Pair activity in which one student draws, while the other waits, then the second student tries to copy the drawing of the first using only descriptions supplied by the first student. Match Mine - pair activity
Matching
Making matches can be done in many contexts. For younger students, cards can be matched if they have identical pictures or symbols. As they advance, cards with symbols or pictures can be matched with the real objects they represent. More mature students can match words with their definitions or mathematical expressions with their solutions.
Meal Planning Lessons in which students plan meals can be used to teach skills in math, science, social studies, reading, and writing. Nutrition on the Net -- Healthful Activities for Every Grade!
Meaningful Sentences Given vocabulary terms, students can be shown sentences in which the terms are used in a context that helps them to understand the meaning of the terms, or as an assessment, students can be asked to write meaningful sentences containing key words.
Meaningful Use Tasks A category of tasks described by Robert J. Marzano, et.al. Typically they are long-term, allow students to make choices, and require students to apply what they have learned.
Measuring
Activities to determine the size, extent, or dimensions of objects or values. A Tour of Measurement
Medium Size Circle First, 5-10 volunteers share something important they learned. Second, volunteers remember (restate) what one first people shared. Continue until each of the original speakers have been "remembered."
Memorization
Actively organizing and working with concepts or terminology to improve incorporating those concepts into memory. Tools for Improving Your Memory
Mental Arithmetic Techniques Techniques to allow students to approximate answers to math problems. Mental math or mental arithmetic is important to allow students to be able to recognize when the answers they obtain using calculators are accurate. BEATCALC: Beat the Calculator!
Mental Models Students enter learning situations with existing knowledge. This knowledge is organized into patterns or models that help them explain phenomena. Learning involves adding to or altering the learner's existing mental models. Operationalizing Mental Models - Jonassen
Mentors
Teachers and individuals from the community can act as mentors. A Guide to the Mentor Program Listings (Canada and US Programs)
Message Board A place where teachers and students can post information or work that may be of interest to others in the classroom.
Metacognition
Metacognition is "thinking about thinking." Learners monitor their own thought processes to decide if they are learning effectively. Taking a learning styles inventory, then altering study habits to fit what was learned about preferences would be an example of a metacognitive activity. Developing Metacognition. ERIC Digest. Metacognition
Metaphors
Metaphors can be used as examples by teachers, or students can form metaphors. Metaphorical thinking
Microteaching
A form of practice teaching in which the student prepares a short (6-15 minute) lesson and presents the lesson to peers for constructive evaluation. Introduction to Microteaching
Mind Map A graphic way of organizing information to show the interrelationships between concepts. Mind Maps - Introduction
Minimalism
John M. Carroll's approach to instructional design that stresses the importance of providing learners with meaningful tasks early in instruction and allowing them to make and then correct errors. Rather than guiding users step-by-step through a new learning situation, learner's are given tasks to try and then supported as they make mistakes. This approach is often used in the design of instruction for users of computer systems and software. RECONSTRUCTING MINIMALISM by John M. Carroll (PDF) Minimalism
Minute Papers An end-of-class reflection in which students write briefly to answer the questions: "What did you learn today? and "What questions do you still have?" ASSESSING STUDENTS AND YOURSELF USING THE ONE MINUTE PAPER AND OBSERVING STUDENTS WORKING COOPERATIVELY
Mix and Match Students make pairs or sets from randomly ordered objects or concepts on cards. Mix and Match
Mix/Freeze/Group
In this activity, the teacher poses questions to which the answer is a whole number and the students (as a group) answer the question by moving through the classroom to form groups of that size. For example, if the question were, "How much is 24 divided by 8?" the students would cluster to form groups of 3. Mix/Freeze/Group
Mnemonics
Any of several techniques or devices used to help remember or memorize names or concepts. MNEMONIC TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MEMORY "TRICKS" Tools for Improving Your Memory
Mock Trials Students learn about the legal system by assuming the roles of lawyers, witnesses, and judges to act out hypothetical legal cases. Mock Trial Society - Home page
Modeling
Teachers model behaviors or skills. Modeling / Coaching / Scaffolding
Models
Many forms of models are used in the classroom. In the concrete sense, teachers can provide three-dimensional objects (such as globes or models of molecules) for students to explore. Models can also be conceptual. The idea that the Earth revolves around the sun is part of a model of the the structure of the solar system. Building models enhances understanding
Modifying
Useful in the classroom as a scaffolding tool. Provide students with models or information that are nearly correct or complete and allow students to modify the model or information to make it more complete.
Monitor
Student monitors as a mechanism to teach responsibility. Class Officers and Class Jobs
Morphological Analysis Analysis of the meaning of words based on their sub-parts (morphemes). Morphological Analysis
Most Important Word A during reading strategy in which the teacher reminds the students to think about the "most important words" for a particular reading assignment. The teacher gives some examples of some important words, then students work in groups to identify others. Most Important Word
Muddiest Point A question used to stimulate metacognitive thinking. Students are asked to name or describe the concept they understand the least (their muddiest point). Sample Form: The Muddiest Point The Muddiest Point (used in e-mail)
Multi-age Groupings A classroom that includes children of many ages and ability levels. Information for Parents About Nongraded (Multi-Age) Elementary School Implementing a Nongraded Elementary Program Mixed-Age Grouping: What Does the Research Say, and How Can Parents Use This Information?
Multicultural Education Programs Programs that focus on teaching children about other cultures, or adapting teaching to fit the cultures of the children being taught. Cultural Background - NCREL Teaching Tolerance A Community Guide to Multicultural Education Programs Tolerance.org
Multimedia
Typically refers to the presentation of information using a computer and including text-based, audio, and visual components.
Multiple Intelligences Theory Howard Gardner's theory proposing that each person has many intelligences (including linguistic, spatial, musical, etc.). These intelligences work together. Educators should design instruction to foster the growth of all intelligences. Multiple Intelligences - Armstrong
Multiple Solutions Require students to find all acceptable solutions, not just the best.
My Name Ice breaker activity in which students stand and explain what they know about the origin of their name. It could be to explain why they were given their particular first or middle names, or it could be to describe a little about the history of their family name.
Names
Learning student names early is an effective way to minimize the potential for misbehavior and establish positive relationships with students. The Name Game
Naming
A thinking skill requiring the learner to identify objects or concepts by name. One specific form of naming (Rapid Automatized Naming) is used as an assessment of learners' ability to acquire literacy skills. Phonological Skills and Naming Speed as predictors of future literacy deficits
Nature Walks A form of field trip in which students explore and observe objects in their natural environment. Nature Study - (Charlotte Mason's Cure for Tired Text-taught Tots) Go For a Bird Walk
Newscast
Newscasts written and produced by students. Newscasts can either be about current happenings, or be used to explore historical events. World War II Newscasts (PDF)
Newsletters
Ask students to make suggestions or write parts of the class newsletter to be sent home tom parents. Classroom Newsletters
Newspaper Assignment for Cooperative Learning Groups make their own newspapers following guidelines from the teacher. My Antonia Newspaper (DOC)
Newspapers
Newspapers as a real world source of content, or as a product produced by students. Using Newspapers in the Classroom Tips for Managing Newspapers in the Classroom NEWSPAPERS IN EDUCATION - A sampling of ideas for using newspapers in your classroom
Nominal Group Technique A formal structure to facilitate group problem-solving in a way that encourages all members to participate. Nominal Group Technique
Non-examples
A technique used in direct instruction to help students distinguish between similar concepts. Blending Example Instruction
Nondirective Model A student-centered teaching model.
Norm-referenced Assessments Students are compared to each other. The students with the best performance (on tests, presentations, etc.) receive the highest marks. Grades will be distributed over a range (typically A through F) and not all students can receive the highest marks. (compare to criterion-referenced assessment) Norm-Referenced
Note-Taking
The process of recording information presented by a teacher for the purpose of improving recall or understanding by the student. Notes typically include a combination of direct quotes of what a teacher says, diagrams, and additions by the student to add emphasis or to indicate areas where outside study may be required. Note-taking Systems Note-Taking Strategies
Novelty
A motivational technique to engage student early in instruction. Share something unusual with students to arouse curiosity.
Numbered Heads Together Each student is assigned a number. Members of group work together to agree on answer. Teacher randomly selects one number. Student with that number answers for group.
Nutshelling
A form of summary. It usually involves asking a student to examine synthesize a brief statement that captures the essence of all that has been written or stated to that point. Often used in writing classes to help students find the key points in their own writing. Nutshelling: Shrinking and then Growing Anew
Objectives
Share objectives with students to allow them to help plan learning activities to help them reach the objectives.
Observation
Observation of student by teacher. Observations may be used during performance assessments, or simply to gather informal information about an individual student's needs and achievements. Observation
Observation Logs An observation log is a form of journal kept by a student to assist in guiding observation. Students typically are asked to answer specific questions during the course of keeping an observation log. This technique is often employed in teacher education to guide students during their observation of classroom teachers. Using an Observation Log to enhance studies in biology What is Observation? Guidelines for Practicum
Observational Learning Albert Bandura's learning theory stating that much human learning occurs through our observation of the behavior of others. This theory is now often called "social learning" model or theory. Observational Learning Observational Learning
Observations
Observations made by students. Observe a Leaf - Lesson Plan Science Demonstration Observation Form (printable)
Olympiads
Olympiads are formally regulated contests to stimulate interest and enthusiasm for a particular topic. International Science (and Math) Olympiads Mathematics Olympiad Learning Centre International Geographic Olympiad
One Sentence Summary Students are asked to write a single summary sentence that answers the "who, what, where, when, why, how" questions about the topic.
One Word Summary Select (or invent) one word which best summarizes a topic . Write 2-3 sentences justifying the selection of the summary word.
One-way Presentation One-way presentation describes any format in which the learner is passive and information is presented to the learner. One-way presentation modes include video, lecture, and demonstrations.
Open Discussion Open discussion is the least structured form of discussion. The teacher sets the boundaries by describing the general topic for the discussion, but the direction of the discussion follows student interests within that topic. INSTRUCTIONAL DISCUSSION
Open Text Recitation A form of recitation in which students can use their books, notes, or other texts to support their answers.
Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner's elaboration of basic behaviorist beliefs. Skinner believed that individual's learned when their responses to stimuli were reinforced. B. F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning
Opinion Sampling Opinion sampling can be used either as an assignment for students. Teachers may also collect student opinions for the purpose of altering classroom structure. Do- it-Yourself Opinion-poll Sampling Experiments
OPV (Other People's Views) Edward de Bono's strategy for examining the perspectives of others. OPV - Part 1 (PDF) OPV - Part 2 (PDF)
Oral Presentation Oral presentations are a form of direct instruction. Lectures are the most common form of oral presentation in the classroom. Other forms of oral presentation include talks given to describe a project or research findings. Oral Presentation Advice Practical hints for giving a presentation
Oral Reading Oral reading of existing texts can be used to scaffold learning of vocabulary, pronunciation, and connections to related topics. During the writing process, oral reading becomes a proofreading strategy. Oral Reading and Subvocalization
Ordering
Putting objects, concepts, or numbers in order.
Organic Model An educational reform movement in which teachers collaborate to govern school policies and practices rather then following standardized guidelines handed down from distant policy makers. Restructuring high schools can improve student achievement - Lee, Smith, and Croninger
Organizing
Organizing can include many different forms of interaction with objects and concepts. Organizing may include classifying, ordering, ranking, and comparing.
Other People's Views (OPV) Edward de Bono's strategy for examining the perspectives of others. OPV - Part 1 (PDF) OPV - Part 2 (PDF)
Outcome-based Learning A school reform structure that typically requires students to pass specific exit exams or pass exit performances by the time they finish the program. Instruction is adapted to guarantee 100% of the students can meet these exit requirements. Outcome-based Learning
Outlines
An outline is a skeletal version of some larger presentation or writing. Outlines usually include phrases or sentences that are critical to the topic and are arranged in the same order that the concepts will be (or were) presented in the final version. Outlines may be used to guide the creation process in writing or planning, during a lecture to help students follow the concepts being presented, or by students in their note-taking or studying. Developing an Outline
Outside Experts Outside experts can be used as guest speakers, volunteer to assist during projects, or as evaluators of student work. Outside People Help Judge Student Work
P-I-E (Point, Illustrations, Explanation) A writing strategy to remind students about the key parts of a paragraph. As a cue, you can ask them if their paragraph has all the pieces of the P-I-E (Point-Illustrations-Explanation).
Paideia Approach A school model in which all students follow the same rigorous program designed to provide a deep, liberal education. Traditional grading is discouraged and there is an emphasis on classical texts and Socratic methods. Paideia - Philosophy and Method
Painting
While typically restricted to elementary classes or to art classes at the higher levels, painting can be used in a wide variety of classes to encourage creative thinking and problem-solving. At all levels, planning and executing a painting involves the integration of many skills and promotes the development of higher order thinking. Painting encounters
Pair Problem Solving A problem-solving technique in which one member of the pair is the "thinker" who thinks aloud as they try to solve the problem, and the other member is the "listener" who analyzes and provides feedback on the "thinker's" approach. Pair Problem Solving IMPROVING STUDENTS' PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
Pair Project Pair projects take two basic forms. In the commonest form, two students work together to accomplish some task. The task may be to produce a tangible object (like a poster or model) or may be to make a presentation to the class. The more global form of pair project is for classes in different parts of the world to collaborate on a project. The students perform similar activities in both locations then compare results. Pair Project - pair activity Hibizaki and South Dale Pair Project
Paired Verbal Fluency A form of brainstorming. Used to "warm- up" students before a whole class discussion. Student 1 in pair remembers while student 2 listens. Roles switch. Repeat twice.
Pairs Check Pairs work together and check each other's work. Pairs Check Pairs Check (PDF)
Panels
In a panel discussion, a small group acts as experts to answer the questions of the people in the larger group. In a classroom setting, students are selected to become experts on a topic and are given at least a day to prepare for the discussion. Panel discussions can also be held using outside experts. Lesson 16 - Near Miss (Preparation for panel discussion is described in detail.) (PDF)
Pantomime
The expression of ideas using only movement and gestures. One form of pantomime commonly used in the classroom is the narrative pantomime. In narrative pantomime, the leader (usually the teacher) reads a passage of text and the others in the groups act out the passage to demonstrate the ideas using their movements. NARRATIVE PANTOMIME Pantomime Narrative Pantomime - Lesson Plans
Paradoxes
Paradoxes are statements, or sets of statements, that appear to be contradictory. Using paradoxes in the classroom can encourage problem-solving, critical thinking, and logical thinking skills. Welcome to the Hotel Infinity!
Paragraph Shrinking Partners read in pairs. For the first paragraph, one reads and the other summarizes by stating the main idea of that paragraph. The partners then switch roles for the second paragraph.
Paragraph Writing Strategy There are many different formal strategies to help students compose paragraphs. The one thing these strategies all share is that they are similar to strategies for writing larger compositions, but are sometimes more explicit about the number of ideas to use in constructing a single paragraph. Paragraph Writing Strategy POINTS - A Learning Strategy for Paragraph Writing
Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing involves careful reading, then rewriting the ideas of the author in your own words. Learning to paraphrase is critical to understanding how to do research from texts, then properly cite those texts without plagiarizing. Paraphrasing
Parents
Parents can assist in learning in an infinite number of ways. By keeping parents informed about the progress of their child and how they can help, parents can be involved both inside and outside the classroom. Just a few of the roles for parents include: coaching, tutoring, chaperoning, classroom assistant, and providing physical and emotional help during those times when a single person (the teacher) can't do everything. Including Families in Programs for Young Children Parental Involvement Improves Student Achievement Bringing Mom to School Helps the Transition Reaching Out to Uninvolved Parents
Part-to-Part-to-Part
An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners repeatedly, but each time parts of the curriculum are presented deeper concepts are explored.. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Part-to-Whole
An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with parts of the curriculum, then relationships between the parts are presented, and finally learners can incorporate the parts as a whole.. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Part-to-Whole-to-Part
An instructional approach (often used in reading) in which objectives are presented to learners in chronological order. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Partner Discussion Any discussion involving exactly two people. This is a flexible strategy that allows the maximum number of students to verbally express their ideas at the same time. Typically, partner discussions are prompted by a single question, but longer partner discussions can occur if the partners are assigned a larger project.
Partner Reading Pairs of students read together and the listener corrects the active reader. One special form of partner reading is called "Reading Buddies." Reading buddies are pairs whose members are several years apart. Reading Buddies
Pattern Forming The ability to recognize and create patterns is central to many different fields. The use of lessons with "pattern forming" activities is typically started in pre-schools and continues into higher education. Bear Mini-Unit, Lesson 4: Patterning with Bears
PBL (Problem-Based Learning) Inductive teaching method. No direct instruction. Teacher poses authentic (real-world) problem. Students learn particular content and skills as they work cooperatively to solve the problem. Problem-based Learning
Peer Editing Students read and give feedback on the work of their peers. Peer editing is not only useful as a tool to improve students' analytical skills, but also provides students with an alternative audience for their work. Peer Editing Peer Editing Guide Peer Editing
Peer Evaluation Students evaluate presentations or work of fellow students.
Peer Questioning Students ask questions of each other. Often occurs during student presentations.
Peer Tutoring
Peg Word System of Memorization Uses visualization to remember words associated with particular numbers.
Penpals
Performance Assessments Performance Assessment - NCREL
Performance of Skills Skills might include touch typing, use of scientific equipment, drawing, etc.
Perspectives
Students might be asked to analyze perspectives, or take another perspective.
Phenomena maps A structure to help students understand events and their interactions.
Phillips 66
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Pictorial Autobiography Students create collages representing their interests, background, or culture. Students can either share them and explain them to the class, or post them anonymously to allow students to try to guess which collage belongs to which student.
Picture Mapping A form of graphic organizer similar to story mapping. Instead of diagraming using keywords, however, the concepts are illustrated with pictures.
Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM) Inductive, inquiry-based vocabulary-building strategy that presents new words in conjunction with photographs. Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM) (PDF)
PLAN
A writing strategy by Edwin S. Ellis consisting of the following components: Preview audience, goals, & words. List main ideas & details. Assign numbers to indicate order. Note ideas in complete sentences. Framing Main Ideas and Essential Details to Promote Comprehension (see page 22) (PDF)
PLAN (Predict/Locate/Add/Note) A reading/study skills strategy. PLAN - Predict/Locate/Add/Note Reading Strategies
Planning
Plays
Plus, Minus, Interesting (PMI) A decision-making strategy devised by Edward de Bono. Students silently list positive, negative, and other aspects of a problem or solution. Aspects are shared as a group list. All alternatives are considered before decision is made. PMI (PDF)
PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting) A decision-making strategy devised by Edward de Bono. Students silently list positive, negative, and other aspects of a problem or solution. Aspects are shared as a group list. All alternatives are considered before decision is made. PMI (PDF)
Poetry Writing
Point Counterpoint
Point, Illustrations, Explanation (P-I-E) A writing strategy to remind students about the key parts of a paragraph. As a cue, you can ask them if their paragraph has all the pieces of the P-I-E (Point-Illustrations-Explanation).
Pop Quiz Assessment given without notice. Usually written, and used to motivate students to study each day.
PORPE (Predict, Organize, Rehearse, Practice, and Evaluate) A strategy to help students prepare for exams by having them predict the questions on the exam.
Portfolio
Portfolios - NCREL Guidelines for Portfolio Assessment Portfolios
Position Paper
Positive Profile Students analyze characters from reading by completing a personality evaluation form that includes positive characteristics such as "hobbies," "strengths," and "smartest action performed." Positive Profile
Possible Sentences
Posters
Practice
Praise
Precis Writing A form of abstraction or summary.
Precision Teaching
Predict / Check / Connect A reading strategy by Edwin S. Ellis encouraging predictions based on the beginning of a text. Predict / Check / Connect
Predict, Organize, Rehearse, Practice, and Evaluate (PORPE) A strategy to help students prepare for exams by having them predict the questions on the exam.
Predict/Locate/Add/Note (PLAN) A reading/study skills strategy. PLAN - Predict/Locate/Add/Note Reading Strategies
Prediction Pairs Students are paired as they listen to the teacher read a passage aloud. At each pause in the reading, the teacher prompts students to discuss with their partner what they predict will happen next in the reading.
Prediction Relay Extension of Paragraph Shrinking which partners are asked to think ahead.
Predictions
Students make predictions to indicate extended understanding of concepts.
PReP (Prereading Plan) Brainstorming to activate students' existing knowledge before reading.
Prepare-Present-Process
Prepare-Present-Process - planning guide (PDF)
Prepcreation
Creativity activity: list of prepositions (above, in, because, opposite) is interposed between two lists of words, then try to make sense of the combinations. Used to generate novel solutions to problems.
Prereading Plan (PReP) Brainstorming to activate students' existing knowledge before reading.
Presentations
Prewriting Activities
Problem Reversal Solve problems by reversing problem and determining what not to do. Problem Reversal
Problem Vignettes
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Inductive teaching method. No direct instruction. Teacher poses authentic (real-world) problem. Students learn particular content and skills as they work cooperatively to solve the problem. Problem-based Learning
Problem-Solving
A Meaningful Use Task which centers on overcoming constraints or limiting conditions. Polya's "How to Solve It"
Problem-Solving Groups
Problems
Students can interact with problems in many ways. Students may be asked to create or construct problems, they may be asked to set up how to solve problems (without actually completing the calculations necessary to solve them), and finally they may be asked to solve problems.
Process of Elimination
Process Writing Students write following a model specified by the instructor. Emphasis shifts from the nature of the final product, to the process used to create the final product. Process Writing
Profile
Project
Proofreading
Proofreading Checklist
Proofs
PROP Advance Organizer A structured format to give students an overview of what to expect from upcoming instruction. Using a completed form, the teacher describes for students: Prior knowledge, Relationships, Organization, Plan PROP advance organizer - example (PDF)
Proposal Writing
Pros and Cons
Public Performances
Publish
Encouraging students to submit their writing or creations to real-world publishers, or to publish their work themselves using desktop publishing techniques.
Punishment
Puppet Puppets are useful for role play and presentations.
Puzzles
PWIM (Picture Word Inductive Model) Inductive, inquiry-based vocabulary-building strategy that presents new words in conjunction with photographs. Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM) (PDF)
Pyramid Strategy Pyramid Strategy
Q and A (Questions and Answers)
QAR (Question-Answer Relationship) Exploration of the nature of answers. Are answers explicit or implicit in the reading, or are they internal to the reader? Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) Strategy
Question / Check / Connect A strategy by Edwin S. Ellis for learning more about reading by asking questions about the graphics associated with the text. Question / Check / Connect
Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) Exploration of the nature of answers. Are answers explicit or implicit in the reading, or are they internal to the reader? Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) Strategy
Questionnaires
Questions Have students apply "who, what, when, where, why, how" to all problems. Or ask students to generate questions. Classroom Questioning Questioning techniques for gifted students - Painter Teaching Thinking Through Effective Questioning (PHD) questioning.org
Questions and Answers (Q and A)
Questions Into Paragraphs (QuIP) A reading and writing strategy by Elaine McLauglin in which students are taught how to use questions to research answers from multiple texts and incorporate them into a coherent paragraph. QuIP - Questions Into Paragraphs
Quick Drafting Writing Approaches or Strategies - Quick Drafting
Quickdraw
Pair activity in which students have a short period (typically 30 seconds) to share all they know by writing with symbols or drawings.
Quicktalk
Pair activity in which students have exactly 30 seconds to share all they know. Before Reading Strategies
Quickwrite
Pair activity in which students have a short period (typically 30 seconds) to share all they know by writing in a graphic organizer.
Quintilian Progression Model to guide assessment of writing in progress. 1st product: freely generated ideas and words. 2nd: student decides on organizational form of paper. 3rd (first written draft): student should aim for clarity. 4th: revise for correctness. 5th: revise for eloquence. Quintilian
QuIP (Questions Into Paragraphs) A reading and writing strategy by Elaine McLauglin in which students are taught how to use questions to research answers from multiple texts and incorporate them into a coherent paragraph. QuIP - Questions Into Paragraphs
Quotations
RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) Post-reading activity in which students demonstrate understanding by writing for a specific audience. RAFT - Role/Audience/Format/Topic RAFT - Part 1 (PDF) RAFT - Part 2 (PDF) RAFT - Role, Audience, Format, Topic
Rally Robin Rally Robin - pair activity
Random Word Method A creativity technique. Random Input
Randomized Questioning In situations where the teacher wants to ensure that all students have an opportunity to answer questions, the teacher creates note cards with the students' names on them, then shuffles the cards. AFTER asking each question, the teacher reveals the name of the student chosen at random to answer the question.
Raps
Songs written and presented by students.
Rating
Re-Enactments
Reaching Consensus Reaching Consensus decision-making form (PDF)
Reaction Papers
Read Aloud Teacher reads aloud to the class to improve comprehension, expose students to correct pronunciation, or to create positive feelings about reading or a particular book.
Read and Respond Read and Respond
Reader's Theater Students adapt some of their reading to present to other students in the form of a play. These productions can be simple or elaborate and include posters, programs, sets, and costumes. READERS THEATRE
Reading
The Read Aloud Strategy (PDF)
Reading Comprehension
Reading for Information A type of reading in which learners interact with text to collect information, or to improve their understanding of specific topics.
Reading Roadmap Map to guide students in their reading. Shows when to skim, when to read carefully, questions to consider. The Getting Started from Scratch Guide to Pocket PC Programming - Example of a Reading Roadmap
Reading the Room Reading and Writing the Room
Ready-Set-Recall
Ready-Set-Recall - review form (PDF)
Real-World Problems
Reality-Based Model Developed by Glasser as a counseling technique. Useful in teaching students to manage their own behavior by helping them discover what they really in a situation, and socially acceptable ways of getting what they want. What is Reality Therapy?
Rebuttals
Recall, Summarize, Question, Comment, and Connect (RSQC2) A summarization technique in which students Recall (list) key points, Summarize in a single sentence, ask unanswered questions, Connect the material to the goals of the course, and write an evaluative Comment.
Recalling
Reciprocal Teaching Students take turns being the teacher for a pair or small group. Teacher role may be to clarify, ask questions, ask for predictions, etc. Reciprocal Teaching - NCREL
Recitation
Questions and answer session dominated by the teacher. Questions usually have a single correct answer.
Redundancy
To be learned, concepts need to be revisited many times and in a variety of contexts. Younger children may need to work with a concept twenty or more times to fully understand it, while older students and adults typically need to see and use a concept three or more times to be able to remember and properly use it.
Reflection
A metacognitive activity. Learner pauses to think about, and organize information gathered from reading, discussions, or other activities.
Reflection Logs
Reflective Discussion
Rehearsals
Rejoiners
RELATE Table A graphic organizer to help students connect what they learn in the classroom to real world events or issues. Making Real-World Connections When Teaching Major Concepts in Inclusive Classrooms
Relay Summary Team activity to summarize reading. One team member writes one sentences summarizing reading then passes page to teammate. Continues until everyone in team has added at least one sentence.
Reports
ReQuest Teacher and students take turns asking each other questions about reading.
Research Papers
Research Project
Resiliency Training Resiliency in Action
Restating
Retelling Stories
Review
Revising Students can learn by revising their own work, or by revising the work of others. A Checklist for Revision
Rhymes
Riddles
Role-Playing
Role/Audience/Format/Topic (RAFT) Post-reading activity in which students demonstrate understanding by writing for a specific audience. RAFT - Role/Audience/Format/Topic RAFT - Part 1 (PDF) RAFT - Part 2 (PDF) RAFT - Role, Audience, Format, Topic
Room Display
Roots
Word root activities to build vocabulary.
Round Robin Round Robin -team activity
Round-Table Discussion At a table, 4 or 5 participants informally discuss topic among themselves and with the audience.
Routines
One way to maximize teaching time, shorten delays due to transitions, and focus student behavior is to establish routines on the first day. Points to discuss include procedures for turning in work. what is expected during the first minutes of class, and what materials are needed each day.
RSQC2 (Recall, Summarize, Question, Comment, and Connect) A summarization technique in which students Recall (list) key points, Summarize in a single sentence, ask unanswered questions, Connect the material to the goals of the course, and write an evaluative Comment.
Rubrics
Rubrics for Web Lessons
Rule-Making
S.W.O.T. Analysis (SWOT) Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) in a situation. S.W.O.T. Analysis - group function form (PDF)
Sample Tests
Sampling
Sampling
Scaffolding
Providing temporary support until help is no longer needed. Can take many forms (examples, explanations, organizers, etc.) but needs to build on student's existing knowledge. Scaffolding Modeling / Coaching / Scaffolding
Scale Drawings
Scale Models
SCAMPER
Creativity technique by that uses the SCAMPER acronym to help students remember to try many variations on an idea. SCAMPER = Substitute, Combine, Adapt, (Modify, Magnify, Minify), Put to other use, Eliminate, (Reverse, Rearrange). SCAMPER
Scanning
Reading or looking at material quickly to gain an overview of the content.
Schematic Drawings
School to Work School to Work Transition
Science Kits
SCOPE (Spelling, Capitalization, Order of words, Punctuation, Express complete thoughts) A proofreading strategy. SCOPE Strategy
Scored Discussions Scored Discussion scoring form (PDF)
Scoring
Scoring Guides
Script
Student-generated scripts and screenplays.
Script Theory A theory about the structure of knowledge by Roger Schank. The core idea is that knowledge is stored as a series of scripts that we have composed based on our prior experiences. When some new event occurs, we try to fit the new information into our existing scripts. This reliance on existing mental frameworks makes script theory very similar to constructivism. Unlike constructivism, script theory is more concerned with discovering specific underlying shared scripts and formally recording them. Script theory is often applied to language learning and the design of educational software. Script theory (R. Schank)
Scripted Cooperative Dyads Pairs both read complex material, then alternate in roles of recaller (who summarizes and explains what was read) and listener (who listens, then corrects or adds to what was said by recaller).
SEARCH
A writing strategy by Edwin S. Ellis consisting of the following steps: Set goals. Examine your paper to see if it makes sense. Ask if you said what you wanted to say. Reveal picky errors. Copy over neatly. Have a last look for errors. SEARCH: an editing strategy
Seating Chart
Seatwork
Individual work by students as they work at their desks. May include reading, worksheets, writing , research, etc.
Selecting
Self-Assessments Students reflect on their performance and assess themselves. Self-Assessment In Portfolios - NCREL Self and Peer-Evaluations
Self-Correction
Students correct themselves during reading, speaking, or performing skills.
Self-Regulated Writing Strategy Self-Regulated Writing Strategy
Self-Selected Reading Students select the materials to read. Improves motivation because students can select materials of interest to them.
Semantic Associations Making connections between words based on meaning and context.
Semantic Feature Analysis Chart or grid where students explore their existing knowledge about relations between concepts. Semantic Feature Analysis
Semantic Map
Semantic Word Map
Send-a-Problem
Send-a-Problem - team activity
Senses
Students can make more complete connections to concepts if all of their senses are stimulated.
Sequence Chains
Sequencing
Creating sequences from clues. Also a writing strategy and a team activity. Sequencing - team activity Sequencing example
Service Learning Learn & Serve America
Set
Any activity at the beginning of a lesson whose function is to motivate students to participate in the learning to come and redirect the students' attention to the general objectives to be learned.. An effective set may be as simple as asking a question, or as complicated as a ten minute hands-on activity. Anticipatory Set and Closure Typical Teaching Outline
Set Breaking
Shadowing
The student follows a professional for several hours or a whole day to learn more about the work done by, and skills needed by that person. Often used in teacher education programs or apprenticeships.
Share-Pair Circles Divide class into two equal groups and each group forms a circle. The inner circle faces outward and the outer circle faces inward, to form pairs of facing students. In response to teacher questions, each pair discusses their ideas, then one of the circles rotates to create new pairs. Repeat until the original pairs are again facing each other. Share-Pair Circles
Share/Check Work/Review/Discuss
Shared Inquiry
Shared Reading A teaching strategy employing oversized picture books from which the teacher reads aloud to a group of children. Shared Reading: An Effective Instructional Model
Shared Stories Students and teachers share personal stories to explore their shared and divergent values, cultures, and backgrounds.
Shared Writing Each student contributes one or two sentences to a story written by the whole class.
Show and Tell Students bring in personal objects to share with the class.
Showdown
Showdown - team activity
Signals
Includes verbal and non-verbal communications between teachers and students.
Silent Reading
Similarity Groups Similarity Groups - pairing activity
Simplex
The Basadur Simplex approach to problem-solving.
Simulations
Situated Learning An educational theory by Jean Lave proposing that learning normally occurs in a specific context (i.e. with certain people or while performing certain tasks). Learning, then involves both social interactions and interactions with the real-life materials and places where the knowledge would be applied. Variations of situated learning would include apprenticeships and cognitive apprenticeships. Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest No. 195. Situated Learning
Situational Role Play Situational Role Play
Six Thinking Hats A metacognitive strategy that encourages people to look at concepts from different perspectives. Each hat represents a mode of thinking. The white hat = look at data, red = feelings, black = judgment, yellow = positive attitude, green = creativity, blue = overview. Six Hat Thinking form (PDF)
Skill
The use or demonstration of skills by the student.
Skill Inventory There are two basic formats for a skill inventory. Individuals may either generate their own list of skills, or individuals may "check off" skills they possess from a list of skills. Used as a self-assessment in many fields but most often used as part of career exploration or professional development. Skill Inventory
Skimming
Reading or looking at material quickly to gain an overview of the content.
Skits
Skits
SLANT
Teaching strategy to encourage students to participate in discussions. Sit up. Lean forward. Activate your thinking. Note important information. Track the talker. The SLANT Class Participation Strategy
Slide Show A form of presentation by students. Slides can be a series of drawings, or can be generated and presented using software like PowerPoint.
Slides
Slip Writing Individual brainstorming on paper followed by sharing of the written ideas in small groups. Slip Writing
Snack
Snowball Snowball - bodily/kinesthetic review activity
Social Development Theory Based on Lev Vygotsky's philosophy that learning occurs through social interactions. Emphasizes the importance of cooperative learning groups, motivation, observation of models, and student attitudes. Vygotsky and Social Cognition Social Development Theory
Social Learning Models Albert Bandura's theory of learning through modeling observed behaviors. Cooperative Learning - Huitt Social Learning Theory
Social Science Inquiry Social Science Inquiry
Sociodrama
Portrayal of town meetings or sessions of congress (for example). The Role of Drama in Child Development
Socratic Dialogue
Socratic Method Rather than "telling," teacher leads students to concept through a series of ordered questions. The Socratic Approach to Character Education - Elkind and Sweet The Socratic Method: Teaching by Asking Instead of by Telling
Socratic Questioning
Somebody Wanted But So After reading activity that uses a graphical organizer to help students evaluate character ("somebody"), motivation ("wanted"), conflict ("but"), and resolution ("so"). Somebody Wanted But So
Songs
Using Songs in the Classroom Songs for Teaching - Using Music to Promote Learning
Sort Cards Words and images associated with topic are put on individual cards. Groups sort cards into categories and label and discuss categories.
Sorting
Sorting Through and Organizing Material in Writing
Sound Burglar
Spear's Model
Speeches
Spelling Notebook A student-generated list of words maintained by the student to remind them of words they need more work on.
Spelling Pictures Students copy their spelling words by writing them in a pattern that "traces" a picture. Spelling Pictures
Spelling, Capitalization, Order of words, Punctuation, Express complete thoughts (SCOPE) A proofreading strategy. SCOPE Strategy
Spider Map A form of graphic organizer to help students see the relationship between details and the main topic. Spider Map
Spiral Sequencing An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with simple concepts and then periodically revisiting the concepts and expanding on the concepts as is appropriate for the learner's cognitive level.. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part Constructivist Theory - J. Bruner
Sports
Participation in, or analysis of sporting events.
Spotlight On Similar to "Student of the Week." The work and background of a single student is showcased to the class.
SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) An approach to studying and reading to improve comprehension and retention. SQ3R - Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review SQ3R - form (PDF) Reading Methods: SQ3R
STAD (Student Teams-Achievement Divisions) Highly structured cooperative learning method following a "Teach, Team study, Test, Team recognition" strategy. Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
Stance Questions Interacting with reading by taking different perspectives. What are Stance Questions?
STaR (Story Telling and Retelling) Teachers read stories to students then students retell the story by acting it out, answering questions, or writing about the story.
Starbursting
Similar to the Lotus Blossom Technique, but after identify topic, ask what questions can be created.
Step-by-Step Sequencing An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners as a series of steps. Often used to teach procedures. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Topical, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Stir the Teams Students are assigned to teams and each student in the team has a number (typically 1 through 4). Teams discuss their group answer to the teacher's question, then when the team is done they give a signal. When all teams are done, the teacher calls a number (from 1 to 4) and the students with that number rotate to the next group to share their team's answer with their new team. The procedure then repeats through the series of questions.
STOPS
Acronym is useful to help students remember which aspects of their writing they should check when editing.STOPS stands for: Sentence structure, Tenses, Organization, Punctuation, Spelling
Story Activities
Story Frame A guided reading tool that gives prompts to elicit information about the sequence of events that occur during a story. Story Frame
Story Impressions The teacher presents ten to fifteen terms to students prior to reading. These terms appear in the same order that they appear in the reading. Students write a passage using the terms that they think predicts what will happen in the reading. Students share their predictions with others. Finally, students read, comparing their predictions (story impressions) with the reading. Story Impressions
Story Maps Example Story Map
Story Method for Memorization Each word to be memorized is included in a story made up by the student. The Story Method
Story Related Reading The exploration of texts related to the primary text. These activities, often cooperative, typically include reading related texts or stories, then making comparisons to the original story through writing or discussions.
Story Retell
Story Starters Printable Story Starters (Elementary) Story Starters Story Starters 1
Story Structure Review Students are asked to recall key features of a story using a blank story map.
Story Telling
Story Telling and Retelling (STaR) Teachers read stories to students then students retell the story by acting it out, answering questions, or writing about the story.
Storyboarding
Storyboarding
Structured Controversy Students (in groups of four) "argue" about controversial topic using research to support their assigned viewpoint. Groups reach and present consensus.
Structured Note-Taking Structured Note-taking
Student Expectations Often used as a first day activity, teachers can directly ask students what their expectations are for the class. Later in the course, students understanding can be assessed by eliciting information about student expectations for the upcoming topic.
Student Helpers
Student of the Week
Student Response Groups Small groups of students who provide peer evaluation of the work of the other students in the group. Useful for writing or other creative projects because it gives the author an audience to experiment with before submitting work to a larger audience or for evaluation.
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) Highly structured cooperative learning method following a "Teach, Team study, Test, Team recognition" strategy. Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
Study Aids The teacher provides students with carefully constructed tools to assist students in learning for specific structures or environments. For example, the teacher may distribute a "Guide to Using the Library" before taking students to the library to do research. Before a multiple choice test, the teacher may provide test-taking tips or tips on how to study for the upcoming test.
Study Groups
Study Guides
Study Skills
Stump the Teacher Game where students make up questions based on a reading assignment. The teacher gets a point if he or she can answer the question, and the students get a point if the teacher fails to answer the question. Stump the Teacher
Subsumption Theory David Ausubel's subsumption theory describes the importance of relating new ideas to a students existing knowledge base BEFORE the new material is presented. This theory is applied in the "advance organizer" strategy developed by Ausubel. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY - DAVID AUSUBEL - by Barbara Bowen Subsumption Theory
Success For All Success for All Foundation
Suchman Inquiry Like twenty questions. Teacher poses problem then helps students solve problem by answering "yes" or "no" to student questions.
Suggestion Box Useful for collecting any form of anonymous feedback. Student opinions can be regularly collected as part of class activities, or the box could be used in the classroom as an informal method for students to make comments about activities in the classroom. Often most effective when paired with the Admit Slip/Exit Slip approach.
Summaries
Section 2: Summarizing and Note Taking
Supervised Practice
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R) An approach to studying and reading to improve comprehension and retention. SQ3R - Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review SQ3R - form (PDF) Reading Methods: SQ3R
Surveys
Sustained Silent Reading Using Sustained Silent Reading
SWOT (S.W.O.T. Analysis) Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) in a situation. S.W.O.T. Analysis - group function form (PDF)
Syllabus
Create and distribute a syllabus (overview of the course) to students and parents at the beginning of the course. Provides students with valuable information about the upcoming concepts they will be learning along with behaviors and routines to expect.
Symposium
Participants formally present material then respond to questions from the audience.
Synectics
Metaphors generated by the students are used to help them understand controversial issues or solve problems. Synectics The Teaching of Linking Thinking Synectics
Syntax
The use of the structure of language, or knowledge about the structure of language to solve problems or understand text.
Synthesizing
TAI (Team Assisted Individualization) Combines individualized instruction with team rewards for meeting goals. TEACHING MODELS BASED ON A COGNITIVE LEARNING APPROACH STUDENT CENTRED
Talking Chips Response management technique to encourage students who do not often contribute, and limit students who contribute too much to discussions. Talking Chips
TAPPS (Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving)
Task Cards Specific instructions or guides for student use at learning centers. May be an assignment, or how to practice skills. Example - Weather Charting Task Cards
Taxonomies
Teacher Errors Establish reward system for finding and correcting errors made by the teacher.
Teacher Expectations A clear, written explanation of the teacher's expectations. This should describe desirable behavior, rules, and the steps needed to get a good grade in a course. For older students, this is often included in a syllabus handed out the first day. For younger students, this is part of the packet of information sent home to be read by the parents. As the course progresses, more detailed expectations can be revealed to the students to describe what is necessary to be successful on particular tasks.
Teacher's Background Teachers are real people with families, hobbies, and former occupations. By sharing information about themselves with students, teachers establish themselves as both accessible and credible as a teacher.
Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) Combines individualized instruction with team rewards for meeting goals. TEACHING MODELS BASED ON A COGNITIVE LEARNING APPROACH STUDENT CENTRED
Team Consensus When a group response is desired, present methods to assist groups in creating responses that are satisfactory to all members of the group.
Team Product Students work in teams to accomplish a task (either learning, or creating a physical product). Team Project
Team Reading
Team Teaching
Team Word Web Team Word Web - team activity
Teammates Consult Team-based discussion-summary technique. Teammates Consult
Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) TGT design form (PDF)
Telephone
One student is chosen to leave the room while the teacher teaches a short lesson to the rest of the class. The absent student returns and is taught the lesson by the students. The student who was absent is given a (typically non-graded) quiz. Results of the quiz are used for reteaching. Telephone - "students as teachers" activity
Television
Educational television programming is used in the classroom.
Tell and Retell
Telling
Ten Plus Two (10 + 2) Direct instruction variation where the teacher presents for ten minutes, students share and reflect for two minutes, then the cycle repeats.
Test
Many variants, including paper and pencil, student generated, and take home. Familiar Assessment Tools: Tests
Text Frame Models which show the format of material as presented in texts. Helps show the relationships between concepts. (ex. C=cause, E=effect) (cycle) C C-E-C-E (chain) E E C Text Structure
TGT (Teams-Games-Tournaments) TGT design form (PDF)
The Last Word Summary technique. Each letter in topic name is used to remember key ideas in topic. (example: snow, Six-sided ice crystals. Near center is dust particle One snowflake is usually made of more than one crystal. Water vapor freezes to form.)
Thelen's Group Investigation Groups explore socially significant problems.
Thematic Units Thematic Instruction
Theme Song
Things in Common Sheet (TIC Sheet) Team building activity where groups explore the foods, places, activities, TV, and movies they all like and all dislike.
Think Along
Think Ink Pair Share Like Think-Pair-Share but with writing component. Think Ink Pair Share (PDF)
Think Pad Brainstorm Think Pad Brainstorm - team activity
Think Sheets
Think-Aloud
Teacher describes own thoughts while reading aloud to class. Using a Think Aloud in the Classroom
Think-Pair-Share
Students think individually, then pair (discuss with partner), then share ideas with class.
Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS)
Three Minute Pause After or during instruction, ask students to pause and reflect on what was learned for three minutes. Students might work individually, in pairs, or in small groups to build summary.
Three Step Interview Groups of four (a, b, c, d). Teacher assigns question. Step 1: a interviews b, c interviews d. Step 2: b interviews a, d interviews c. Step 3: All in group share what they've learned in their interviews. Three Step Interview (PDF)
Three-Two-One (3-2-1) Writing activity where students write: 3 key terms from what they have just learned, 2 ideas they would like to learn more about, and 1 concept or skill they think they have mastered.
TIC Sheet (Things in Common Sheet) Team building activity where groups explore the foods, places, activities, TV, and movies they all like and all dislike.
Ticket to Leave Closing activity where students respond in writing or verbally to short assignment.
Timed Drill
Timed-Pair-Share
Timed-Pair-Share - pair activity
Timelines
Topical Sequencing An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with issues currently of interest, then tracing back the history of the development of that issue. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Unknown-to-Known, Whole-to-Part
Toss a Question Toss a Question and Catch an Answer
Tough's Model
Tournaments
Traditions Sharing or explaining family traditions.
Transformation of Text Supply students with a text and ask them to transform it from its original genre to a different genre.For example, supply prose and ask students to create a poem with the same essential ideas.
Translating
Transparencies Transparencies are clear sheets of plastic on which both text and graphics may be copied. Transparencies may be used during direct instruction as a guide to the teacher, to allow them to eliminate using separate lecture notes, and also as a means to quickly show many graphics. Other uses of transparencies include: presentation of quizzes, problems of the day, jokes, cartoons, and to present problems that can then be turned over to students to complete for the class.
Turn to Your Partner Teacher gives directions to students. Students formulate individual response, then turn to a partner to share their answers. Teacher calls on several random pairs to share their answers with the class. Turn To Your Partner (printable sheet to guide activity) TTYP (example sheet)
Tutoring
One-on-one approach to teaching or reteaching concepts. May be done by teachers, peers (other students) or professional tutors. Strategies for Tutoring Writing
Twenty Questions
Two Dimensional Matrix A group activity in which students make associates between two lists of words. Two Dimensional Matrix
Unconscious Problem-Solving Study problem until understand well, then take a break and relax to let unconscious mind work on problem.
Unknown Objects Bring an object to class that students are unlikely to recognize. Can be used as writing or discussion prompts, as subjects for an investigation, or even in an art class. Useful for encouraging students to ask questions.
Unknown-to-Known
An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with unknown concepts and proceeding to known concepts. Used as a motivational technique to induce students to want to know more. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Whole-to-Part Unconscious Problem Solving
Unsent Letter
Using
Using objects or concepts to show skills or valuing.
Value Clarification Discussion Discussion during which questions are open-ended and with no one right answer. Used to develop values.
Value Line
Venn Diagram A form of graphic organizer. Commonly used in mathematics and comparisons. Venn Diagram Basic
Videotapes
Commercially produced tapes for educational purposes.
Videotaping
Students produce videotapes then review their presentations. Useful in improving metacognitive and communication skills.
Visual Aids Any graphical aids used in presentations or to clarify or improve writing. Visual Aids
Visual Memory Display picture for a second or two, then ask students to describe as much as they can remember from what they saw.
Vocabulary List
Vocabulary Overview Guide
Vocabulary Self collection Strategy (VSS) As a class, students nominate words they'd like to learn more about. Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS) (Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS))
Volunteer
Students as volunteers at a hospital, day care center, the zoo, etc.
Voting
Voting Cards Students can be given laminated cards at the beginning of the year to be used to express their opinions in class. When they agree with a statement, they might hold up a green card, disagreement could be signified with a red card, and yellow could be used to show indecision or uncertainty.
VSS (Vocabulary Self collection Strategy) As a class, students nominate words they'd like to learn more about. Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS) (Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS))
Wait Time How long a teacher waits after asking a question can influence the quality of responses provided by students. Increased "wait time" also leads to increased confidence in students and improvements in classroom discipline. A Look at Research: Benefits of Wait Time
Walking Tour Passages from reading are posted on individual pages around the room. Groups tour the room and discuss each passage, then summarize.
Want Ads Students write want ads. Varieties include "historical," "humorous," and as a famous character.
Web
Webbing in writing. Webs, Networks, and Concept Maps
Web Page Writing and design of web pages.
Web Searches
WebQuests
WebQuest Taskonomy: A Taxonomy of Tasks
What Is It? The teacher brings an object to class that is unfamiliar or has some historical significance. Ask students to identify the object or describe how it might have been used.
Where Am I? Pair activity where partner1 points to a place on a blank map and partner2 selects the location from a list or names the location. Partner1 checks the response with a key. Partners switch roles halfway through the list. Alternative approach: partner1 describes location (no maps) and partner2 guesses where it is.
Who Am I? Who Am I? - verbal clue activity
Whole Language A form of holistic learning. Whole Language Whole Language Umbrella Beliefs
Whole Math A form of holistic learning.
Whole-to-Part
An instructional approach in which objectives are presented to learners beginning with an overview of the whole model or idea, then proceeding to an analysis of the component parts. Compare to: Chronological, General-to-Specific, Known-to-Unknown, Part-to-Part-to-Part, Part-to-Whole, Part-to-Whole-to Part, Spiral, Step-by-Step, Topical, Unknown-to-Known
Word Associates Similar to the Concept Attainment strategy, where students are shown a series of examples and non-examples. Students are shown a series of cards in which one of the cards does not "fit." Once the students identify the card that does not fit, they attempt to discover the word or phrase associated with the objects or ideas that do belong together. Word Associates
Word Bank List or collection of words for students to choose from.
Word Chain Game that helps students categorize. Teacher supplies category and a first word, then students supply the next word "in the chain." The chain is formed having the next word start with the ending letter of the previous word. For example: Category = Things found in the kitchen. Words: SinK - KnifE - EggbeateR - RefrigeratoR - and so on.
Word Maps
Word Problems
Word Sort Students sort the lists of keywords they are given into logical groups. Word Sorts
Word Wall
Wordsplash
Students make predictions about reading based on a collection of key words and the name of the central topic. "Splash" refers to the random arrangement of the key terms around the topic at the start of the activity.
Work Sheets
Working Backwards
Workstations
A learning center with a computer.
Writing
Many varieties, including creative writing, exposition, etc.
X
Eventually we hope to find some strategies beginning with "X."
Y
Eventually we hope to find some strategies beginning with "Y."
Zoo
Activities centered on local zoos. Might include trips, design activities, or webquests.
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Keywords: Teaching strategies, teaching strategy, teaching modes, teaching mode, teaching models, teaching model, teaching methods, teaching method, teaching activities, teaching activity, educational approaches, educational approach, instructional strategies, instructional strategy, instructional models, instructional model, instructional activities, instructional activity, learning activities, learning activity, assessment models, assessment model, alternative assessments, alternative assessment.
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Corrections and suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
Kelly Jo Rowan (rowankj@yahoo.com)

Curriculum Design:

|Goals |Goals are statements of educational intention which are more |Students will be able to identify and use American slang |
| |specific than aims. Goals too may encompass an entire |terms and phrases. |
| |program, subject area, or multiple grade levels. They may be |(This example is a subset of the aim above, but the area |
| |in either amorphous language or in more specific behavioral |becomes more specific. This goal moves from generic spoken |
| |terms. |English to the more detailed area of American slang. One |
| | |verb used is still identify, although this goal does not |
| | |specify how students are to identify, and the verb use has |
| | |been added. The objectives related to this goal should |
| | |specify how the students will identify and use new |
| | |knowledge.) |
|Objectives |Objectives are usually specific statements of educational |Objectives can be written in a number of ways. Currently, |
| |intention which delineate either general or specific |most objectives are written in behavioral terms. Behavioral|
| |outcomes. |objectives usually employ observable verbiage and can be |
| |There are advantages and disadvantages to different types of |divided into specific domains -- cognitive, affective, and |
| |objectives. |physical. |
| |Behavioral objectives |Samples: |
| |Holistic objectives |Cognitive: Students will identify and list 5 slang terms |
| |Nonbehavioral objectives |they have heard from their peers. |
| |Problem solving objectives |Affective: Student will choose 3 of the most offensive |
| |Expressive activities that lead to expressive outcomes. |slang terms from a list developed by the entire class. |
| | |Physical: Students will create expressive gestures to go |
| | |with their favorite slang terms. |

Behavioral Objectives: These types of objective indicate the specific behaviors students must demonstrate to indicate that learning has occurred. • They are easier to categorize by domain (Cognitive, affective, physical/kinesthetic/tactile). • They are more easily evaluated. ( usually by objective methods.) • May easily be designated for horizontal enrichment or vertical acceleration into categories of: 1. must know 2. need to know 3. nice to know 4. or categories like: introduced, developed, mastered. – The cognitive domain includes those objectives that deal with “the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills.” – The objectives of the affective domain describe “changes in interest, attitudes, and values, and the development of appreciations and adequate adjustment.” – The psychomotor domain pertains to “the manipulative or motor-skill area.”
The Learning Spiral
What Is the Learning Spiral?
The Learning Spiral is a curriculum design framework to help you construct lessons, activities, or projects that target the development of students' thinking skills and habits of mind. Up front, the Learning Spiral will help you clearly identify the thinking skills and dispositions you want to cultivate in your students. But the Learning Spiral takes you past identification and into implementation. The power behind the Learning Spiral lies in its scaffolding of the design and planning process so that your lessons not only elicit the thinking performances you want from your students, but also sets standards for those performances.
How Does It Work?
The Learning Spiral structures the planning process to address 5 important components of generating thinking-centered lessons and projects. When you use the Learning Spiral to design curriculum, you can explore each component in any order you want. The important thing is to address each component in some thoughtful or creative way. Use the Learning Spiral to help you put the theory and ideas behind the teaching of thinking into practice in concrete ways at the classroom level.
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2.2 Supports a culture for a caring school/district community.

2.3 Uses student assessment grounded in the belief that each student can learn.

Belief Statements express our fundamental convictions, values and character. They provide the bedrock values which move the organization to commit itself to its specific mission and objectives. They establish our moral and ethical priorities which guide the district activities.

2.4 Uses student data that improve instruction.

2.5 Develops, evaluates, and refines curriculum.
Curriculum Models
The Parallel Curriculum Model is a set of four interrelated designs that can be used singly, or in combination, to create or revise existing curriculum units, lessons, or tasks. Each of the four parallels offers a unique approach for organizing content, teaching, and learning that is closely aligned to the special purpose of each parallel. It is multi layered so that the curriculum can be more adequately altered to meet the needs of diverse learners. • Each parallel has components that align with each other. • Parallels can be used singly or in combination. • Each of the parallels is of equal value and use with a variety of students or with an individual student at a variety of times. • The choice to use a particular parallel should be strongly related to learners’ profiles, the subject area, content goals, related units, lessons, and tasks. Goals: • Enhances the collaboration between general education and gifted education • Increases the number of students who participate in challenging and motivating curriculum • Nurtures the varied strengths and interests among all our students • Strengthens the sense of collegiality within the field of gifted education • Increases the extent to which gifted education theory and principles are incorporated into daily practice The four Parallels consist of the Core Curriculum, the Curriculum of Connections, the Curriculum of Practice and the Curriculum of Identity. Each parallel provides opportunities for educators and learners to explore areas in varying degrees of depth and complexity. Parallels: 1. The Core Curriculum is a plan that includes a set of guidelines and procedures to help curriculum developers address the core concepts, principles, and skills of a discipline. This parallel is designed to help students understand essential, discipline-based information, concepts, principles, and skills through the use of representative topics, inductive teaching, and analytic learning activities. 2. The Curriculum of Connections builds upon the Core Curriculum. It is a plan that includes a set of guidelines and procedures to help curriculum developers connect overarching concepts, principles, and skills within and across disciplines, time periods, cultures, places, and/or events. This parallel is designed to help students understand overarching concepts and principles as they relate to new content and content areas. 3. The Curriculum of Practice is a plan that includes a set of guidelines and procedures to help students understand, use, generalize, and transfer essential knowledge, understandings, and skills in a field to authentic, discipline-based practices and problems. This parallel is designed to help students function with increasing skill and competency as a scholar, researcher, problem solver, or practitioner in a field. 4. The Curriculum of Identity is a plan that includes a set of guidelines and procedures to assist students in reflecting upon the relationship between the skills and ideas in a discipline and their own lives, personal growth, and development. This parallel is designed to help students explore and participate in a discipline or field as it relates to their own interests, goals, and strengths, both now and in the future.

Curriculum Mapping, Writing, and Planning A curriculum map—which graphically organizes the skills and content covered in each course, department, and grade level—is a powerful tool. (connections between courses and the transitions from introductory to sophisticated skills) • To improve student achievement in these ways:
1. Consistent and ongoing assessments using the chosen rubric will allow us to identify and focus on student weaknesses. If we know what a student is not doing well, we can concentrate our efforts on the instruction he needs in order to improve.
2. Assure that students make progress through instruction that is focused on the same goals throughout his years in our schools. With a focus on the same goal, we don't have to "start over from scratch" every year; likewise, if we all use the same language students will be able to apply concepts across grade levels and disciplines.
Why Use Curriculum Mapping? • Mapping curriculum enables teachers to assure that they allocate sufficient time to cover each standard and objective. • As teachers map out teaching units, cross-curricular connections become more evident and can be intentionally promoted. This enables students to develop real world application for concepts. • Curriculum maps provide the framework for building teaching units. Some standards and objectives are seasonal and must be taught during the appropriate time of the year. Other standards and objectives are developmental and must be built in sequentially throughout the year. • As teachers stand back and analyze a curriculum map, teaching strategies become clearer. The teacher is better able to create a balance between teacher-directed concepts and student-generated investigations. • Grade level planning, exploration tubs, learning centers, and creative drama centers can be correlated using curriculum maps. Kindergarten, first grade, and second grade standards and objectives have common themes, and teachers can benefit from sharing resources, correlating field trips, and building grade level libraries. • Curriculum mapping can also facilitate assessment planning. Periodic self-assessment and assessment using rubrics promotes awareness of strengths and areas for improvement. Students learn the language and process of setting, recording, and evaluating goals. • Mapping literature into learning centers promotes an environment that is rich with literacy materials. This provides students with the opportunity to read and write in social, collaborative settings. Well-designed classroom literacy centers significantly increase the number of children who choose to participate in literary activities for both pleasure and information.
Curriculum Maps and Unit Planning
As teachers begin mapping out curriculum, they find it helpful to participate in grade level planning, as well as correlating with the K-2 team. The following sample curriculum maps provide examples of how to break down big themes into "concept bits," thus enabling unit, weekly, and daily planning. Sample Unit Planning Sheets are provided to help with planning an integrated unit and to assist with integrating language, arts, and mathematics into other content areas. Teachers will determine which concepts to integrate and which ones to teach in isolation.
CURRICULUM MAPPING is a means of articulating what happens in a classroom, school and district. It is a calendar based compilation of the content, skills and assessments that a child experiences at each grade level. Just as a road map shows where you are, where you've been, and where you are going, a curriculum map gives the same information about what is occurring in a classroom, in a school, and in schools throughout the district. It is a tool for communication and long and short term planning.
Bloom’s Taxonomy
|Level of | |Teacher |Student | | |
|Taxonomy |Definition |Roles |Roles |Process Verbs |Products |
| | |Clarifies |• Judges |judge | |appraise |investigation |judgment |
|Evaluation |Judging the |Accepts |• Disputes |rate |evaluate |value |opinion |report |
| |values of |Harmonizes |• Develops |validate |compare |probe |survey |editorial |
|[pic] |ideas, |Guides |• Active |predict |defend |argue |debate |scale |
| |materials and | |Participant |assess |select |decide |verdict |evaluation |
| |methods by | | |score |measure |estimate |conclusion | |
| |developing and| | |revise |choose |criticize |recommendation | |
| |applying | | |infer |conclude |rank |panel | |
| |standards and | | |criteria |deduce |award | | |
| |criteria. | | |determine |debate |support | | |
| | | | |prioritize |justify |reject | | |
| | | | |tell why |recommend |referee | | |
| | | | | |discriminate | | | |
|Synthesis | |Reflects |• Discusses |compose | |formulate |film |poem |
| |Putting |Extends |• Generalizes |assemble |propose |set up |story |formula |
| |together |Analyzes |• Relates |manage |construct |design |project |machine |
|[pic] |constituent |Evaluates |• Compares |pretend |plan |blend |blueprint |goal |
| |elements or | |• Contrasts |arrange |revise |create |plan |play |
| |parts to form | |• Abstracts |organize |collect |produce |solution |cartoon |
| |a whole | |• Active |invent |prepare |hypothesize |new game |invention |
| |requiring | |participant |generalize |develop |predict |song |product |
| |original, | | |systematize |originate |concoct |pantomime |radio |
| |creative | | |show |imagine |infer |video |event |
| |thinking. | | |compile |generate |act |newspaper |collage |
| | | | |forecast |prediction |compile |painting |design |
| | | | |modify |combine |reorganize |Hypercard stack | |
| | | | |devise |organize |role-play |media product | |
| | | | |derive |write |improve |advertisement | |
| | | | | |suppose | | | |
|Level of | |Teacher |Student | | |
|Taxonomy |Definition |Roles |Roles |Process Verbs |Products |
|Analysis |Breaking |Probes |• Discusses |distinguish | |test |diagram |chart |
| |information |Guides |• Uncovers |contract |calculate |debate |investigation |outline |
| |down into its |Observes |• Lists |question |criticize |analyze |graph |list |
|[pic] |constituent |Evaluates |• Active |appraise |solve |diagram |conclusion |plan |
| |elements. |Acts as a |Participant |experiment |interpret |contrast |category |summary |
| | |resource | |inspect |compare |relate |questionnaire |survey |
| | |Questions | |examine |inventory |dissect |illustration |database |
| | |Organizes | |probe |scrutinize |categorize |inventory |mobile |
| | |Dissects | |separate |discover |point out |spreadsheet |abstract |
| | | | |inquire |survey |classify |checklist |report |
| | | | |arrange |detect |organize | | |
| | | | |investigate |group |differentiate | | |
| | | | |sift |order |deduce | | |
| | | | |research |point out |discriminate | | |
| | | | | |sequence | | | |
|Application |Using methods, |Shows |• Solves |translate | |employ |prediction |puzzle |
|[pic] |concepts, |Facilitates |problems |manipulate |apply |show |scrapbook |relate |
| |principles |Observes |• Demonstrates |exhibit |practice |solve |product |diary |
| |and theories in|Evaluates |use of |illustrate |relate |schedule |photograph |report |
| |new situations |Organizes |knowledge |calculate |operate |collection |illustration |diorama |
| | |Questions |• Constructs |sketch |interview |demonstrate |simulation |poster |
| | | |• Active |interpret |paint |dramatize |sculpture |diagram |
| | | |Participant |prepare |change |construct |experiment |lesson |
| | | | |make |record |use |interview |model |
| | | | |experiment |translate |teach |performance |journal |
| | | | |list |produce |adapt |presentation |map |
| | | | |practice |compute |draw |demonstration | |
| | | | | |sequence | | | |

|Level of | |Teacher |Student | | |
|Taxonomy |Definition |Roles |Roles |Process Verbs |Products |
|C|Understanding of information given. |
|o| |
|m| |
|p| |
|r| |
|e| |
|h| |
|e| |
|n| |
|s| |
|i| |
|o| |
|n| |
|[| |
|p| |
|i| |
|c| |
|]| |

Several decades of federal laws and regulations in the United States have clearly established a mandate for a "free and appropriate education for all students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment." Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-112) and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (Public Law 94-142) guaranteed students with disabilities the right to equal educational opportunities (Abend 1979, p. 1). The 1975 law applies to children with disabilities who require special education and related services. Section 504 applies to children with disabilities whether or not they require special education services.

In 1990, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 was amended and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The IDEA amendments of 1997 (PL 105-17) strengthened, to the maximum extent possible, the right of students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled students. The 1997 amendments also emphasized the preference for students with disabilities to be provided access to general education programs.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. Subtitle A of Title II of the ADA applies to state and local governments, including public schools. Similar to Section 504, ADA requires school districts to provide programs and services that are readily accessible and usable by individuals with disabilities. Title II of ADA requires that public schools comply with either the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) or the ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). Some states have additional requirements.

The UFAS and ADAAG, however, are based on adult design criteria and do not address the accessibility requirements of children with disabilities. In 1998, the Federal Access Board published Building Elements Designed for Children's Use, an amendment to ADAAG that includes specifications for accessible building elements designed for use by children. The guidelines, available at http://www.access-board.gov, are based on dimensions and anthropometrics for children ages 12 and under. To date, the guidelines have not been adopted by the Department of Justice and, therefore, remain advisory.

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Section 504 and IDEA contain two concepts that affect the planning and design of facilities used by students with disabilities. The first concept—appropriate education—requires that schools provide all students receiving special education services with an individualized education program (IEP). The IEP specifies the levels of performance, goals, and educational services to be provided and the extent to which students will participate in general education programs. Appropriate education has no statutory or regulatory definition and is, therefore, decided on a case-by-case basis. Court decisions and other rulings suggest a two-part analysis can be made to determine appropriateness: Were the procedural requirements set forth in IDEA met, and did the IEP benefit the student?

The second concept—least restrictive environment—requires students with disabilities to be placed where they can obtain the best education at the least distance from mainstream education programs. To the maximum extent possible, they must be educated with nondisabled students. Students with disabilities who are not initially placed in the public school district or in a general education public school should be integrated into the appropriate public school as soon as possible.

The interpretation of federal regulations concerning the proper placement of students with disabilities has changed. Placements acceptable in the 1970s and 1980s are now considered too restrictive. Many students who previously would have been placed outside the general education classroom, their neighborhood school, or even their public school district have been moved to less restrictive environments.

More students with disabilities have become the primary responsibility of the general education classroom teacher. In its most recent report to Congress on the implementation of IDEA, the U.S. Department of Education reported that between the 1988-89 and 1997-98 school years the number of disabled children spending 80 to 100 percent of their instructional time in the general education classroom grew from 30 to 46 percent, while the number of students placed in separate public or private facilities dropped from 5 to 3 percent (Office of Special Education Programs 2000, table AB8).

Placing more severely disabled students in general education elementary and secondary schools and classrooms has tended to improve the overall quality of education because special education traditionally has been characterized by the best in educational techniques and methods. These attributes include early and continuous intervention, individualized education programs, parent involvement, in-service training, differentiated staffing, and interagency cooperation, which, by virtue of being integrated into the general education setting, are having the residual effect of improving general education programs.

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The following planning and designing principles should be considered when building or renovating school facilities.

Provide versatile classroom spaces. Classrooms that provide a variety of choices in the physical environment are preferable for all educational programs but are indispensable for meeting the wide range of educational requirements for students with disabilities and for helping them become successful learners.

For example, students with attention deficit disorders and emotional disabilities often require greater physical and acoustical separation between activities to reduce distractions, making single-space classrooms inadequate for their needs. A more appropriate arrangement consists of a large common classroom area, an alcove off the classroom, and a small room adjacent to the classroom that is acoustically isolated but visible from the common classroom area. Varied ceiling heights can further define separations and help control sound from one space into another. An alcove adjacent to a classroom, for example, could have a different ceiling height than the main space.

Modular furniture can also provide versatility. Student worktables that can be combined or separated to support a variety of activities such as individual work, small group projects, and full class discussions are particularly useful. Data outlets should be located throughout instructional spaces, not clustered. This arrangement provides maximum flexibility for using instructional technology.

Versatility should not be confused with flexibility, which, while good in concept, often results in generic, single-space classrooms with uniform ceiling heights, lighting, and acoustics. While such "flexible" spaces may accommodate many functions, they do not serve any one function well. Versatility, on the other hand, makes a commitment to providing greater variety in the classroom's physical environment and, in practice, provides the most flexibility for both teaching and learning.

Use universal design. In schools, universal design means accommodating, to the maximum extent possible, people with temporary or permanent changes in mobility, agility, and perceptual acuity. With the increase in both the number and severity of students with disabilities, universal design becomes an important design principle for school architecture.

Design requirements for people with disabilities are often the same as for people without disabilities. During the design and construction process, however, requirements can be compromised by economic constraints, aesthetic considerations, and other forces. The average person may be able to adapt to such compromises, but persons with disabilities may not.

Universal design dictates that school furniture should maximize comfort and minimize the potential for injury, eye fatigue, and distractions by being free of protrusions and having rounded edges and nonglare surfaces. Likewise, pedestrian walks, bus circulation, car circulation, service deliveries, and parking should be physically separated. The clear delineation of these traffic patterns enhances everyone's safety. Pedestrian routes, including those to and from parking areas and bus loading and drop-off areas, should be well lit during dark hours. Points of transition such as steps, ramps, intersections, and entry doors need special attention as well.

Universal design also supports the use of schools as community centers throughout the school week and on weekends. As school-based programs attract a wider range of people, from pre-school children to senior citizens, those with disabilities will find universal design more accommodating.

Minimize travel distances. The distance students travel from one destination to another is an important consideration in any school facility. For students with disabilities, it is even more important. The time it takes them to proceed from one location to another can be significantly greater than for nondisabled students. Physical education, music, art, the library, food services, and elevators should be centrally located and never placed at the far ends of the building. Multistory buildings may require more than one elevator to provide reasonable travel distances for disabled students.

Integrate general and special education programs. Special education spaces should not be clustered or isolated in a single area of the building. While some special education functions clearly need to be adjacent or in proximity to one another, the balance should be dispersed throughout the school (while keeping travel distances in mind). Administrative spaces, teachers' planning rooms, dining, and lounge areas should serve both general and special education staff.

Provide for parental involvement. While parental involvement is important for all students, it is critical for students with disabilities. Parent participation is required by special education regulations in decisions concerning their children's IEP. They also spend time meeting with administrators and staff, observing their children, and volunteering.

Reserve a special room for parents so that they may relax between volunteer activities, plan for and participate in meetings, store coats and belongings, partake in refreshments, and socialize. The room should contain space and wiring for computers and a printer. Provide parking spaces specifically for parents. This distinguishes them from visitors and places them on the same level of importance as staff.

Parents should be able to reach school staff easily by telephone and e-mail. Every instructional and support space should have telephone and data outlets. Schools should be equipped with a teletypewriter (TTY) to provide those with hearing impairments a means of communication if e-mail is not available.

Maintain student dignity. School planners and designers should always consider ways of maintaining the dignity of students with disabilities. Accommodations should avoid separating them from their peers in instructional settings, drawing unusual attention to them, or limiting their educational opportunities.
• Accessible lab stations should not be separated from other stations in science, technology education, and other classrooms. Rather, accessible features should be integrated into one or more centrally located lab stations, allowing the students who use them to participate fully in group activities.
• Accessible seating in auditoriums, lecture halls, and sports facilities should not be isolated or located in inconvenient places. Instead, the primary objective should be to offer disabled students the ability to view and participate in activities fully, as required by ADA.
• The health suite should meet the wide range of medical services students with disabilities need. Activities like changing colostomy bags, administering medication, and providing treatments to improve breathing may require adding a private examination room.
Provide the least restrictive placement. One of the most difficult school planning and design decisions is how to provide students with disabilities, particularly those at the higher severity levels, the least restrictive environment. The primary factor influencing this decision will be the IEP. Unless the IEP dictates otherwise, students should be educated in the schools they would attend if they did not have a disability. The courts, however, have ruled that a student with a disability does not have an absolute right to be placed in his neighborhood school. Rather, IDEA indicates only a preference for the neighborhood school, allowing a school district some latitude in determining the best location for a student among several alternatives. The courts have recognized that proximity to one's home is only one factor, with the effective use of limited financial and educational resources being another.

Larger school districts with significant numbers of elementary and secondary school buildings have more placement options, including providing age-appropriate settings. About 90 percent of all school districts, how-ever, have less than 5,000 students. In a small district with few facility options and limited financial and educational resources, the limited number of students with disabilities can make student placement decisions difficult.

For example, in a small school district with one high school, one middle school, and several elementary schools, providing limited services to students with low levels of disability may be accomplished in the same school they would attend if they did not have a disability. Students with moderate disabilities may best be served at only one of the elementary schools (not necessarily their neighborhood school) and at the middle and high schools. Providing services for students with severe disabilities is the most difficult task. Although the number of these students is small, the services are intensive and staff and facilities must be specialized. One solution might be to provide special facilities at one pre-K through 8 school and at the high school. Another might be to provide special facilities at one of the elementary schools and send middle and high school students to a special regional facility serving several school districts.

This illustrates the difficult choices in implementing the least restrictive placement concept, particularly for severely disabled students. Many factors must be considered, including the district's wealth, enrollment, and geographic size as well as the ability of the selected school buildings and sites to accommodate capital improvements.

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Outdoor play areas. Frequently, playgrounds in elementary schools are not useable by students with disabilities. Students with mobility problems or in wheelchairs cannot easily traverse playground surfaces, and play equipment may not be easily accessed or used.

New federal guidelines address the components that must be accessible, the kinds of acceptable play surfaces, requirements for wheelchair maneuvering, the height and clearances of play tables, and the like. Although the guidelines (available at http://www. access-board.gov) have not been adopted by the U.S. Department of Justice at this time, they should be used as a guide in the interim.

Natural environment study areas. More school sites are conserving and developing the surrounding natural environment for educational and environmental purposes. Wetlands are being created for storm water management and as an educational resource that students and teachers can visit, study, and incorporate into the school curriculum. Meadows, in lieu of turf, are being allowed to flourish, providing schools with a rich study area and reduced maintenance costs. Some areas are being reforested and paths are being developed for pedestrian and bicycle access. Planting beds are being constructed so students may plant vegetables, flowers, and other growth that supports the school's programs and learning objectives.

The challenge is to design these natural features so students with disabilities may use them. Pathways through the site should allow students to observe and actively study natural areas. Path surfaces should be stable, firm, and slip resistant while harmonizing with the surroundings. In wet areas, raised boardwalks can serve as an accessible route.

Some planting beds should be raised so students in wheelchairs may have access. Raised beds meet the intent of ADA while remaining accessible to students without disabilities.

Classroom acoustics. A significant number of school-aged children have hearing impairments. Between the 1988-89 and 1997-98 school years, the number of hearing impaired students who spent 80 to 100 percent of their instructional time in the general education classroom grew from 27 to 39 percent (Office of Special Education Programs 2000, table AB8). Moreover, many otherwise healthy students suffer transient hearing losses from ear infections, colds, and allergies so the number of elementary school-aged children with hearing difficulty can be significant on any one school day.

A national acoustical standard is being developed that may include fairly stringent background noise requirements for classrooms serving students with hearing impairments, attention deficit disorders, emotional disabilities, and multiple disabilities. With the increasing numbers of students with disabilities placed in general education classrooms, the requirements may become commonplace.

Background noise requirements have many implications for classroom design. Central heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, for example, will become the system of choice over the commonplace but often noisy classroom unit ventilator. Noise criteria will affect the number and location of air supply diffusers, the design of duct work, fan selection, and equipment location. Sound transmission through windows and exterior and interior walls will receive closer scrutiny. In addition, classrooms will have to be acoustically designed to allow simultaneous activities to take place and still serve the needs of students with hearing impairments.

Building security. Much attention is paid to keeping unauthorized individuals from entering our schools. Keeping students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disabilities, from leaving the school building is also a problem. Between the 1991-92 and 1997-98 school years, the U.S. Department of Education reported a 318 percent increase in the number of children with autism alone (Office of Special Education Programs 2000, table AB8). Such students have a greater propensity for leaving the school building unsupervised and risking harm to themselves. The careful placement of school entries during the design process minimizes the potential for student flight.

Access to areas within the school building that pose a potential threat of injury to these students is another building security issue. Areas such as mechanical and storage rooms with potentially dangerous equipment or supplies require special consideration.

Classroom design. Although the majority of learning occurs in the classroom, the design and planning process frequently places disproportionate attention and resources on noninstructional spaces (such as main entrances, student commons, cafeterias, and corridors) while ignoring the classroom—its spatial characteristics, finishes, lighting, and acoustics. As more students with disabilities become the primary responsibility of general education classroom teachers, shifting more money into classroom architecture will be a necessity.

Indoor air quality. The need to protect student health and the recognition that poor indoor air quality can affect the learning process has increased the pressure on school districts to better manage air quality. Students with disabilities are often the most vulnerable to poor indoor air conditions. As more of them enter general education schools, close attention to indoor air quality has become mandatory.

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems should control humidity, eliminate contaminants at their source, incorporate high efficiency air filters, and be easily inspected and cleaned. It is best to select construction materials that eliminate or dramatically reduce the emission of volatile organic compounds.

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The influx of children with moderate, severe, and profound disabilities into general education schools is having a positive impact; by addressing the needs of students with disabilities and raising the bar for school design, all students benefit from higher quality educational facilities.
3.8 Uses technology to manage school/district operations.

Standard 4: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by collaborating with family and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources. The effective administrator:

4.1 Fosters the involvement of the community in the educational programs of the school/district.

4.2 Fosters the involvement of the school/district in the life of the community.

4.3 Fosters the involvement of families in the educational programs of the school/district. • parent enrollment in adult education and parenting education programs; • cooperative strategies for extending the school curriculum beyond the school walls; • efforts to help parents provide learning experiences at home; • home visits by personnel trained to facilitate home-school communication; • in-classroom involvement of parents, business leaders, and citizens; • summer enrichment programs for both parents and children; • community-based learning; • use of school facilities for community activities; and • university participation in an advisory and supportive role. Examples: Even Start, which was piloted in rural Montana, had as its expressed purpose "to improve the educational opportunities for children and their parents...through cooperative projects using existing education resources" (Center for Community Education, 1989, p. 2). Building on the key roles that parents play, the pilot project emphasized parents' participation as communicators, supporters, learners, teachers, advisors, and advocates. The Total Village Project, which is being implemented in rural West Virginia, advocates a community effort to educate children. Through a family center, coordinated family services, home visits, parent-teacher action teams, mentoring, tutoring, and assistance to teachers, the project seeks to achieve its integrated objectives. These objectives include increases in parent attendance at meetings and activities, quality and quantity of parent involvement at home and school, student self-esteem, and regular attendance. Teacher-Parent Partnership for the Enhancement of School Success was to "implement a school and home based program for young children which raises student achievement and increases educational opportunity" Schools also have School Councils, Committees for School Improvement (CSIs), and Local School Advisory Committees (LSACs). These are school-based organizations of parents, educators, and citizens who want to help guarantee that Gwinnett children receive the finest education possible. Committee members participate in shared governance at their local schools, setting goals for improving student achievement, and evaluating progress toward reaching those goals. Programs like Together for Tomorrow build connections between the learning that takes place in the classroom and the real world students will be a part of after graduation. Together for Tomorrow activities include the Educators to the Workplace program; providing schools with career development resources; awarding career development grants to students, teachers, and schools; and offering students internships, apprenticeships, and co-op opportunities.

Schools Connecting With Parents

In order to make real change in our schools, parents must be directly involved in the education of their children. However, in order to sustain this involvement, there must be support from the schools, community, business, and governments.
In the effort to connect schools with parents, schools can: 1. Encourage families and teachers to establish learning compacts. Compacts would define the goals, expectations, and shared responsibilities of schools and parents as equal partners in student success. The agreements should be simply written in English or the native language of the parents where feasible. Compacts, used in conjunction with other school strategies, can strengthen the ties between families, students, and teachers; and establish a stronger environment for learning. 2. Train school staff. Good schools value parental involvement and reach out to parents. Too often the school contacts parents only when there is a problem. In developing a partnership, training will be necessary for principals, teachers, and other school staff, as well as parents, to help all collaborators acquire the skills needed. Sustaining the partnerships is everybody's job. 3. Design homework that engages parents in the process. For example, long-term assignments would involve parents in the learning process in such ways as helping families construct family trees, recounting the family history, and describing their daily work. 4. Give parents a voice in decisions. Parents should be involved in decisions regarding their children's schooling. Schools can open options for parents to become involved individually and collectively in making decisions about goals and standards for their children and their schools. 5. Extend school hours. By staying open in the afternoon, evening, and on weekends, schools can allow students and families to engage in recreational and learning activities and provide adult education programs and training in parenting. 6. Create parent resource centers. Set aside an area in the school that invites parents to share their parenting experiences with other parents and to work with teachers and other school staff on school concerns.

Communities Connecting Parents and Schools

Communities can support the connections between families and schools in many ways. Communities can: 1. Contribute to the education of our next generation through volunteer time. Members of the community and local businesses can support family involvement by broadening the learning environment. Volunteers can assist in the schools either for special events or on a regular basis through tutoring or mentoring. Family and community involvement should be developed and sustained in support of student development through all grades. Also, by getting involved in a local community board, community members can have an impact on the local policy agenda. 2. Play a role in supporting the development of children and their families. Make community resources available to schools and families. Community organizations may reach out to families by providing services such as child care, after school programs, assistance with homework, parenting education programs, or youth and family counseling programs. Inviting education officials to address civic groups and congregations on school policies and positions is another way to sustain the partnership. 3. Support flexible scheduling time at work and special programs for parents to participate in their children's schooling. Employers could devise model time release programs that allow parents the time to volunteer in their children's schools without docking them for leave time. In addition, special programs on parenting and helping children with school work could be offered during lunchtime seminars. "Bring your child to work days" can also reinforce what is taught in the school with real on-the-job skills.
When parents, families, and members of the community are involved with schools, all children benefit. Adult participation sends the message that school is important and the work children do there is worthy of adult attention. Many people, however, do not feel welcome at school. They may want to volunteer, but don’t know how to begin. They may believe that children and teachers do not want them there, or they may not know how to fit one more activity into an already tight schedule. These situations present perfect opportunities for schools to reach out and provide avenues for parents, family members, and others to provide support.
Parenting: Helping families establish home environments to support children as learners
! Communications: The use of effective forms for school-to-home- and hometo-school communications
! Volunteering: The recruitment and organization of the school’s volunteer program
! Learning at Home: Helping families assist their children with homework and recognizing other learning at home opportunities
! Decisionmaking: Including parents, students, and community members in the school decisionmaking process
! Collaborating with the Community: The identification and integration of resources and services from the community
Getting Started
Assembling the Team
The first step to improving parent, family, and community involvement in your school is to assemble a team composed of:
! Parents who represent any major groups at the school, i.e., parent-teacher association, English-language learners, representatives of majority ethnic groups
! Federal programs staff (i.e.,Title I, Title IV, and Title VII)
! Community members and agencies
! The principal
! Teachers
! Students, when appropriate
! District staff
Collecting Data
Next, review the characteristics of the families in your school community. Ask questions such as:
! Is this a school with a high percentage of single-parent homes?
! Is this a school with many English language learners?
! Is this a school with a high mobility rate?
! Are there many families where at least one parent is predominately in the home?
! Is there a high percentage of homes where violence, abuse, addiction, physical or mental illness is present?
! What educational goals do families have for their children?
Using Data to Make Decisions about Priorities
! What are our school’s goals for improving our school, family, and community partnerships over the next three years?
! How can we effectively involve families and the community in the decision-making process?
! Do decision makers have the appropriate research and training to make informed decisions?
! Do materials need to be translated?
! Do translators need to be provided at meetings?
! Does childcare need to be provided while parents attend meetings or volunteer at school?
! Should school personnel be making home visits? If so, how?
! Is student attendance a problem?
! What kind of support do teachers need?
! What are the achievement trends?
! How can outreach to families and the community link to the academic needs of the school?
! What do parents say about past successful events?
! What activities do parents feel would be most beneficial?
! How can we most effectively use community resources?
Writing a Partnership Plan
Once priorities have been set, the team can write the school’s partnership plan. On the following pages, you will find issues, benefits, and strategies of:
! Encouraging positive parenting skills
! Enhancing communication with families
! Increasing volunteerism and attendance at school events
! Enhancing learning at home
! Increasing the number of parents in leadership and decision making roles
! Enhancing and improving community collaborations
Encouraging Positive Parenting Skills
! Resistance: Parents being resistant to the information being provided
! Materials: Gathering information that assists parents in providing the necessary boundaries, high expectations, adult role models, support for academic achievement, and an environment that nurtures the positive social/emotional development of children
! Reaching all families: Discovering ways to provide useful information to all families, not just to those who attend meetings at school
! Acknowledging and embracing all families and cultures: Assuring that all families are welcomed at school and invited to participate at all levels of involvement
Strategies for Encouraging Positive Parenting Skills
" Survey parents: Ask parents what information and workshops they would find most helpful.
" Consult with parents and others in the community: Ask about their preferences and the best ways to translate or modify messages to all parents.
" Establish home visiting programs: When teachers visit with parents in the home, teachers can share with them school and classroom expectations, and parents can share information about home situations that might affect student achievement.
" Make referral information readily available: Put referral information on bulletin boards, in newsletters, and on information tables at school events. This information can include times and locations of parenting classes, agency services to families, and parks and recreation schedules. Offer information about parenting that is provided by community agencies and churches.
" Offer school space: Have a room available for parent-led support groups and parenting education classes where parents can share their parenting successes and challenges and gain knowledge to enhance their parenting skills. Schools having the greatest success with parent centers are those with a parent-and-teacher team that coordinates activities and use of the room. When parents know it is a place they can gather informally, as well as hold scheduled meetings, it can become more than a place of work; it becomes a place to connect with others.
" Provide child development information: Conduct workshops on what parents can expect as their child moves into middle school or high school. Workshop topics can include:
" Changes in homework requirements
" Communication with your adolescent or teen
" Specific issues of parenting the adolescent
" Capitalize on parent attendance at neighborhood and community fairs and events:
Offer outreach materials such as brochures, posters, bookmarks, tip sheets, school phone numbers, and welcoming messages.
" Offer a sharing night for parents: Have parents share their best practices for nurturing, discipline, homework help, creating time for reading, or other pertinent topics.
Strategies for Enhancing Communication With Families
" Emphasize the importance of strong family involvement: Devote staff meeting time to exploring ways to improve communication with families.
" Devote Title I or other funds to compensate teachers for time spent making home visits: This time can pay back huge dividends when teachers develop relationships with families and can communicate with them about ways to support their children.
" Solicit financial support to improve telephone communication opportunities with families: Many schools are still operating with only one or two phone lines, making it virtually impossible to reach teachers during the day.
" Share school expectations: Share the school’s goals and policies about student expectations and school assessment procedures.
" Make sure that all teachers have an e-mail address with easy and regular access: This form of communication can link parents at work and at home.
" As a faculty, develop a format for classroom newsletters: Basic information about classes and opportunities for parent support can be included and sent home on a weekly or twice monthly basis. Students can do some of the reporting, which can be directly linked to writing goals.
" Have several mechanisms for gathering opinions from parents, students, and teachers: Have a suggestion box in the hall, a tear-off suggestion form in the newsletter, a questionnaire at student-teacher conferences, a random sample phone-call effort, focus groups, or an annual satisfaction survey.
" Communicate frequently about the school’s achievement data: Share the school’s achievement data and offer parents suggestions about ways they can help their children succeed.
" Send information to both parents: In the case where a child doesn’t live with both parents, it’s important to keep each parent informed about the child’s progress and about school activities.
" Update signs around the school: Be sure that notices asking parents to check in at the office include a warm welcome in all languages represented at the school. Students can create the signs as part of their language arts curriculum.
Strategies for Increasing Volunteerism and Attendance at School Events " Survey potential volunteers: Throughout the year, survey parents about their interests and availability to volunteer.
" Hire or appoint a volunteer coordinator: A volunteer coordinator can make phone calls to remind volunteers of their commitments, to provide training on equipment such as the copy machine, laminator, and playground equipment, and to organize volunteer activities and recognition events.
" Offer a variety of times to volunteer: People have varied and hectic schedules, so successful school volunteer programs will need to offer flexible volunteer schedules.
" Offer training to volunteers: Offer volunteers training in interpreting academic performance assessments so that they can better understand what is expected of students and can provide help accordingly in the classroom. It is vital for the school to help volunteers feel competent about their ability to assist.
" Invite parents to ride the school bus and eat lunch with their children: This offers another way for the school to be accessible and welcoming.
" Train parents to become parent mentors: Parent mentors can work with new volunteers and answer questions at their school.
" Encourage opportunities for volunteers to be seen as positive adult role models: Offer regular career exploration opportunities. Have volunteers answer basic questions about their careers, such as job title, subjects to take in school that will help them to do the job, training needed to do the job, great things about the job, and tough things about the job.
" Publicize volunteer opportunities throughout the year: By publicizing volunteer opportunities year-round, families and community members who come to the school midyear can be made aware of the volunteer opportunities and can become connected with the school community.
" Include students in meetings with parents: Have students participate in some way in the meeting with parents. This provides additional incentives for families to attend together.
Strategies for Enhancing Learning at Home
" Make parent support at home an important topic: At the beginning of the school year, hold discussions about parent support at home. This can be done at open houses, back-to-school nights, in school newsletters, at parent meetings, and during parent-teacher conferences.
" Encourage parents: Ask parents to spend at least 30 minutes a day working with their children, reading all student work and newsletters, and providing an adequate workspace.
" Offer suggestions to parents: Suggest informal ways to strengthen children’s reading and math skills by playing games like cribbage, Scrabble, or rummy. Suggest ways they can help children make connections between schoolwork and the world. In addition, give parents guidelines to follow as they assist their children with school projects.
" Have family reading, math, or science nights at school: Give parents practical and fun ideas on how to work with their children at home.
" Ask parents for input on homework assignments: Ask questions such as:
" Was this assignment appropriate for your child’s ability level?
" Did your child have problems completing this homework?
" Do you have any questions or concerns about your child’s homework?
" Develop learning activities for families to use in the car: Families spend a great deal of time going to or from places together. Offer parents suggestions on ways to make outings fun learning experiences.
" Send home a simple handwritten newsletter: Include expectations for students and suggestions for parent involvement during the upcoming grading period.
" Have a library of games that students can check out: Encourage them to play with a family member at home. Games that reinforce literacy and math skills will also provide opportunities for interaction among family members.
" Help families celebrate successes: Offer parents suggestions about ways they canpraise their children and celebrate their academic achievements.
" Establish a homework hotline: Offer parents a homework hotline that they can call to identify assignments, due dates, and ways to get help with homework questions.
Strategies for Increasing the Number of Parents in Leadership and Decision-making Roles
" Award one parent a stipend: Have that parent contact other parents, welcome new parents to the school, help resolve conflicts between the home and school, and actively seek parents’ opinions and support.
" Make decisions after surveying comprehensive data: Study data on student and family characteristics, academic achievement, and parents’opinions and willingness to support proposals for change.
" Offer leadership training: Bring in a trainer or develop a leadership training workshop which is offered to both parents and staff.
" Do a parent check-in: Before there is an urgent need to make decisions about vandalism, violence, and drug and alcohol issues, check in with parents. Discuss these problems before a crisis occurs. This offers parents anopportunity to play an active role in these very critical areas.
" Deal with conflict promptly: Explore the issues with a neutral facilitator who will help set boundaries for the discussion and guide parties in developing common purposes, methods for working together, and timelines and check-in points to make sure that the resolution is achieved.
" At the end of meetings, do an “ABC” evaluation:
" What action will you take as a result of the meeting?
" What was the best part of this meeting?
" What concerns do you have?
" Recognize parents for their efforts: Recognize all of the efforts made by parents who serve on school advisory committees and in other decision making roles. This will not only give credit where credit is due; it will help other parents to know who is representing them.
Strategies to Improve Community Collaborations
" Convene at least three meetings a year: Invite all agencies and community partners who serve students or families within the school populations. Ask everyone to come prepared to talk briefly about who they serve, what is their mission, and with whom they are already partnering. Create a plan for working together, along with check-in points to assure progress is occurring.
" Invite businesses to school events: Extend invitations to businesses for events such as performances and recognition celebrations. This gives businesses the opportunity to be a part of the school’s life and promotes long-lasting partnerships.
" Publicly acknowledge partnerships: Partnerships can be acknowledged through newsletters and signs at the school. The goal is to make partnerships more visible.
" Mention generosity frequently and prominently: When businesses agree to assist the school by making donations, providing staff, or helping in other ways, be sure to acknowledge their contributions.
" Get feedback and ideas to improve outreach to families: When community-based organizations meet to discuss programs and services they are providing to families, use the opportunity to discuss any ideas they may have about improving outreach to families.
" Ask all who participate in meetings to evaluate progress and identify obstacles: Ask questions such as:
" Does the work provide further opportunities to share resources and reach more families?
" Was the meeting an opportunity to expand possibilities?
" How can future meetings be more productive?
" Write thank you notes: Have students write thank you notes to businesses that contribute to the school.

4.4 Fosters collaboration and communication among members of the school/district and school/district community.

School/district website

4.5 Demonstrates diversity is valued. creating equitable conditions in which every child can succeed
As the student population in American schools becomes increasingly diverse, educators must respond with school reform efforts that meet the needs of all students. They must develop culturally sensitive curricula that integrate multicultural viewpoints and histories, apply instructional strategies that encourage all students to achieve, and review school and district policies related to educational equity. Equity, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, refers to "the state, ideal, or quality of being just, impartial, and fair" (p. 462). In an educational setting, equity can be expanded to indicate a state in which all children--minorities and nonminorities, males and females, successful students and those who have fallen behind, and students who have been denied access in the past--have equal opportunities to learn, to participate in challenging programs, and to have equal access to the services they need in order to benefit from that education.
"Multicultural education is a field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society and to interact, negotiate, and communicate with peoples from diverse groups in order to create a civic and moral community that works for the common good."

The reality is that a diverse school offers opportunities simply not available in homogenous environments. Learning comes alive when wisdom is shared not only by competent teachers and textbooks, but also by fellow students with life experiences and cultures that illuminate whole new worlds. With a teacher who encourages all students to speak their minds and listen to others, classroom discussions with students from varying backgrounds are rich and challenging, fostering critical thinking skills. Students learn there are a range of perspectives on issues, motivating them to study and thoughtfully define their own views. Educators, students and parents involved with strong diverse schools around the country know these institutions can provide a first-class education. It is time that we speak out with facts and evidence that debunk the many myths that poison public perceptions.

A school with a mix of races and ethnicities can provide extraordinary academic and social opportunities to students, faculty, and the entire community. Yet every multi-cultural school does not reap the benefits of its diverse population. Leaders in some diverse schools can't seem to stop a downward spiral. The irony is that many of these troubled schools are headed by educational leaders with proven track records. With their own histories of success, the administrators come to the conclusion that it is the students themselves who are the problem. But these leaders are falling victim to an insidious myth about school leadership – that one style of educational leadership will work in every school.

The reality is that diverse schools require a new leadership paradigm. Many homogeneous middle-class schools can almost run themselves, but school leadership in a diverse school is the major determining factor in whether the school functions as it should. Leaders must use a more attentive and aggressive style of leadership than was required in the typical suburban school of a decade ago. The challenge for school leadership is to face the obstacles early, tackle them with energy and creativity, and build a school on a foundation of respect and high expectations where everyone reaps the benefits. The old-school leadership style may meet the needs of some students, but it certainly won't meet the needs of the community or our society at large. At worst, the school may become a hotbed of tension between ethnic or racial groups feeling underserved by an inattentive or even biased administration. It's far better to be proactive than wait for a damaging outburst to serve as a wake-up call, requiring months or even years of repair before a positive, healthy school environment can be forged.

Community support is a critical link to the success of a school. While building bridges to the community is never an easy task, it is particularly daunting for diverse schools. Leaders of diverse schools must overcome dangerous misperceptions about their schools, based on unfounded myths. Usually spread by those who do not have current first-hand knowledge of the school, these myths are whispered over backyard fences, warning parents of weak academics and dangerous students. The reality — vital for the community to understand — is that a diverse school with strong, effective leadership provides academic and social opportunities that enhance educations in ways that can only be imagined in homogeneous schools. From classroom discussions illuminated by insights from students of varying backgrounds to social interactions that break down dangerous stereotypes, diverse schools enhance education in ways that should not only be defended, but championed.

The process of building community support begins with identification of the myths that poison thinking in that community. School leaders must learn what parents in that community care about, what their concerns are, and what they think about the school. They must also be sensitive to views of residents who don't have school-age children since they have a big say in school budgets as voters. Then misperceptions can be addressed with facts and evidence.

Standard 5: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner. The effective administrator:

5.1 Develops a personal code of ethics.

To these ends, the administrator subscribes to the following statements of standards. – Makes the well-being of students the fundamental value in all decision making and actions. – Fulfills professional responsibilities with honesty and integrity. – Supports the principle of due process and protects the civil and human rights of all individuals. – Obeys local, state, and national laws. – Implements the governing board of education's policies and administrative rules and regulations. – Pursues appropriate measures to correct those laws, policies, and regulations that are not consistent with sound educational goals. – Avoids using positions for personal gain through political, social, religious, economic, or other influence. – Accepts academic degrees or professional certification only from duly accredited institutions. – Maintains the standards and seeks to improve the effectiveness of the profession through research and continuing professional development. – Honors all contracts until fulfillment or release.

Although the individual programs vary, each school has made a commitment to providing students with character education along with the more traditional disciplines. To succeed, schools must teach such values as academic integrity, civility, responsibility, perseverance, cooperation, self-discipline, and respect for self and others."
The Connecticut State Department of Education is working with Character Counts!, a nationwide initiative supporting non-partisan character education, to involve schools, parents, and businesses in a statewide commitment to character education. CHARACTER COUNTS! is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, nonsectarian character-education framework that teaches the Six Pillars of Character: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring and citizenship.

5.2 Assesses the level of trust in a school setting.

Ten Leadership Traits for Principal:
1. Has a stated vision for the school and a plan to achieve that vision.
2. Clearly states goals and expectations for students, staff, and parents.
3. Is visible -- gets out of the office; is seen all over the school.
4. Is trustworthy and straight with students and staff.
5. Helps develop leadership skills in others.
6. Develops strong teachers; cultivates good teaching practice.
7. Shows that he or she is not in charge alone; involves others.
8. Has a sense of humor.
9. Is a role model for students and staff.
10. Offers meaningful kindnesses and kudos to staff and students.
5.3 Examines the prevailing nature of values in the school community. parents and teachers had already identified three core values:
(1) Becoming Lifelong Learners,
(2) Respect for Self and Others, and
(3) Commitment to School and Community.
These core values:
H ave Courage
E ffort
A chieve
R espect
T ake Responsibility

5.4 Examines the essence of how school leaders treat people (e.g. with respect, courtesy, fairness, and equity).

5.5 Demonstrates ethical decision-making.
Site Based Management Some of the descriptors used to identify the models being discussed include "local management of schools," "school-based management," "shared decision-making," "self- managing schools," "self-determining schools," "locally-autonomous schools," "devolution," "decentralization," and "restructured schools."
Model 1--Collegial, participatory, democratic management, which involves all the staff of the school in making the decisions, whether through committees or full-staff processes. This is a model advocated in the U.S. by the two major teacher unions, the NEA and the AFT.
Model 2--Principal-directed site-based management, which may involve some consultation with staff and/or parents, but is ultimately controlled and directed by the principal and other administrators.
Model 3--A parent committee operating somewhat as a board of governors. In many cases these committees are elected, and are often part of reforms that eliminate or reduce the role of a school board that covers many schools. In some situations where this model has been adopted, there is a significant similarity to charter schools.
Model 4--Some form of school-based committee that operates with a limited mandate, but may have significant influence in that area. Examples of this type from the B.C. context might be a school- based team for making decisions about special education or a school committee that makes the decisions about expenditures from learning resource funds sent from the district to the schools.

Standard 6: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context. The effective administrator:

6.1 Promotes open and ongoing communication with community types concerning trends, issues, and potential changes.
Eight Steps to Transforming Your Organization.
1. Establishing a sense of urgency. Other educational institutions were delivering educational administration classes in our service area and impacting our enrollment. Also, there was a mandate from the upper administration to provide outreach to our service area as a result of listening forums that had been held throughout the service area.
2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition. An Office of Extended Learning had been established at the University level as a result of the mandate from the President of the University to increase our outreach efforts. This included providing the technology for on-line and ITV classes and hiring a director for extended learning.
3. Creating a vision. As a faculty we developed a delivery schedule projecting gradual transition to a different delivery model. This transition incorporated different delivery modes with the use of technology and included weekend and week-long classes.
4. Communicating the vision. Publications delivered the message of the new delivery model. Information was shared at regional educational meetings. The Office of Extended Learning provided training to faculty on effective teaching methods using ITV and the Center for Scholarship in Teaching and Learning provided assistance in developing online classes.
5. Empowering others to act on the vision. Released time was provided for faculty to develop on-line classes.
6. Planning for and creating short-term wins. The time commitment and risk-taking by faculty trying new delivery models was incorporated into the merit pay and promotion system.
7. Consolidating improvements and producing still more change. A schedule was developed that included weekend and week-long classes in addition to on-line and ITV classes.
8. Institutionalizing new approaches. The increases in enrollment were realized. The summer schedule was studied and the delivery model was changed to incorporate similar change.

NCLB Summary:
|The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 |
|Executive Summary |
| |
|These reforms express my deep belief in our public schools and their mission to build the mind and character of every child, from every |
|background, in every part of America. |
| |
|President George W. Bush |
|January 2001 |
| |
|Three days after taking office in January 2001 as the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush announced No Child Left Behind, his |
|framework for bipartisan education reform that he described as "the cornerstone of my Administration." President Bush emphasized his deep |
|belief in our public schools, but an even greater concern that "too many of our neediest children are being left behind," despite the nearly |
|$200 billion in Federal spending since the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). The President called for |
|bipartisan solutions based on accountability, choice, and flexibility in Federal education programs. |
| |
|Less than a year later, despite the unprecedented challenges of engineering an economic recovery while leading the Nation in the war on |
|terrorism following the events of September 11, President Bush secured passage of the landmark No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB Act). The|
|new law reflects a remarkable consensus-first articulated in the President's No Child Left Behind framework-on how to improve the performance |
|of America's elementary and secondary schools while at the same time ensuring that no child is trapped in a failing school. |
| |
|The NCLB Act, which reauthorizes the ESEA, incorporates the principles and strategies proposed by President Bush. These include increased |
|accountability for States, school districts, and schools; greater choice for parents and students, particularly those attending low-performing |
|schools; more flexibility for States and local educational agencies (LEAs) in the use of Federal education dollars; and a stronger emphasis on |
|reading, especially for our youngest children. |
| |
|Increased Accountability |
| |
|The NCLB Act will strengthen Title I accountability by requiring States to implement statewide accountability systems covering all public |
|schools and students. These systems must be based on challenging State standards in reading and mathematics, annual testing for all students in|
|grades 3-8, and annual statewide progress objectives ensuring that all groups of students reach proficiency within 12 years. Assessment results|
|and State progress objectives must be broken out by poverty, race, ethnicity, disability, and limited English proficiency to ensure that no |
|group is left behind. School districts and schools that fail to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward statewide proficiency goals will, |
|over time, be subject to improvement, corrective action, and restructuring measures aimed at getting them back on course to meet State |
|standards. Schools that meet or exceed AYP objectives or close achievement gaps will be eligible for State Academic Achievement Awards. |
| |
|More Choices for Parents and Students |
| |
|The NCLB Act significantly increases the choices available to the parents of students attending Title I schools that fail to meet State |
|standards, including immediate relief-beginning with the 2002-03 school year-for students in schools that were previously identified for |
|improvement or corrective action under the 1994 ESEA reauthorization. |
| |
|LEAs must give students attending schools identified for improvement, corrective action, or restructuring the opportunity to attend a better |
|public school, which may include a public charter school, within the school district. The district must provide transportation to the new |
|school, and must use at least 5 percent of its Title I funds for this purpose, if needed. |
| |
|For students attending persistently failing schools (those that have failed to meet State standards for at least 3 of the 4 preceding years), |
|LEAs must permit low-income students to use Title I funds to obtain supplemental educational services from the public- or private-sector |
|provider selected by the students and their parents. Providers must meet State standards and offer services tailored to help participating |
|students meet challenging State academic standards. |
| |
|To help ensure that LEAs offer meaningful choices, the new law requires school districts to spend up to 20 percent of their Title I allocations|
|to provide school choice and supplemental educational services to eligible students. |
| |
|In addition to helping ensure that no child loses the opportunity for a quality education because he or she is trapped in a failing school, the|
|choice and supplemental service requirements provide a substantial incentive for low-performing schools to improve. Schools that want to avoid |
|losing students-along with the portion of their annual budgets typically associated with those students-will have to improve or, if they fail |
|to make AYP for 5 years, run the risk of reconstitution under a restructuring plan. |
| |
|Greater Flexibility for States, School Districts, and Schools |
| |
|One important goal of No Child Left Behind was to breathe new life into the "flexibility for accountability" bargain with States first struck |
|by President George H.W. Bush during his historic 1989 education summit with the Nation's Governors at Charlottesville, Virginia. Prior |
|flexibility efforts have focused on the waiver of program requirements; the NCLB Act moves beyond this limited approach to give States and |
|school districts unprecedented flexibility in the use of Federal education funds in exchange for strong accountability for results. |
| |
|New flexibility provisions in the NCLB Act include authority for States and LEAs to transfer up to 50 percent of the funding they receive under|
|4 major State grant programs to any one of the programs, or to Title I. The covered programs include Teacher Quality State Grants, Educational |
|Technology, Innovative Programs, and Safe and Drug-Free Schools. |
| |
|The new law also includes a competitive State Flexibility Demonstration Program that permits up to 7 States to consolidate the State share of |
|nearly all Federal State grant programs-including Title I, Part A Grants to Local Educational Agencies-while providing additional flexibility |
|in their use of Title V Innovation funds. Participating States must enter into 5-year performance agreements with the Secretary covering the |
|use of the consolidated funds, which may be used for any educational purpose authorized under the ESEA. As part of their plans, States also |
|must enter into up to 10 local performance agreements with Leas, which will enjoy the same level of flexibility granted under the separate |
|Local Flexibility Demonstration Program. |
|The new competitive Local Flexibility Demonstration Program would allow up to 80 Leas, in addition to the 70 Leas under the State Flexibility |
|Demonstration Program, to consolidate funds received under Teacher Quality State Grants, Educational Technology State Grants, Innovative |
|Programs, and Safe and Drug-Free Schools programs. Participating Leas would enter into performance agreements with the Secretary of Education, |
|and would be able to use the consolidated funds for any ESEA-authorized purpose. |
| |
|Putting Reading First |
| |
|No Child Left Behind stated President Bush's unequivocal commitment to ensuring that every child can read by the end of third grade. To |
|accomplish this goal, the new Reading First initiative would significantly increase the Federal investment in scientifically based reading |
|instruction programs in the early grades. One major benefit of this approach would be reduced identification of children for special education |
|services due to a lack of appropriate reading instruction in their early years. |
| |
|The NCLB Act fully implements the President's Reading First initiative. The new Reading First State Grant program will make 6-year grants to |
|States, which will make competitive subgrants to local communities. Local recipients will administer screening and diagnostic assessments to |
|determine which students in grades K-3 are at risk of reading failure, and provide professional development for K-3 teachers in the essential |
|components of reading instruction. |
| |
|The new Early Reading First program will make competitive 6-year awards to Leas to support early language, literacy, and pre-reading |
|development of preschool-age children, particularly those from low-income families. Recipients will use instructional strategies and |
|professional development drawn from scientifically based reading research to help young children to attain the fundamental knowledge and skills|
|they will need for optimal reading development in kindergarten and beyond. |
| |
|Other Major Program Changes |
| |
|The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 also put the principles of accountability, choice, and flexibility to work in its reauthorization of other|
|major ESEA programs. For example, the new law combines the Eisenhower Professional Development and Class Size Reduction programs into a new |
|Improving Teacher Quality State Grants program that focuses on using practices grounded in scientifically based research to prepare, train, and|
|recruit high-quality teachers. The new program gives States and Leas flexibility to select the strategies that best meet their particular needs|
|for improved teaching that will help them raise student achievement in the core academic subjects. In return for this flexibility, Leas are |
|required to demonstrate annual progress in ensuring that all teachers teaching in core academic subjects within the State are highly qualified.|
| |
|The NCLB Act also simplified Federal support for English language instruction by combining categorical bilingual and immigrant education grants|
|that benefited a small percentage of limited English proficient students in relatively few schools into a State formula program. The new |
|formula program will facilitate the comprehensive planning by States and school districts needed to ensure implementation of programs that |
|benefit all limited English proficient students by helping them learn English and meet the same high academic standards as other students. |
| |
|Other changes will support State and local efforts to keep our schools safe and drug-free, while at the same time ensuring that |
|students-particularly those who have been victims of violent crimes on school grounds-are not trapped in persistently dangerous schools. As |
|proposed in No Child Left Behind, States must allow students who attend a persistently dangerous school, or who are victims of violent crime at|
|school, to transfer to a safe school. States also must report school safety statistics to the public on a school-by-school basis, and Leas must|
|use Federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities funding to implement drug and violence prevention programs of demonstrated |
|effectiveness. |
| |
|Reproduced from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/esea/exec-summ.html |
| |
|Downloaded: February 17, 2003 |

6.2 Develops school policies and regulations consistent with local, state, and federal laws. http://www.wrightslaw.com/statute.htm Education Law

WHAT IS EDUCATION LAW?

|The area of the law that specifically deals with schools, school systems and school boards charged with educating our children. |

WHO IS ELIGIBLE TO ATTEND PUBLIC SCHOOLS?

|Each State is responsible for providing a school system whereby all children may receive an education. There is no charge for attending the |
|school and it is equally open to all students. The Federal Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 provides that no state may deny equal |
|education opportunities to an individual because of his or her race, color, sex or national origin. Therefore, every person has the right to |
|attend school, unless his or her conduct violates valid rules and regulations. |

DO CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES HAVE THE RIGHT TO A PUBLIC EDUCATION?

|Yes. The "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" (IDEA), assures that all children with disabilities are to have a free public |
|education, including special education and assistance, to meet the specific needs of the child. IDEA also protects certain rights of children|
|with disabilities and their parents or guardians, assists state and local authorities in providing education to children with disabilities, |
|and provides mechanisms to assess and insure the effectiveness of these programs in educating the children with disabilities. |

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE "INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT?"

|The US Secretary of Education and the Department of Education have the primary responsibility for the administration of IDEA. Each State's |
|education system has primary responsibility for developing and maintaining the educational program for children with disabilities within that|
|state. |

WHAT CHILDREN QUALIFY FOR THE "CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES" PROGRAMS?

|In general, children with disabilities must have certain impairments, that are specified in laws or regulations and because of such |
|impairments be in need of special education and related services. IDEA requires participating states to educate all children with |
|disabilities, despite the severity of their disabilities, or achievement that might be attained by education. |
| |
|A child's disabilities, may include |
| |
|(1) Mental retardation |
|(2) Hearing impairments, including deafness |
|(3) Sight impairments including blindness |
|(4) Language or speech impairments, specific learning disabilities or traumatic brain injury |
|(5) Serious emotional disturbance |
|(6) Orthopedic impairments |
|(7) Autism |
| |
|Before being placed within an educational program, each child is required to be given an individual evaluation of his or her educational |
|needs and entitled to have an individualized educational program developed to meet his or her needs. |

WHAT IF I DISAGREE WITH THE SCHOOL'S ASSESSMENT?

|You have the right to have the action reviewed by a higher administrative level or by the courts. Typically, the services of a lawyer would |
|be required |

WHAT ARE THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF A SCHOOL DISTRICT?

|Generally, a school district has the power to carry out the educational purposes and objectives set forth by the Legislature of its state. |
|Since the State Legislature has the general authority to establish and regulate the public school system, a school district's powers are |
|subject to any policy changes, modifications, or additions that the Legislature enacts. One important current issue is Federal and State |
|"mandates" on local school districts, requiring them to undertake certain actions. |

CAN A SCHOOL REQUIRE A STUDENT TO REMAIN AT SCHOOL AFTER SCHOOL HOURS?

|The detention of a student for a short time after class has ended, as a penalty for inappropriate behavior, has been recognized as a |
|legitimate method of enforcing discipline upon a student. A detention penalty must be enforced in good faith, and not with malicious, wanton,|
|or willful motives by the teacher. |

CAN A STUDENT BE SUSPENDED OR EXPELLED FROM A PUBLIC SCHOOL?

|A student has the right to attend a public school. Such right of attendance may be taken away if the student fails to comply with reasonable |
|regulations, requirements, and rules of the school. A student's failure to abide by such rules may result in the student's suspension or |
|expulsion. Usually, the school authorities have the right to define the reasons for which a student can be suspended or expelled. Generally, |
|it is the responsibility of the principal or teacher in charge of the public school to order suspension or expulsion. |
| |
|Some of the reasons for suspension or expulsion may be: |
| |
|(1) Insubordination or misconduct subversive of the discipline of the school |
|(2) The sale or use of controlled substances or alcohol on school premises |
|(3) The use of profane or obscene language |
|(4) Violent behavior, such as fighting |
|(5) Under appropriate regulations for absences or tardiness without satisfactory excuses |

DOES A SUSPENDED OR EXPELLED STUDENT HAVE ANY RIGHTS?

|Because suspension or expulsion may have serious long term implications, the student or his or her parent or guardian generally may retain |
|the services of a lawyer to represent the student. The 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution requires that a public school student|
|be given oral or written notice of the charges against him or her, and, if he or she denies them, the school authorities must provide an |
|explanation of the evidence they have and the student may be granted an opportunity to present his side of the story. The necessary notice |
|and hearing may occur immediately following the misconduct. In addition, many states have laws granting students the right to notice of the |
|charges against them and to a hearing before he or she is suspended or expelled from school for misconduct. |

CAN A SCHOOL DISTRICT REQUIRE A PHYSICIAN'S CERTIFICATE OF PHYSICAL EXAM OF A STUDENT BEFORE ADMITTING THE STUDENT TO A PUBLIC SCHOOL?

|Many School districts have requirements that students, prior to their admittance into the public school system, have a physical exam and |
|present the school with a Physician's certificate of physical exam. Generally, the courts have found such a requirement not to be |
|unreasonable. |

ARE VACCINATIONS MANDATORY FOR STUDENTS?

|As a general rule, the Legislature may require the vaccination of students before they attend public schools. The courts generally approve |
|vaccination requirements as they further public health. |

CAN SCHOOL BOARDS REGULATE THE USE OF TOBACCO BY STUDENTS?

|It is legitimate for an educational system to enact regulations restricting tobacco use by students, since the educational system is designed|
|to maintain and preserve good health amongst the students of a public school. Therefore, a school board may enact regulations prohibiting the|
|use of tobacco by students on school premises, or while attending school-sponsored activities. |

CAN A SCHOOL BOARD IMPOSE DRESS AND GROOMING REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS?

|In general, the courts have found that grooming requirements are a reasonable way for school authorities to teach hygiene, instill |
|discipline, and compel uniformity. While students are under the control of school authorities, the students may be required to follow certain|
|grooming and dress code rules. Seek the advice of an attorney if you believe the requirements in your community are overly restrictive for |
|attending public school. |
| |
|Some courts have upheld school policies that require students to wear designated uniforms and not to wear low-necked dresses or immodest |
|styles of dress. Generally, the regulations must promote orderly conduct of the educational process and must not be arbitrarily applied. |

WHAT RIGHTS DO SCHOOL TEACHERS AND SCHOOL AUTHORITIES HAVE TO REGULATE A STUDENT'S CONDUCT?

|In general, a schoolteacher, to a limited extent, stands temporarily in a parental capacity ("in loco parentis") to pupils under his or her |
|responsibility. A schoolteacher may need to exercise reasonable powers of control, restraint, and correction so that the teacher may properly|
|do his or her duties and accomplish the purpose of educating the students. |
| |
|The school's authority over a pupil may continue even after classes end and the student leaves the school premises. Misconduct by students on|
|the way home from school or on the way to school may properly be within the scope of the school's authority. Conduct outside of school hours |
|and neither on school functions or school property may subject a pupil to school discipline if it directly affects the school. |

CAN A SCHOOL OFFICIAL SEARCH A STUDENT'S LOCKER?

|While the U.S. Constitution upholds the right to be safe from unreasonable searches and seizures, the standard for school searches is less |
|rigid. The search is lawful if the school has a "reasonable suspicion" that a school rule has been violated. This means the search must be |
|justified when made and reasonably related to the circumstances being investigated. For example, a student is believed to have been smoking |
|on campus, but denies it. A reasonable search can be made of the purse or backpack he or she was carrying at the time of the incident. His or|
|her locker and pockets can also be legally searched. Courts will weigh a student's right to privacy against a school's need to obtain |
|evidence of school rule violations and violations of the law. This "reasonable suspicion" standard has been upheld in challenges to locker, |
|desk, and car searches. |

CAN A STUDENT SUE A SCHOOL OFFICIAL FOR SEXUAL HARASSMENT?

|Title IX and Section 183, two federal statutes, protect students against sexual harassment and abuse by school employees. Claims of sexual |
|abuse by teachers and school employees have increased greatly in recent years. Monetary damages have been awarded in sexual discrimination |
|cases brought under Title IX. At this time, students must show a pattern of abusive conduct in order to establish liability. Some courts have|
|waived statutory time limits for filing claims involving sexual abuse of minors. The law will no doubt continue to change in the future. |

DO STUDENTS HAVE A RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN SCHOOL ATHLETICS?

|Participation in school athletics is not a fundamental right but a privilege which |[pic][pic] |
|the school, or a voluntary association, whose rules a school agrees to follow, may | |
|withdraw if the student fails to qualify for the privilege. The school may not | |
|arbitrarily allow the sports privilege to some students and not to other students, | |
|but may impose reasonable requirements such as a minimum grade point average. | |

HOW DO I GET STARTED WITH HOMESCHOOLING?

|If you're thinking about homeschooling, contacting your state or local homeschooling support group is the best place to start. Often local |
|public libraries can assist in locating them. The support groups usually have copies of the state law, information about getting started, |
|lists of activities and resources and many offer a newsletter as well. They can offer opportunities for getting together with other families,|
|activities for children and adults, advice and help with resource materials and even cooperative classes for children. Some have a purely |
|social focus - others have an academic or religious focus as well. |

IS HOMESCHOOLING LEGAL?

|Yes, homeschooling is legal in all 50 states. However, laws and regulations vary from state to state, and interpretations can vary from |
|school district to school district. You will need to read the laws in your state, in addition to asking homeschooling organizations for |
|information. The reference librarian at your local library will be able to help you find this information. You can also find a lot of good |
|information about homeschooling on the Internet. |

WHO IS ELIGIBLE TO ATTEND PUBLIC SCHOOLS?

|Each State is responsible for providing a school system whereby all children may receive an education. There is no charge for attending the |
|school and it is equally open to all students. The Federal Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 provides that no state may deny equal |
|education opportunities to an individual because of his or her race, color, sex or national origin. Therefore, every person has the right to |
|attend school, unless his or her conduct violates valid rules and regulations. |

IS EDUCATION A CIVIL RIGHT?

|Technically speaking, no. However, since the famous 1954 case of Brown v. The Board of Education, it has been illegal for public schools to |
|discriminate on the basis of race. It is also illegal for a public school district to be segregated as a result of intentional practices, |
|such as drawing the schools’ boundaries around exclusively single race areas (this is known as de jury segregation). |
| |
|If, however, a school is exclusively one race as a result of freely made housing decisions (de facto segregation), there is no violation of |
|the Federal civil rights laws. |
| |
|In higher education, it is unlawful for colleges and graduate schools to discriminate against minorities. For more information, see our |
|section on Education. |

AM I ENTITLED TO HAVE MY PARENTS PRESENT BEFORE BEING QUESTIONED BY A SCHOOL OFFICIAL, TEACHER, OR COUNSELOR ABOUT A POTENTIAL VIOLATION OF THE LAW?

|Yes. You are entitled to have your parents present before being questioned. |

AM I ENTITLED TO CONSULT WITH AN ATTORNEY AND TO HAVE AN ATTORNEY PRESENT BEFORE BEING QUESTIONED BY A SCHOOL OFFICIAL, TEACHER, OR COUNSELOR, ABOUT A POTENTIAL VIOLATION OF THE LAW?

|Yes. Many school districts have zero tolerance rules and any admission to violating certain disciplinary rules will result in automatic |
|suspension, possible immediate arrest, referral for criminal prosecution and expulsion from school. |

NCLB Law for Teachers: The law requires teachers to have a bachelor's degree and full state certification and to demonstrate content knowledge in the subjects they teach. NCLB requires neither separate degrees nor separate certifications for every subject taught. In fact, under NCLB states decide what is necessary for certification and for determining subject-matter competency.

Teachers Who Teach Core Academic Subjects Must Meet the Definition of Highly Qualified for the Subjects They Teach

The law requires public school elementary and secondary teachers to meet their state's definition of highly qualified teacher for each core academic subject they teach. According to No Child Left Behind, these subjects are English, reading or language arts, math, science, history, civics and government, geography, economics, the arts and foreign language. Special education teachers and teachers of English language learners must be highly qualified if they teach core academic subjects to their students.

How States Determine Their Highly Qualified Teacher Provisions

In general, under No Child Left Behind a highly qualified teacher must have: • A bachelor's degree. • Full state certification, as defined by the state. • Demonstrated competency, as defined by the state, in each core academic subject he or she teaches.

New Elementary School Teachers

Elementary school teachers who are new to the profession must demonstrate competency by passing a rigorous state test on subject knowledge and teaching skills in reading and language arts, writing, math and other areas of the basic elementary school curriculum.

New Middle and High School Teachers

At the middle and high school levels, new teachers must demonstrate competency either by passing a rigorous state test in each subject they teach or by completing an academic major or coursework equivalent to an academic major, an advanced degree or advanced certification or credentials.

Experienced Elementary, Middle School and High School Teachers

Teachers with experience must either meet the requirements for new teachers or demonstrate competency based on a system designed by each state. No Child Left Behind recognizes that many teachers who have experience may already have the qualifications necessary to be considered highly qualified. Therefore, the law allows states to create a high, objective, uniform state standard of evaluation (HOUSSE). This standard is defined by each state in line with six basic criteria established in NCLB. HOUSSE allows states to evaluate teachers' subject matter knowledge by recognizing, among other things, their teaching experience, professional development and knowledge in the subject garnered over time in the profession. The law requires that such standards • Are set by the state for grade-appropriate academic subject-matter knowledge and teaching skills. • Are aligned with challenging state academic content standards and student achievement standards and developed in consultation with core content specialists, teachers, principals and school administrators. • Provide objective, coherent information about the teacher's attainment of core content knowledge in the academic subjects in which a teacher teaches. • Are applied uniformly to all teachers in the same academic subject and the same grade level throughout the state. • Take into consideration, but are not based primarily on, the time a teacher has been teaching the academic subject. • Are made available to the public upon request.
This evaluation may involve multiple, objective measures of teacher competency.
NCLB - Under the act's accountability provisions, states must describe how they will close the achievement gap and make sure all students, including those who are disadvantaged, achieve academic proficiency. They must produce annual state and school district report cards that inform parents and communities about state and school progress. Schools that do not make progress must provide supplemental services, such as free tutoring or after-school assistance; take corrective actions; and, if still not making adequate yearly progress after five years, make dramatic changes to the way the school is run.
|Title I, Part A (Basic) The purpose of Tennessee's federally funded Title I, Part A Program is to support local school districts improve |
|teaching and learning for students in high-poverty schools so that these students meet the state's challenging content and performance |
|standards. |
|School Improvement Funds Title I School Improvement funds are distributed to qualified school districts for the purpose of providing intensive |
|assistance to schools identified as in need of improvement under Title I, section 1116 of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 . The purpose of |
|Title I School Improvement Funds is to improve student achievement by supporting the implementation of research-based strategies and practices. |
|Districts and schools must use School Improvement Funds to carry out the school improvement, corrective action, or restructuring |
|responsibilities described in section 1116. |
|Title I, Part D (Neglected and Delinquent) |
|It is the purpose of the Neglected and Delinquent Education Program to: |
|Improve educational services to children in local and state institutions for neglected and delinquent children. |
|Provide such children and youth the services needed to make a successful transition from institutionalization to further schooling or |
|employment. |
|Prevent at-risk youth from dropping out of school and provide dropouts and youth returning from institutions with a support system to ensure |
|their continued education. |
|Title III (English as a Second Language) |
|English as a Second Language (ESL) - Title III |
|English as a Second Language (ESL) is a program for delivering services to students who have a primary language other than English. These |
|students come from a non-English language background. In Tennessee, ESL services are primarily delivered as a pull out program, in which |
|students are pulled out of the regular classroom, provided instruction in English at their ability level, and then returned to the classroom. |
|Title IV, Part B - 21st Century Community Learning Centers |
|provide academic enrichment activities designed to help students meet state and local standards, and must be based on rigorous scientific |
|research. |
|Title V, Part B (Public Charter Schools) |
|establishes the public charter school as an option for serving academically at-risk students and children with special needs as defined by the |
|Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA). |
|Title VI, Part B (Rural and Low-Income Schools) |
|address the unique needs of rural school districts. These districts frequently lack personnel and resources needed to compete for federal |
|competitive grants and often receive formula allocations that are too small to be used effectively for their intended purposes. SRSA retains the|
|current Rural Education Achievement Program, which provides additional formula funds and flexibility in the use of certain funds to small rural |
|districts. It creates a new program to provide additional funds to rural districts that: |
|are ineligible to participate in the Small, Rural School Achievement Program |
|serve concentrations of poor students |
|Supplemental Educational Services |
|Under Title I, Part A, of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) , a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), students|
|from low income families attending schools that do not make adequate yearly progress for three consecutive years (i.e., schools are in their |
|second year of improvement) may receive supplemental educational services. |
|Title I, Part C (Migrant) |
|support high-quality and comprehensive educational programs for migratory children to help reduce the educational disruptions and other problems|
|that result from repeated moves. |
|Title I, Part F (Comprehensive School Reform) |
|increase student achievement by assisting public schools across the country with implementing comprehensive reforms that are grounded in |
|scientifically based research and effective practices. |
|Title IV, Part A - Safe and Drug-Free Schools |
|provide a safe and supportive learning environment for all students. A particular focus is placed upon fostering partnerships between schools |
|and the communities they serve. Specific program areas include: |
|• Title IV-A Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program provides federal funding to Tennessee school systems and other eligible |
|entities. |
|The Safe Schools Act of 1998 provides state grant funds to Tennessee school systems to enhance school security and reduce youth violence. |
|• The 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program provides federal funding to schools and communities to support the development of extended|
|learning opportunities for students who attend high-poverty schools and their families. |
|• The Tennessee School Safety Center provides training and technical assistance to educators and others on a wide range of school safety and |
|youth violence prevention issues. More than 2500 persons participated in Center-sponsored training events during the 2001-02 school year. |
|• The Tennessee Character Education Partnership supports the development of effective character education in Tennessee schools. |
|• Program staff are involved in data collection and dissemination related to school safety and student discipline including topics such as zero |
|tolerance and conflict resolution. |
|Title V (Innovative Programs) |
|Support local education reform efforts which support statewide reform efforts; |
|Provide funding to implement promising educational reform programs; |
|Provide a continuing source of innovation and educational improvement, including support for library services and instructional and media |
|materials; and, |
|Meet the special educational needs of at risk and high cost students. |
|Title V, Part D - Character Education |
|shall include character education to help each student develop positive values and improve student conduct as students learn to act in harmony |
|with their positive values and learn to become good citizens in their school, community, and society. |
|Title X (Homeless) |
|develop educational programs that meet the unique needs of homeless children and youth. Because homeless children face many obstacles to an |
|appropriate education, such as lack of transportation and resources, frequent school changes, loss of school records, and emotional stress, |
|special programs are necessary. |
|The Homeless Education Program is designed to facilitate the enrollment, attendance and success of homeless children and youth in Tennessee |
|schools. All school districts in Tennessee are required to provide needed services to homeless children. |

Educational Legal Issues:
If any group can meet on a school campus, all groups can meet. Recently schools have abolished all such clubs rather than permit unpopular clubs to organize on campus.
Amy, a bright, high achieving deaf student ask for an interpreter and was refused by the school system on the grounds she was achieving without one. The court ruled Amy was not entitled to an interpreter and the best educational program. She already had access to a meaningful education program and was making progress which satisfied the requirements of the act.
The Fourth Amendment states: (a) In the public school context, a search may be reasonable (the Court wrote reasonableness was the touchstone of constitutionality) when supported by "special needs" beyond the normal need for law enforcement and a finding of individualized suspicion may not be necessary. (b) The students affected by this Policy had a limited expectation of privacy because students who participate in competitive extracurricular activities voluntarily subjected themselves to many of the same intrusions on their privacy as did athletes.
Girls cannot be barred from boys' sports if the school district does not provide a similar program for girls, and the girls can participate on an equal basis with boys.
In actions by public school students against school officials, wherein the students were found to have been suspended from school without procedural due process, the students, absent proof of actual injury, are entitled to recover only nominal damages.
Schools should be careful about creating a homophobic environment and take action to confront issues of harassment and address them constructively.
State law requiring equal treatment for creationism has a religious purpose and is unconstitutional. §12
Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment of any law respecting an establishment of religion, which is made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, state officials may not compose an official state prayer and require that it be recited in the public schools of the State at the beginning of each school day.
State law enforcing a moment of silence in schools had a religious purpose and is therefore unconstitutional.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), schools that have a policy or practice of permitting the release of students' education records without their parents' written consent.
Due process of law in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment because they were suspended without hearing prior to suspension or within a reasonable time thereafter, and that the statute and implementing regulations were unconstitutional, and granted the requested injunction. Due process requires, in connection with a suspension of ten days or less, that the student be given oral or written notice of the charges against him and, if he denies them, an explanation of the evidence the authorities have and an opportunity to present his version.
The school newspaper here cannot be characterized as a forum for public expression and is not protected by the First Amendment (freedom of speech). School officials are entitled to regulate the paper's contents in any reasonable manner.
It is within the power of the state to require sex education of all children despite the objections of the parents.
The stay-put provision of the Education of All Handicapped Children Act prohibits state or local school authorities from unilaterally excluding disabled children from the classroom for dangerous or disruptive conduct growing out of their disabilities during the pendency of review proceedings. the child shall remain in the then current educational placement
Educational advantages may not be denied a child who is an alien. (Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment)
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment does not require notice and hearing prior to imposition of corporal punishment as that practice is authorized and limited by the common law. The teacher and principal must exercise prudence and restraint when they decide that corporal punishment is necessary for disciplinary purposes. If the punishment is later found to be excessive, they may be held liable in damages or be subject to criminal penalties.
Schools must extend due process of law to students:
1. The affected party must be given fair and reasonable notice of the charges.
2. The affected party must be given a hearing
3. The hearing should be set promptly, but sufficiently in advance to afford the affected party a fair opportunity to prepare for the hearing.
4. The affected party is accorded the right to be represented by legal counsel.
5. The affected party is permitted to present oral and written evidence at the hearing.
6. The affected party and his or her counsel is allowed to confront and challenge all evidence against him or her, including written documents and testimony of adverse witnesses
7. The hearing must be conducted by an impartial tribunal.
8. The affected party is entitled to have an official record, usually by stenographic transcript of the hearing.
9.The affected party should be allowed appeal to higher legal authority, including access to courts to redress legal errors.
Georgia’s Quality Basic Education Act (QBE) due to wide disparities in ability and spending among school districts
Pregnant students cannot be excluded from the public schools merely because they are pregnant.
Married students may not be excluded from school merely because they are married.
"peer grading" violated the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA or Act), The Supreme Court held that peer grading did not violate FERPA. The Court reasoned that grading papers could be as much a part of the assignment as taking the test itself and that FERPA does not prohibit such educational techniques.
School children could not be forced to participate in Bible reading and prayer.
Type I educational finance case which the issue was simply one of equity among school systems
The Court held that Jehovah's Witness children did not have to stand and sing the National Anthem. Although the Anthem is a patriotic and not a religions exercise, the students could legitimately be excused from singing it based on religious beliefs.
Homogeneous grouping violated the Fourteenth Amendment if the charge is that homogeneous grouping concentrated black students in the lower track groups.
Posting of the Ten Commandments in school unconstitutional.
Anti-Busing Law, which flatly forbid assignment of any student on account of race or for the purpose of creating a racial balance or ratio in the schools
Counties with a low total of assessed property values and insignificant business activity were incapable of providing for the needs of education. This recognition of the disparities in ability to raise funds, educational spending, and resulting educational opportunity is typical in the most recent cases, collectively known as Type III educational finance cases.
Students have wide latitude in dress and speech so long as it does not disrupt school. State operated schools cannot be enclaves of totalitarianism. Schools can only restrict speech (including dress) that disrupts school.
The Amish, who stop their children's education in the eighth grade, do not have to follow the state law requiring children to attend school until the age of 16.…...

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