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Social Psychological Perspective

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social psychological perspective
Psykologi
Fördjupningsarbete ht 12

Du har nu chansen att välja att fördjupa dig i ämnet ”psykologi”.

Du ska jämföra en eller flera teorier med något ur verkligheten eller med en fiktiv händelse. Du kan till exempel utföra ett experiment, analysera en film, bok eller händelse som du varit med om eller hört talas om.

Syftet med uppgiften är att du ska fördjupa dig i något ämnesområde som har en koppling till det vi arbetat med under hösten inom det kognitiva eller det biologiska perspektivet.
Du kan välja att använda dig av teorier som vi ej gått igenom.

Disposition • Inledning – syfte samt två frågeställningar • Teori – en eller flera teorier presenteras • Resultat – en faktisk eller fiktiv händelse redovisas • Analys – resultat analyseras med hjälp av teorier, frågeställningar besvaras

Självständigt arbete.

Arbetet bör vara minst 3,5 sidor långt exklusive källförteckningen (teckenstorlek 12, 1,5 radavstånd).

Deadline torsdag vecka 51.

Du ska skicka in arbetet till fronter
Lycka till!/ Magnus

Inför psykologiprovet
1. Kognitiva perspektivet
Häfte
Kognitiva scheman
Psykologisk konservatism
Selektiv perception
Personperception
Halo-effekt
Rosenthaleffekt
Stereotyper

Placeboeffekt

Kognitiv beteende terapi (KBT) – behandling, för- och nackdelar
Upplevelse av smärta/smärtperception

Roller, Visuell perception, synvillor och liknande kommer EJ på provet

2. Biologiska perspektivet
Instuderingsfrågor i häftet Det biologiska perspektivet samt instuderingsfrågor till dokumentären Mannens vetenskap

Nervcellernas funktion
Serotonin, dopamin, endorfiner – vilken funktion har de/vilken effekt har de i kroppen
Antidepressiva läkemedel
Droger – ecstacy och kokain, deras effekt – vad är det som påverkas fysiskt /psykiskt
Testosteron

Nervsystemets uppbyggnad kommer EJ på provet

Biologiska perspektivet
Mannens vetenskap – dokumentär 1. Nämn tre konkreta exempel som presenterades i dokumentären som tyder på att testosteron styr vårt beteende. 2. Vilka beteenden påverkas av mängden testosteron i kroppen? Glöm inte av att detta även innefattar en låg halt av testosteron! 3. Vilka samband finns det mellan testosteron och olycksstatistik?

Kognitiv psykologi
Inom det kognitiva perspektivet fokuserar man på hur människan tolkar och försöker skapa mening i yttre stimuli/all information vi får från omvärlden. Det sätt på vilket vi tolkar omvärlden har enligt den kognitiva skolan en avgörande betydelse för våra känslor och handlingar. Ett av de viktigaste begreppen är ”kognitiva scheman” som är de tankemönster som vi fått via tidigare erfarenheter eller det vi lärt oss av andra. I våra kognitiva scheman organiseras intryck och vi använder dem för att tolka och skapa mening i vår omvärld, dessa styr även vilka känslor vi har och hur vi agerar.

1. Intryck via våra sinnen
2. Tolkas utifrån kognitiva scheman
3. Påverkar våra känslor och hur vi beter oss
Man kan säga det finns olika typiska eller generella scheman för olika situationer, aktiviteter eller händelser t.ex. festschema, schema för en viss roll. Detta innebär en slags strukturerad förväntning
Fördelar----- vi lär oss att hantera olika situationer
Nackdelar----- vi tolkar situationer utifrån våra scheman istället för att utgå från verkligheten.
När vi uppfattar något bör vi därför ställa oss frågan:
Är det verkligen sant?
Psykologisk konservatism
Psykologisk konservatism innebär att våra grundläggande uppfattningar styr våra observationer och tolkningar av omvärlden så att vi hela tiden får dem bekräftade. Om man utgår från att världen är hemsk och farlig kommer man att tolka alla händelser enligt detta kognitiva schema och uppleva omvärlden som en hotfull och farlig plats.

Selektiv perception
Innebär att vi medvetet och omedvetet sållar all information.
Vad styr vad vi uppmärksammar?
Yttre faktorer som något som förändras eller är avvikande, ljud, stark färg
Inre faktorer som behov, känslor, intressen, erfarenheter, förväntningar, det som bekräftar våra uppfattningar. Vi lägger med andra ord främst märke till och kommer ihåg det som vi är intresserade av och det som är nytt och uppseendeväckande.

Personperception: Förstahandsintrycket har stor betydelse och är svårt att ändra på
Halo-effekt: Vi har en tendens att låta en positiv eller negativ detalj hos en person bli representativ för hela personen.
Rosenthaleffekt: Våra förväntningar på en person har en tendens att bli självuppfyllande.
Stereotyper: Vi placerar in människor i fack och dömer dem därefter.

Instuderingsfrågor

1. Kom på minst ett konkret exempel på psykologisk konservatism! 2. Ge minst ett exempel på personperception, halo-effekt, Rosenthaleffekt samt stereotyper. 3. Vilken betydelse tror du att begreppet ”personperception” har vid en arbetsintervju? 4. Vilka för- och nackdelar finns det med selektiv perception? 5. Hur styr våra kognitiva scheman våra känslor? 6. Anser du att du har många olika kognitiva scheman och hur skiljer sig dessa åt?…...

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