Free Essay

Social Issues

In: Historical Events

Submitted By stanslaus
Words 21147
Pages 85
REPUBLIC OF KENYA MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND MINERAL RESOURCES

MERU NORTH DISTRICT ENVIRONMENT ACTION PLAN 2009-2013

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Economic growth and environment are closely intertwined in Kenya’s development. Environmental Action Planning is a tool that aims at enhancing the integration of environment into development planning. Meru North District faces many environmental challenges with some being unique to the District. Some of the challenges include; Poverty has lead to the over-use and destruction of environment. Continued reliance on trees for fuel and wetlands for farming and its resources has lead to deforestation and wetland encroachment. Annual flooding continues to destroy property and frustrate farming. The DEAP highlights priority themes and activities for the District towards achieving sustainable development. The report is divided into eight chapters. Chapter one gives the challenges of sustainable development and also describes the rationale for and preparatory process of the DEAP. The chapter introduces the district’s main profile covering the physical features, demographic, agroecological zones, and main environmental issues. Chapter two describes the District’s Environment and Natural resources of Land, Water, Biodiversity (forest, wildlife, and Dry lands biodiversity), wetlands and agriculture, livestock and fisheries. For each resource, major environmental issues, challenges and proposed interventions are identified. Chapter three discusses the Human settlements and infrastructure in Meru North District covering situation analysis, challenges and proposed interventions. Environmental challenges addressed include; waste management, sanitation, pollution, diseases, land use, demand for water, energy, materials for construction, land and wetlands degradation, policy and legislation, biodiversity loss and land tenure. Chapter four addresses environmental aspects in tourism, trade, industry and services sectors. The key issues under this chapter are high pollution levels from industrial activities and weak enforcement of relevant legislations. Chapter five discusses environmental hazards and disasters. The major hazards covered include; drought and floods. Environmental information, networking and technology are discussed in chapter six. It emerges that environmental information and networking technology have continued to receive scanty attention. Governance, Policy and Legal Framework as well as Institutional arrangements are set in chapter Seven. The key issues addressed include; harmonization of environmental legislations and institutional mandates, incorporation of indigenous knowledge in environmental management. Chapter eight is the implementation Matrix .

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 FOREWORD The 1992 Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro came up with various recommendations, among them Agenda 21, a Global Environmental Action Plan. The theme of the Summit focused on how nations could attain sustainable development. The Government of Kenya embraced this idea by developing the first National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) in 1994. Since independence, Kenya has continued to demonstrate her commitment to environmental management through various initiatives, among them the National Development Plans of 1974 and the National Environment Action Plan of 1994. Further, there have been a number of sectoral policies on environment in fields such as Agriculture, Livestock, Water, Energy, Food, Land, Wildlife, Forest, Industry, Trade, Arid Lands, Disaster Management and the Draft Sessional Paper No. 6 of 1999 on Environment and Development. The Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA, 1999) provides for the integration of environmental concerns in national policies, plans, programmes and projects. In this regard, EMCA 1999 provides for the formulation of National, Provincial and District Environment Action Plans every five years. Environmental Action Planning is a tool that aims at integrating environmental concerns into development planning. The process followed in preparing this DEAP was participatory, involving various stakeholders from institutions and sectors, including the public, private, NGOs and local communities at District and Divisional levels. These consultative meetings provided the basis also for formulation of the PEAP and finally the National Environment Action Plan. The DEAP addresses environmental issues from various sectors in an integrated manner and discusses their significance in development planning. It proposes a strategy for achieving sustainable development in line with Kenya’s quest to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Vision 2030 and Medium Term Plan (MTP2008-2012). The Plan has brought out a number of proposed interventions, legal and institutional framework to be incorporated into sectoral development plans and programmes. Its implementation will be monitored by the DEC and will be reflected in the State of the Environment Reports. The preparation of the DEAPs for Meru North owes much to the technical and financial assistance provided by the NEMA This support, which included innovative community and civil society ii

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 consultations, facilitation of DEC meetings, as well as final publication costs, is gratefully acknowledged I wish to underscore that the 2009-2013 DEAP report is a broad-based strategy that will enable the District attain sustainable development as envisaged in Vision 2030

Dr Ayub Macharia Director General (Ag) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

iii

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Environment Action Planning is a multi disciplinary, multi stakeholder and multi-sectoral participatory process. In this connection, many institutions and individuals have contributed immensely to the preparation of this District Environment Action Plan. I take this opportunity therefore, to acknowledge all those who contributed to its preparation. I particularly acknowledge with appreciation the participation of the District technical Committee charged with the responsibility formulating this action plan for their valuable input, participation and tireless effort to accomplish this task. I further thank the different departments NGOs, CBOs, Research institutions and individual who provided information and data that was the building blocks for this plan. I also acknowledge the support of NEMA headquarters and the board for facilitating the entire process through provision of appropriate guidance and finances respectively to complete the exercise. Together I am grateful to the Provincial Director of Environment - Eastern Province and the District Environment Officer Meru North for the inputs and commitment to the entire process of preparation of this document. It is my belief that this plan will be implemented for the betterment of our environment in Meru North District, the province and the country at large.

Dr. Kennedy I. Ondimu DIRECTOR, ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING & RESEARCH CO-ORDINATION

iv

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................I FOREWORD .......................................................................................................................... II DR AYUB MACHARIA .........................................................................................................III DIRECTOR GENERAL (AG) ..............................................................................................III NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITYACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................III ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................................... IV TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................V LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................X CHAPTER ONE.......................................................................................................................1 1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 PREAMBLE ............................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT .............................................................................. 2 1.4 OBJECTIVES OF DISTRICT ENVIRONMENT ACTION PLAN ................................................................ 4 1.5 THE ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLANNING PROCESS ......................................................................... 4 1.6 DISTRICT PROFILE .................................................................................................................................... 5 1.6.1 Geographical Location, Size and Administrative Units.................................................................. 5 1.7 CLIMATE AND PHYSICAL FEATURES ...................................................................................................... 7 1.8 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................................. 8 1.9 SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................... 13 CHAPTER TWO ......................................................................................................................3 2.0 ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES ......................................................................................... 3 2.1 LAND USE AND SOILS............................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 LAND AND LAND USE CHANGES ............................................................................................................ 5 2.3 AGRICULTURE. ....................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4 LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1 Types of Livestock Production Systems ......................................................................................... 17 2.5 FISHERIES RESOURCES ........................................................................................................................... 21 2.6 WATER RESOURCES................................................................................................................................ 23 2.6.1 Types of Water Sources..................................................................................................................... 23 2.6.2 Status and Trends of Water Resources ........................................................................................... 24 2.6.3 Main Water Uses .................................................................................................................................... 24 2.6.4 Impacts of Water use and Demand on the Environment and Natural resources. ................... 25 2.7 FORESTRY ............................................................................................................................................. 27 2.7.1 Trust Land Forests ................................................................................................................................. 28 2.7.2 Status and Trends of Forest Resources........................................................................................... 29 2.8 WILDLIFE RESOURCES ........................................................................................................................... 30 2.8.1 The Area under wildlife ..................................................................................................................... 30 v

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 2.8.2 Types of Wildlife Species .................................................................................................................. 31 2.8.3 Exploitation of Wildlife Resources.................................................................................................. 32 2.9 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION............................................................................................................ 35 2.9.1 Biodiversity Data and Information.................................................................................................. 36 2.9.2 Species Conservation Status ............................................................................................................. 36 CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................5 3.0 HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE ..................................................................................... 5 3.1 HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND PLANNING ................................................................................................. 5 3.1.1 Planning Human Settlement ............................................................................................................... 6 3.1.2 Urban areas needing urgent planning services ................................................................................. 6 3.1.3 Informal Settlements............................................................................................................................ 2 3.2 LAND ADJUDICATION AND SETTLEMENT PROCESS ............................................................................. 3 3.3 IMPACT OF LAND TENURE ON ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................... 4 3.4 HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ............................................................................................ 5 3.5 COMMUNICATION NETWORKS .............................................................................................................. 6 3.6 SOCIAL ECONOMIC SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................ 7 3.6.1 Major Water Sources............................................................................................................................ 8 3.7 SANITATION ................................................................................................................................................ 8 3.7.1 Health Facilities ...................................................................................................................................... 8 3.8 ENERGY SECTOR .................................................................................................................................... 10 3.8.2 Types and Status of Energy Sources ............................................................................................... 11 3.8.3 Trends in Energy production, consumption, costs and projections........................................... 12 3.8.4 Energy Supplies ...................................................................................................................................... 13 3.8.5 Factors Influencing Trends in Energy Consumption ................................................................... 14 CHAPTER FOUR................................................................................................................... 15 4.0 INDUSTRY, TRADE AND SERVICES ........................................................................................................ 15 4.1 INDUSTRIAL SECTOR .............................................................................................................................. 15 4.1.1 Trends in Industrial Development in the District ......................................................................... 15 4.2 TRADE SECTOR ....................................................................................................................................... 16 4.2.1 Types of Trade in the District .......................................................................................................... 16 4.3 SERVICES SECTOR ..................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.1 Major Service Sectors in the District ................................................................................................. 4 4.4 TOURISM ............................................................................................................................................... 5 4.4.1 Tourism Attractions............................................................................................................................. 6 4.4 MINING ............................................................................................................................................... 8 4.4.1 Minerals ...................................................................................................................................... 8 4.5 QUARRYING ................................................................................................................................................ 9 4.6 SAND HARVESTING ................................................................................................................................ 13 4.6.1 Status of Sand Harvesting Activities................................................................................................ 13 CHAPTER FIVE .................................................................................................................... 14 5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS .................................................................................... 14 5.1 EXTENT AND TRENDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS ....................................... 14 5.1.1 Environmental Hazards and Disasters............................................................................................ 14 5.1.2. Traditional Coping Mechanisms ..................................................................................................... 15 vi

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 5.1.3 District Environmental Response Mechanisms............................................................................. 15 5.1.4 Status of Early Warning and Preparedness..................................................................................... 15 CHAPTER SIX ....................................................................................................................... 18 6.0 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY......................................................................... 18 6.1 STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ....................................................................................... 18 6.3 PUBLIC AWARENESS AND PARTICIPATION .......................................................................................... 19 6.3.1 Challenges in Creating Environmental Awareness........................................................................ 20 6.4 TECHNOLOGIES ..................................................................................................................................... 20 6.5 ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS....................................................................................... 21 6.5.1 Types and Sources of Environmental Information ...................................................................... 21 6.5.2 Status of Environmental Information Management Systems...................................................... 25 6.6 INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE .................................................................................................................. 27 6.6.1 Constraints/challenges in the utilization, documentation and dissemination of indigenous knowledge (IK) 29 CHAPTER SEVEN ................................................................................................................ 31 7.0: ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ................................... 31 7.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 31 7.2 EMCA STRUCTURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ........................................................... 31 7.3. STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE & INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .................. 33 7.4 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ..................................................................................................................... 36 7.5 PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS ................................................................................................................ 37 CHAPTER EIGHT.................................................................................................................38 8.0 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY .............................................................................................................. 38 8.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 38 8.2 STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT .......................................................................................................... 38 8.3 MONITORING AND EVALUATION ........................................................................................................ 38 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................59 APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................60

vii

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

LIST OF TABLES Table 1: District Area by Division and Number of Locations and Sub Locations ........................... 7 The population of the district is estimated at 692,435 persons (at 2004) at a male to female ratio of 1: 1.06 (100:94) and an inter census growth of 2.76 % with an average life expectancy of 62 years. The population density is estimated at 174.9 persons per Km2 with Igembe Central division with the highest density and the least being Mutuati division. The youth or persons between 15 - 25 years account for about 25 % of the entire population of the district. Table 2 ,3, 4 and 5 show the demographic features of the district ................................................................................................. 8 Table 3 : Population Distribution by Gender and Age .................................................................. 11 Table 4: Number of Urban Centres by Actual Population............................................................. 12 Table 5: District Population Projections ....................................................................................... 13 Table 6 shows the types of soils and their distribution in the district. ............................................... 3 Table 7: The Area Covered by Each Agro-Ecological Zone............................................................. 4 Table 8 indicates the district’s land use potential according to their agro-ecological zones. ............... 5 Table 9: Distribution of Land Uses in the District........................................................................... 9 Table 10: Land Use Systems.......................................................................................................... 12 Table 11: Status and Trends of Crop Production........................................................................... 13 Table 12 documents the types and status of farming systems in the district. ................................... 15 Table 13: Status and Trends of Livestock Production..................................................................... 17 Table 14 indicates the types and status of livestock production systems in the district.................... 19 Table 15: Types and Status of Fisheries Production Systems ........................................................ 22 Table 16: Main Water Sources ...................................................................................................... 23 Table 17: Sources and Status of Water Resources .......................................................................... 26 Table 18: Government Gazetted Forest......................................................................................... 28 These are forests vested under Nyambene County Council by the virtue of the fact that the Council is the custodian of all trust land in the district. They cover the hill tops scattered all over the district covering a total area of 359.6 Ha as shown in table 19 and 21 ........................................................ 28 Table 20: Types and Status of Forests............................................................................................ 29 Table 21: Type and Number of Endangered Animals .................................................................... 31 Table 22 shows the types and status of wildlife in the district. ........................................................ 33 Table 23: Types and Status of Biological Resources ......................................................................... 2 Table 24: Land Tenure Systems and Area (Ha) in the district........................................................... 5 Table 25: Planned Urban Areas ....................................................................................................... 6 Table 26: Households by main type of roofing, wall and floor material in the district ...................... 2 Table 27: Areas Already Adjudicated / Registered Sections ............................................................. 3 Table 28: On-Going Adjudication Sections .................................................................................... 3 Table 29: On-Going Adjudication Sections .................................................................................... 4 Table 30: Disease Incidences and Distribution:................................................................................ 5 Table 31: Number of Health Facilities in the District....................................................................... 9 Table 32: Number of Educational Facilities in the district (2002)..................................................... 9 There are no major or land scale hydro power, geothermal, biomass, solar, or wind generation of power in the district, but only very scale utilisation of biomass, wind and solar energy at the household level at 0.1% of the population. Table 33 indicate energy consumption and costs ......... 12 Table 34: Status of Energy Supply in the District - 2002 ................................................................ 13 Table 35: Type and Trends in Industrial Development .................................................................. 16 Table 36: Impacts of Trade on Environment................................................................................... 2 viii

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Table 37: Impacts of Service Sector to the Environment ................................................................. 5 Table 38: Tourism Attraction Sites in the district ............................................................................. 7 Table 39: Status and Location of Quarries and Material Quarried .................................................. 10 Table 40: Types of Quarries and Methods of Extraction ............................................................... 12 Table 41: Sector Capacities for Disaster Preparedness and Response............................................ 16 Table 42: Environmental Programmes and Challenges in the District............................................ 18 Table 43: Information and data types in the district ....................................................................... 23 Table 44: Types of IK, Key players and Challenges ....................................................................... 27 Table 45: Policies that Impact on Environment............................................................................. 34 Table 46: Legislation that Impact on Human Health & Environmental Quality............................. 35 Table 47: implementation matrix for Meru North district .............................................................. 40 Table 48: Monitoring and Evaluation Matrix ................................................................................. 54

ix

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 LIST OF ACRONYMS ASALs Arid and Semi Arid Lands CBOs CDM DDOs DDPs DEAPs DDC DEOs EMCA EMS ERSW&EC GDP GIS IK MDGs MEAS MENR MOH NDPs NEAP NEAPC NEMA NEPAD NGOs PDEs PEAP PEC PPO PRSP SEAs TAC UNCED UNEP Community Based Organizations Clean Development Mechanism District Development Officers District Development Plans District Environment Action Plans District Environment Committee District Environment Officers Environment Management Coordination Act Environmental Management System Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation Gross Domestic Product Geographical Information System Indigenous knowledge Millennium Development Goals Multilateral Environmental Agreements Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Ministry of Health National Development Plans National Environment Action Plan National Environmental Action Plan Committee National Environmental Management Authority New partnership for Africa Development Non-Governmental Organizations Provincial Directors of Environment Provincial Environment Action Plans Provincial Environment Committee Provincial Planning Officer Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Strategic Environment Assessments Technical Advisory Committee United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Development Programme x

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 WC WHO WSSD IGEA Water Closet World Health Organization World Summit on Sustainable Development Itinerant Group for Environmental Amelioration

xi

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Preamble The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 had a double mandate of finding ways to protect the global environment while ensuring that economic and social concerns are integrated into development planning. The Conference underscored the need to developing modalities for integrating environmental concerns into development policies, plans, programmes and 'projects. It agreed on the guiding principles and a global plan of action for sustainable development commonly called Agenda 21 The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg in 2002, reaffirmed the commitments of the international community to the principles of sustainable development contained in Agenda 21 and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of 2000. Sustainable development is commonly defined as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Development is also sustainable if it meets ecological, economic and social needs. This calls for the integration of environmental considerations at all levels of decision making in development planning and implementation of programmes and projects. The Government of Kenya is committed to the achievement of sustainable development stated in Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals, Vision 2030 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. This commitment to environmental protection and sustainable use of natural resources is well articulated in various Government policy documents including the Sessional Paper No.6 of 1999 on Environment and Development, the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (2003-2007) and the National Development Plan (2002-2008). These policies and plans recognize integration of environmental concerns into national planning and management processes and provide guidelines for achieving sustainable national development. The 9th National Development Plan (2002-2008) states that "The full integration of environmental concerns in development planning process at all levels of decision making remains a challenge to the country, the need to integrate environmental concerns in development activities should be given high priority". The Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999 provides for the integration of environmental concerns into the national development process. The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) is

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 mandated to implement the Act and in particular coordinate the preparation of Environmental Action Plans (EAPs) at the District, Provincial and National level. Poverty is a major challenge to the Goals of the sustainable development Sound environmental and natural resources management should contribute to poverty reduction, food security and sustainable livelihoods, enhanced environmental quality and health, promotion of sustainable energy production, minimization of pollution and waste, improvement of shelter and habitats, promotion of eco-tourism and improved standards of living.

1.2 Challenges of Environment Management Kenya's economy primarily depends on natural resources where over 68% of the population live in rural areas and derive their livelihoods mainly from these resources. Economic activities derived from, the natural resources include agriculture, industry, tourism, energy, water, trade, and mining. The environment and natural resources have in the recent years been under, threat due to increased dependence on natural resources to meet basic needs. The situation is aggravated by the rising poverty levels from 42% in 1994 to 56% in 2002 and is currently estimated to be over 62%. The situation is even worse within the rural population. The population growth rate has over time become higher than the economic growth rate hence the pressure on these resources. This has also led to increased in-migration and over-utilization of fragile ecosystems. The immigration into marginal areas from high potential areas has contributed to unsustainable land use practices often resulting in resource use conflicts especially water and pasture. Poverty often leads to over-use and destruction of the environment where short-term development goals and practices are pursued at the expense of long-term environmental sustainability. Once the resource base is degraded, poverty is aggravated because the capacity of the resource base to support the same population even with unchanged demand will have diminished. Therefore, there exist a close link between poverty and environment. Rapid urbanization coupled with increased slum settlements due to rural-urban migration have resulted in urban decay, loss of environmental quality and health deterioration, water pollution, loss of biodiversity and encroachment of fragile ecosystems. In both rural and urban areas, access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation is a critical environmental and health concern. The widespread accumulation of solid wastes and poor disposal of effluents in urban areas is also an 2

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 environmental hazard culminating in air and water pollution and increased incidences of respiratory and water borne diseases. About 88% of Kenya's land areas are classified as arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) which supports over 50% of livestock, about 30% of the population and most wildlife. Climatic variability has reduced the capacity of ASALs to support existing and emerging livelihoods thus further aggravating environmental degradation. This is evidenced by increased soil erosion, reduction in pasture and vegetation cover, food insecurity, increased conflicts and insecurity - all contributing to increased poverty Prior to the enactment of EMCA 1999, environment management in Kenya mainly focused on administrative boundaries with little regard to trans-boundary and shared resource issues. Consequently, management of these resources has not been adequately addressed, including watersheds, wildlife and mountain ecosystems among others. The challenge is to develop integrated management plans for inter- and intra-districts, provinces, regional, national and international boundaries. Indigenous management systems that are sustainable have largely been disregarded in t4e recent past leading to environmental deterioration. Sectoral regulatory instruments, which have been used to manage the environment before enactment of EMCA 1999, did not achieve the desired outcomes. This is largely attributed to lack of linkages, sectoral conflicts/overlaps, resource limitations, inadequate stakeholder involvement hence weak compliance and enforcement. The challenge of managing environmental resources sustainably calls for the development of integrated management plans and, their implementation. Integrated planning enables harmonization of sectoral priorities, stakeholder involvement and participation, proper programming and budgeting system. Section 38 of EMCA provides for the preparation of District, Provincial and National Environment Action plans every five years.

3

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 1.3 Provisions of EMCA on Environmental Planning Part IV of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999 deals with environmental planning at the national, Provincial and district level. Section 40 specifically deals with environmental planning at the district level and states in part: Every District Environmental committee, shall every five, years prepare a district environment action plan in respect of the district for which it is appointed and shall submit such plan to the chairman of the provincial environment action plan committee for incorporation into the provincial environment action plan proposed under section 39. 1.4 Objectives of District Environment Action Plan      To determine the major environmental issues and challenges facing the country; To identify environmental management opportunities; To create synergy and harmony in environmental planning; To integrate environmental concerns into social, economic planning and development; and To formulate appropriate environmental management strategies.

1.5 The environmental action planning process DEAP METHODOLOGY The process started by holding regional workshops, which the DEAP Secretariat was appointed by the Director General in 2004. That comprised of a District Water Officer, District Development Officer (DDO) and District Environment Officer (DEO) to attend an induction course on the DEAP methodology. The District Environment Committee (DEC) members gazetted in 2003 were further requested to form a District Environment Action Planning Committee (Technical Committee comprising lead agencies and representatives from other stakeholders), chaired by the DDO and the DEO is the secretary. Once the draft DEAP is prepared, the DEC approves and submits to the Provincial Environment Committee for inclusion in the Provincial Environment Action Plan. The District Environment Action Planning Committee spearheaded the preparation of the Meru North DEAP. The committee requested for sectoral environment reports from the lead agencies and compiled the DEAP. The Meru North District Environment Action Plan was further enriched through participatory planning approach in which consultation workshops at the district The preparation of the Meru North DEAP has been realigned with Vision 2030, Mid-Term Plan 4

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 2008-2012 as directed by the government. The current DEAP covers the period of 2009-2013 and as per EMCA shall be revised after every five years. The DEAP will be monitored by the annual preparation of the State of Environment Reports. The environmental indicators that have been developed in the implementation matrix will be monitored by the respective lead agencies on an annual basis and incorporated in the annual State of Environment Report. The National Steering Committee and the National Environment Action Planning Committee have approved the indicators. 1.6 District profile 1.6.1 Geographical Location, Size and Administrative Units Meru North District is one of the four districts that formerly made the greater Meru District and was curved in 1993. It is one of the thirteen districts in Eastern Province of Kenya with a total area of 3,942.30 Km ².It borders Meru Central District on the West side, Tharaka District on the South, Isiolo District on the North East and Tana River and Mwingi Districts on the South Eastern side. The district lies within latitudes 0º 00’ and 0º 40’ North, and longitudes 37º 50’ East, with the southern boundary lying along the equator. The district has fifteen (15) administrative divisions, which are further sub-divided into fifty six (56) Locations and one hundred and thirty nine (139) Sub-locations as shown in table one

5

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Figure 1: Location of Meru North district in Eastern Province. 6

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 1:

District Area by Division and Number of Locations and Sub Locations Area Division Locations Sub-Locations Km2 280.0 47.6 74.1 77.6 71.8 60.4 415.0 238.3 674.1 119.4 104.4 495.4 135.2 108.6 162.2 878.2 3942.3 56 139 6 6 3 4 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 4 3 2 5 13 14 8 8 9 6 6 10 4 9 13 11 7 5 16

1gembe North 1gembe Central 1gembe South Igembe South West Igembe East Igembe South East Laare Ndoleli Mutuati Tigania Central Uringu Tigania North Tigania West Tigania East Akithi Meru National Park Total

Source: District Development Plan 2002 – 2008 1999 1.7 Climate and physical features Altitude The topography of the district is dominated by the great Nyambene range, which creates the diversity of the physical landscape that affects the physiographic and the entire environment of the district. The district lies between an altitude of 2,514 M at the summit of the Nyambene range and 300M ASL in the Meru National Park bordering Tana River District. The Nyambene range is elongated from the South East to the North East and rises sharply above the surrounding plateau, with Itiene peak as the summit of this elevation at 2,514 M ASL. The slopes are very steep and rocky especially to the eastern side but the crests are much lower as very little land is above 1,829 M ASL.

7

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 The plateau runs south to north from Mt. Kenya to Nyambene Hills and is separated from the lowlands by a clear break on topography between 914 M and 1,067M ASL. The lowest altitude is 610 M ASL. There is an escarpment to the east rising between 15 M and 100 M ASL which is characterized by many springs and the land gently descends towards Tana River. Rainfall and Temperatures The district’s climate is determined to a large extent by its topography; the relief is created by the Nyambene ranges and nearby Mount Kenya. The highlands reduce the effect of high temperatures and the rate of evaporation. Temperatures are cool-humid to hot and dry ranging from an annual mean of 24.7 ºC for low altitudes (610 – 700 M) and 13.7ºC for the high altitudes especially on the western slopes of the Nyambene ranges. The lowlands thus receive low rainfall as they are on the leeward side of the range. The rainfall pattern is bi-modal with long rains coming between March and May, and the short rains from October to December. Rainfall ranges from 1,250 mm – 2,514 mm on the eastern and southern slopes of the Nyambene range, to 380 mm – 1000 mm annually in the leeward side.

1.8 Population size and distribution The population of the district is estimated at 692,435 persons (at 2004) at a male to female ratio of 1: 1.06 (100:94) and an inter census growth of 2.76 % with an average life expectancy of 62 years. The population density is estimated at 174.9 persons per Km2 with Igembe Central division with the highest density and the least being Mutuati division. The youth or persons between 15 - 25 years account for about 25 % of the entire population of the district. Table 2 ,3, 4 and 5 show the demographic features of the district

8

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 2:

Population Size and Distribution (Density) by Division

Divisi on

Years 1999 No. y 2002 Densit No. 207 63,05 7 881 45,56 5 957 y 225 66,63 5 48,15 1 1,012 2004 Densit No. Densi ty 238 7041 7 5088 3 1,069 2006 No. y 251 74,41 3 53,77 1 1130 2008 Densit No. Densi ty 266

1gem be North 1gem be Centr al 1gem be South Igem be South West Igem be East Igem be South East Laare Ndol eli Mutu ati

58,04 6 41,94 4

18,209

246

19,781

267

20,90 3

282

2209 0

298

23,34 4

315

21,79 1

281

23,672

305

25,01 6

322

2643 5

341

27,93 5

360

28,57 5 18,70 0

398

31,042

432

32,80 3

457

3466 5

483

36,63 2

510

310

20,314

336

21,46 7

355

2268 5

376

23,97 3

397

65,42 8 54,73 0 56,75 1

158 230 84

71,076 59,455 61,650

171 249 91

75,11 0 62,82 9 65,14 9

.181 264 97

7937 2 66,39 4 68,84 6

.91 279 102

83,87 7 70,16 3 72,75 3

202 294 108

9

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Tigan 45,06 ia Centr al Uring u ia North Tigan 32,26 ia West Tigan 30,94 ia East Akithi 43,09 6 Meru Natio nal Park Total 604,0 50 153 656,1 94 166 693,4 35 176 732,7 88 186 774,3 75 196 408 1 443 1 266 46,816 289 49,47 3 468 1 305 52,28 1 495 1 322 55,24 8 523 2 341 4 285 33,615 310 35,52 3 327 37,53 9 346 39,66 9 365 6 239 35,051 259 37,04 1 274 39,14 3 290 41,36 4 306 39,00 3 99 53,336 108 8 374 42,370 406 44,77 5 56,36 3 114 429 47,31 6 59,56 2 120 453 50,00 1 62,94 2 127 479 1 377 48,951 410 51,72 9 433 54,66 5 458 57,76 7 484

Tigan 49,09

Source: District Statistics Office, Maua, 2001

10

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 3 :

Population Distribution by Gender and Age

Years 1999 Age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50.54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Age NS Total 293,38 5 310,66 5 318,71 1 337,48 3 336,799 356,636 355,912 376,87 6 375,312 398,264 Male 51,552 45,883 42,989 34,247 25,278 19,996 14,584 13,266 9,731 8,835 7,162 4,612 4,402 3,043 2,802 1,770 2,425 808 Femal e 51,370 45,730 44,064 38,971 31,769 22,328 14,911 14,315 10,823 8,548 7,100 4,312 4,947 3,279 3,096 1,633 2,572 897 56,002 49,844 46,700 37,203 27,460 21,722 15,843 14,411 10,571 9,598 7,780 5,010 4,782 3,306 3,044 1,923 2,634 878 2002 Male Femal e 55,805 49,678 47,868 42,335 34,511 24,256 16,198 15,551 11,757 9,286 ,7,713 4,684 5,374 3,562 3,363 1,774 2,794 974 59,180 52,673 49,350 39,315 29,019 22,955 16,742 15,229 11,171 10,142 8,222 5,294 5,053 3,493 3,217 2,032 2,784 928 58,972 52,497, 50,584 44,738 36,470 25,632 17,117 16,432 12,425 9,813 8,151 4,950 5,679 3,764 3,554 1,875 2,953 1,030 62,539 55,662 52,151 41,546 30,665 24,258 17,692 16,093 11,805 10,718 8,688 5,595 5,340 3,692 3,399 2,147 2,942 980 2004 Male 2006 Female Male e 62,318 55,476 53,455 47,277 38,540 27,087 18,089 17,366 13,130 10,370 8,613 5,231 6,001 3,978 3,756 1,981 3,120 1,088 66,088 58,821 55,111 43,904 32,406 25,634 18,696 17,007 12,475 11,326 9,182 5,112 5,643 3,901 3,592 2,269 3,109 1,036 65,855 58,625 56,489 49,960 40,727 28,624 19,115 18,351 13,875 10,958 9,102 5,528 6,342 4,204 3,969 2,093 3,297 1,150 2008 Femal Male Female

Source: District Planning Unit, Maua, 2001 – DPP (2002 – 2008) Note: Age NS =Age not shown)

11

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Migration About 96% of the population within the district live in the rural areas, while the remaining 4% is concentrated in mainly in the two main urban centres of Maua and Laare. Nevertheless an increasing number especially of young people are migrating to the urban centres within and without the district. Net migrants Male: -1.3% Female: 15.7% Density and Distribution in Urban and Rural Areas
Table 4:

Number of Urban Centres by Actual Population Estimated Population (2002) 53,739 25,429 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 Over 500 – mainly Informal Settlement Over 500

Urban Centres Maua Laare Mukinduri Mutuati Muthara Kiengu Kianjai Karama Muriri Ngundune Nchiru Kangeta Maili Tatu Murera Miathene

Source: Population Census 1999 Projections- District Statistic Bureau

12

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 5:

District Population Projections 2009 2010 Females 41,136 48,986 54,757 50,125 38,385 31,327 24,844 20,100 15,899 12,963 10,795 8,492 5,550 4,704 4,564 5,131 7,513 385,271 Males 41,735 51,189 57,951 51,258 34,248 26,655 21,634 17,864 15,166 12,415 9,600 7,436 5,122 4,203 3,789 3,879 6,726 370,870 Females 40,333 49,073 55,608 51,123 39,156 32,004 25,441 20,590 16,246 13,242 11,066 8,674 5,551 4,713 4,641 5,334 7,750 390,545

Age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Total

Males 42,339 50,861 56,831 50,035 33,346 25,911 21,067 17,386 14,719 12,053 9,345 7,269 5,072 4,164 3,725 3,754 6,495 364,372

Source: Kenya 1999 Population and Housing Census 1.9 Social, cultural and economic characteristics Social and Economic Characteristics Agriculture is the main stay of the people of Meru North. Its climatic setup and the resultant vegetation can be grouped into two major zones divided roughly by the Meru Kangeta Laare road. The zone to the southern side of the road is highly influenced by the Nyambene range, which ises over 2400 meters above sea level and is a source of several medium size rivers that flow to the Tana and Uaso Nyiro Rivers. This zone receives sufficient rainfall in two seasons from April to June from September to December. The Zone produces several high value cash crops including coffee and miraa. It also produces food crops including maize, beans yams, and bananas. 13

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 The northern side of the road comprises of drier and semi-arid parts of the District characterized by savannah grassland, low-density population and pastoralist activities. The zone gets sporadic rainfall with characteristic ample harvest when the rain is sufficient and little to zero harvest when the rain fails. This is the poorest zone of Meru North District and does not have any meaningful cash crop. The inhabitants survive on subsistent farming and keep zebu cattle in nomadic environment that is vulnerable to vagaries of weather, disease and cattle rustling.

Poverty Levels and Distribution According to the Second Report on Poverty in Kenya (November 2000) the distribution of household members by sex and poverty shows that 340,856 members were classified as poor of which 51% were male and 49% female. Those classified as non-poor were 408,723, 46% being male and 53.8% female. The average household of the poor was 6.5% while that of non-poor was 6.3. The District performs very poorly when compared with the national averages in terms of polygamy and school attendance at all levels. The majority of the children do not go to school in the District (30%) compared with the national average of 7.8%. Poverty Impacts on the Environment Over time the interaction between man and the environment have evolved into the development of some beliefs, practices and norms that are meant to safeguard and protect the environment. In the Meru culture the supreme authorities’ rests with Nchuri Ncheke (council of elders) and have some protected shrines in the Nyambene Hills and other sacred sites. The community have for a long time respected the catchment areas and some indigenous tree species important for conservation, water catchment and the environment at large. The use of agro-chemicals and fertiliser in production of some food crops and Miraa is also restricted by the cultural belief that they are harmful to the soil and human health. Most of families engaged in the production of food do so as peasant farmers at a very subsistence level, and there is a deficit in production and the district imports most of its food requirements. In the process of trying to eke a living from land, the farmers have cleared most the vegetation cover and encroached on very fragile environments resulting in massive soil erosion and general land degradation. Draining of swamps and diversion of river courses to gain farmland and do irrigation

14

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 respectively has disrupted important ecosystems and affected the general environment of those areas. Most of the poverty reduction strategies in place are geared towards economic recovery and creation of employment. At this level production of food crops for sustenance and daily struggle relegate environmental issues to the back seat. It’s not until some basic needs are met that people will respond to conservation measures. The strategies attempt to link economic development with environment for sustainability but in place it is becoming increasingly difficult to implement conservation measures among the poor, who solely depend on the natural resources to make a living.

2

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Environment and natural resources 2.1 Land use and soils The soils are varied mostly influenced by the Nyambene range and the underlying bed rock. The upper areas of the district have friable clay soils, which are of medium depth in most areas with moderately high fertility, and suitable for coffee and tea growing, while in lower areas the soils are sandy, shallow and generally of poor quality, suitable only for cotton growing and ranching (livestock). Most of the landscape on the North and North East is punctuated by rocky outcrops that make even communication very difficult The main soils are basically volcanic with specific derivatives from the parent rock. The main derivatives include: i) ii) Cambisoils (clay loam to clay) which occupy about 40 % of the district Friable clays which occupy about 30 % of the district

iii) Lithosols, xerosols, ferrasols and aeronosols cover the rest 30% of the district. Table 6 shows the types of soils and their distribution in the district.
Table 6:

Types of Soils and their Distribution in the District Part of the District Igembe Central division and part of Nyambene Forest Tigania and Igembe divisions Position in the District Central Part Area surrounding the central part and the slopes of Nyambene ranges.

Type of Soils Nito-humic cambisols Friable clays

Cambisols Cambisols and with some pockets of calcic chernozems Lithosols and calcic xerosols Friable clays with some

Mutuati division Akithi, Tigania North and parts of Igembe North divisions Ndoleli and Mutuati divisions Uringu and Tigania West 3

Northern Part North Western.

North Eastern Western

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 pockets of verto-luvic phaeozems A strip/zone of nitorhodic ferralsols with pockets of calcic chernozems on the east Cambisols Arenosols Source: District Agriculture Office – Farm Management Plan 2003 Ecological zones The major land potential classifications in the district are as follows: i) ii) High potential Medium potential 329 km2 268 km2 181 km2 587 km2 57km2 South eastern Southern Cuts across Tigania East and South Igembe divisions Southern

iii) Low potential iv) Semi-arid v) Arid

The specific ecological zones and area coverage are classified in table 7 below
Table 7: The Area Covered by Each Agro-Ecological Zone

Agro-Ecological Zone Upper Midland (UM1) Upper Midland (UM2) Upper Midland (UM3) Upper Midland (UM4) Upper Midland (UM5) Lower Midland (LM1) Lower Midland (LM2) Lower Midland (LM3) Lower Midland (LM4) Lower Midland (LM5) Lower Midland (LM6)

Area (km2) 37 95 148 47 30

268 208 149 518

Source: District Agriculture Office – Farm Management Plan 2003 4

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 2.2 Land and land use changes Land is the basic natural resource. It forms the basis for the country's socioeconomic development. It supports agriculture, livestock, forestry and wildlife. With increasing population, poverty levels and demand for the resources, instances of over exploitation and degradation of natural resources are common. Pressure on land continues to increase with increase in population mainly due demand for land for settlement and food production. Following this trend more and more land is being cleared for agricultural and settlement purposes including land that was traditionally not intended for such purposes like swamps, steep slopes and hill tops. Land also previously utilised as grazing areas is now being cultivated in the endeavour to meet the growing demand for food. Irrigation projects are also changing the usage of land as previously utilised due the availability of water and markets for horticultural products. Changes in farming and grazing systems are also influencing land use changes, even as more trading centres continue to sprout in areas that were previously considered as purely rural in nature due to the influence of urbanisation. Impacts of Land Use Changes The pressure on land due to population increase and economic situations in the district has led to land use changes that have far reaching environmental impacts     The encroachment of marginal lands and vulnerable areas for cultivation and settlement Land degradation and soil erosion Encroachment of wetlands and forest land Settlement on environmentally vulnerable areas that were previously conservation areas

Table 8 indicates the district’s land use potential according to their agro-ecological zones.

5

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Table 8: Land Use Potential AgroEcological Zone LM2, LM3, LM4 Miraa, Coffee, Horticulture Maize, Beans, Floriculture Bananas, Millet, Cowpeas LM3, LM4 Coffee, Tobacco, Cotton, Maize, Beans, Bananas, Millet, Cowpeas and Beef cattle LM2, LM3, LM4, LM5 Miraa, Tea, Coffee, , Maize, Beans, Dolichos, Beef and Dairy cattle Horticulture Floriculture Igembe South Horticulture Floriculture Eco-tourism Wildlife conservation Mutuati Food Production due to Monocropping Tigania West  Little use of manure in land preparation  Poor farming practices  Burning of crop residue  Grazing on crop residue  Land degradation due to soil erosion caused by  Cultivation on steep slopes  Deforestation  Poor siting of roads  Poor farming methods  Increase in PH due excessive use of fertilisers and chemicals in Tea/Coffee zones  Crop rotation  Conservation measures on all  Enforce forest protection  Train on safe use of agrochemicals  On farm storage  Training on Post harvest management and values adding in food preservation  Intensive use of land resources  Legislation on land subdivision  Declining soil fertility  Agro forestry Current land use Potential land use Division Constraints / Challenges Proposed interventions

 Fertility maintenance farms

6

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 UM2, LM2, LM3 Tea, Coffee, Maize, Beans and Beef cattle Horticulture Floriculture Tigania North  Leading of nutrients without replenishing  Use of manures/compost  Poor choice/use of crop protection chemical  Training on safe use of agrochemicals  Low crop and livestock yields due to  Poor choice of finisher  Use of uncertified seeds  Low/poor use of inputs  Post harvest losses  Decrease in farm sizes Institutional  Poor road net work in especially coffee zone  Electricity  Credit  Bank collaterals  Poor landing terms  High cost of inputs Social 7  Literacy of levels  Gender disparity  Poverty

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Miraa, UM1, UM2, LM1 Macadamia, Tea, Maize, Beans, Bananas LM2, LM3, L4 Miraa, Coffee, Horticulture Macadamia, Maize, Beans, Peas, Dairy and Beef cattle LM2, LM3, LM4 Coffee, Cotton, Sorghum, Millet, Sheep, Goats and Local Zebu beef cattle and their crosses LM2, LM3, LM4 Coffee, Miraa, Horticulture Maize, Beans, Floriculture Bananas and Dolichos LM2,LM3 LM4, LM5 Tea, Coffee, Miraa, Beans and Bananas LM2, LM3, LM4, LM5 Coffee, Miraa, Horticulture Maize, Sorghum, Beans and Cotton 8 Floriculture Igembe South East Horticulture Floriculture Igembe South West Ndoleli Wildlife conservation Akithi Floriculture Laare Horticulture Floriculture Igembe Central

Maize, Beans, Eco-tourism

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 LM2, LM3, LM4 Tea, Coffee, Miraa, Beans and Maize LM1, LM3, LM4, UM2, UM3 Coffee, Tea, Dolichos, Njahi, Sorghum and Millet LM3, LM4 Tobacco, Cotton, Beans, Maize, Miraa, Njahi, Dolichos, Millet, Sorghum and livestock animals Source District Agriculture Office - 2004 Dry Lands The district has a total area of 3,942.30 km2 that is distributed into the following uses as per the data available in 2001 as indicated in table 9 below. Table 9: Distribution of Land Uses in the District Land use Arable land Non-arable land Rangeland – Northern Grazing Area Meru National Park Gazetted forest Wetlands – Swamps, Marshy land etc Urban area Source: District Development Plan 2002 -2008 9 Area (Km2) 1,832 2110.3 1,002 878.2 110 120.3 44.6 Horticulture Floriculture Tigania East Horticulture Tigania Central Horticulture Floriculture Igembe East

Maize, Beans, Floriculture

Coffee, Millet, Tourism

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Extent and Status The dry lands of Meru North district cover an area of about 1,002 km 2 and are expansive grazing areas for both livestock and wildlife. The grasslands are home to a number of tree and shrubs. The status of the NGA is not yet quantified. The main activities in the dry lands of Meru North district is grazing of livestock animals. The area also serves as a Diaspora for the wildlife in both Meru Conservation area and those in the Mt. Kenya region. The NGA has a carrying capacity of 1 to 3 hectares per livestock unit. The capacity continues to decrease due to land degradation and as more land is converted into agricultural use or for settlement. There are about seven ranches in the district with an average of 40,000 acres each, in addition to the communal trust land where most people do graze their animals. Dry lands include arid, semi-arid and dry-sub humid areas. It occupies about 88 % of the total land surface in Kenya mostly in ecological zones IV to VI. These areas are mainly utilized for pastoralism and agro - pastoralism. The dry lands support over 75% of wildlife resources and over 50% of the livestock in the country thereby contributing significantly to national economic development. Further the dry lands are home to over 30% of the national population. However, potential productivity of the dry land is threatened by increasing land degradation due to human related activities and adverse climatic factors. This calls for strategic interventions to minimize and mitigate negative impacts of land degradation in the dry lands.

Major Causes of Land Degradation        Overgrazing Cultivation Deforestation Wild fires Droughts Conflicts Charcoal burning

10

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Key Environmental Issues       Human wildlife conflicts Insecurity and cattle rustling Prolonged and extended drought leading to severe shortage of water and pasture Overexploitation and negligence of the dry lands – no man’s land and therefore no conservation measures are put in place. Overstocking and overgrazing Land degradation

Proposed Interventions     Provision of water to enhance regeneration and productivity of the dry lands Providing security to curb cattle rustling and loss of both animals and human life. Provision of technical advice on stocking to avoid overgrazing and the resultant environmental degradation Reduce human wildlife conflict and promote coexistence of wildlife and human beings Table 10 shows the districts land use systems with regard to the agro-ecological zones

11

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Table 10: Land Use Systems Agro-ecological zone Upper Midland (UM1) Upper Midland (UM2) Upper Midland (UM3) Upper Midland (UM4) Upper Midland (UM5) Lower Midland (LM1) Lower Midland (LM2) Lower Midland (LM3) Lower Midland (LM4) Lower Midland (LM5) Lower Midland (LM6) Freehold - some areas Agriculture under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication under adjudication Livestock 95 148 47 30 Livestock Livestock Livestock Livestock Livestock Livestock 268 208 149 518 Livestock Livestock Livestock Livestock Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture Freehold - some areas Agriculture 37 Land tenure Land use type Area (km2)area

Source: District Agriculture Office – Maua 2007 Key Environmental Issues      Reduction of cases involving land disputes Poor policy and legal framework Land degradation and soil erosion Encroachment of conservation areas Poor management of wetlands and catchments areas 12

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013     Lack of proper utilization of land in urban areas Increase the number of personnel in lands office Elect credible elders in land adjudication committees Hasten the process of issuing title deeds

Proposed Intervention

2.3 Agriculture. Agriculture and livestock are the main sources of livelihoods for rural populations. The three broad agricultural production systems are crop cultivation, livestock rearing and fisheries. Each of the production system has the potential to significantly affect human and environmental health. Types of Agricultural Systems     Subsistence farming Cash crop farming Commercial farming Horticulture

Status and Trends of Agricultural Development The following trend shows the agricultural development and production of some of the documented crops in the district as shown in table 11. Table 11: Status and Trends of Crop Production Maize 1993 Acreage(H a) Yields (Bags) 1997 Acreage(H a) Yields (Bags) 600,00 0 38,850 177,20 0 13 27,000 27,600 537,917 258,58 0 50,000 5,550 31,120 268,76 0 44,300 5,400 4,600 56,688 12,300 18,545,40 0 3,300 3,227,02 5 7,360 29,740 Sorghu m 3,130 28,230 Beans Pigeo 4,727 Dolich 2,050 Tea 3,306 Coffee 7,360

n Peas os

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 1999 Acreage(H a) Yields (Bags) 2002 Acreage(H a) Yields (Bags) 2004 Acreage(H a) Yields (Bags) 408,00 0 27,600 169,22 5 16,750 35,500 29,108,42 9 3,700,00 8 762,50 0 51,000 5,400 53,000 448,00 0 46,600 3,550 4,250 3,683 35,800 47,000 3,725,73 3 7,360 545,27 0 50,500 5,800 36,050 271,74 0 46,860 3,580 4,700 32,100 31,850 29,040,40 0 1,538,73 4 7,360 51,270 5,150 45,290 4,650 4,550 3,676 7,360

Source: District Agricultural Office 2007e- Meru North District

Constrains to crop production Agricultural activities often contribute to a large extent to environmental degradation. Some of the ways in which this occurs is in Soil erosion. Wind erosion - especially in the lowlands of Tigania division where the vegetation cover is low and Sheet erosion - most common in the district on the slopes of more than 12% gradient Channel flow erosion (rill, gulley and river bank erosion) caused by reducing vegetation due to human activities and settlement, poorly placed roads, overgrazing etc Acidification – This is caused mainly by the use of acidifying fertilisers, burning of vegetation and leaching of bases. Salinity - this is localized in small areas Disposal of agricultural waste in rivers and encroachment of water catchment areas and water sources by individuals who undertake agricultural activities and destroy the fragile environment 14

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Key Environmental Issues  Decreasing land size  Decreasing soil fertility  Unpredictable and over reliance on rain fed agriculture  Miraa growing culture  Pests developing resistance to common pesticides  Invasion of new pests e.g. Osama  Irrigation potential not tapped  Lack of diversification Proposed Interventions  Use of organic fertiliser and manure  Use of legumes to improve soil fertility  Use of IPM and bio pesticides  Adoption of appropriate farming methods and technologies  Water and soil conservation measures Table 12 documents the types and status of farming systems in the district.

15

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Table 12: Types and Status of Farming Systems Type of farming systems Cash crop farming commercial farming Coffee, Tobacco, Cotton, Miraa, Tea, Macadamia, Tea, Macadamia, Unpredictable marketing middlemen Unpredictable marketing middlemen Unpredictable marketing middlemen Encourage farmers to Encourage farmers to form groups for better bargaining power Encourage improved packaging of Processed agricultural products Horticulture Tomatoes Kales, Cabbages, Okra, Chillies, Onions, Asian Vegetables Citrus Poor infrastructure and communication facilities Low seedling production Poor husbandry High pest and disease incidences Source: District Agricultural Office2007- Meru North District Types of Pollutants and Wastes    Agrochemicals Inorganic fertilisers and residual material Pesticides residual Repair and properly maintain access roads Train farmers in proper use of water demonstrations Encourage use of certified seeds and better crop husbandry system and exploitation by system and exploitation by Agricultural products Challenges Proposed interventions

system and exploitation by produce for the market

Dudhi, Valore, Biannual Inefficient water use

for crops such as fruit trees Carry out training and

Environmental issues 16

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013          Eutrophication Water and air pollution Killing other organisms (plants & animals) not specifically targeted Alteration of the soil balance – pH, microbes, aeration and the general underground ecosystem. Training farmers on the safe and effective use of pesticides. Training stockists on safe handling of pesticides. Training farmers on IPM (integrated Pest Management) Sensitise farmers on pest / disease and growing of tolerant varieties. Advise farmers to grow crops within the recommended agro-ecological zones to avoid susceptibility. 2.4 Livestock production The main livestock enterprises in the district are zebu cattle, Local chicken, local goats, hair sheep and bee keeping .The table 13 below shows Status and Trends of Livestock Production 2.4.1 Types of Livestock Production Systems Table 13: Status and Trends of Livestock Production Type Cattle Dairy Pure and high grade crosses  Friesian  Ayrshire  Jerseys  Sahiwals Zebu Beef (also provide draft power) Zebu mature bulls Borans mature bulls 300-350 kgs live weight 450-500 kgs live weight 17 600 litres of milk per lactation 1830 litres of milk per lactation Productivity

Proposed Interventions

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Goats Dairy  Toggenburgs  Somali goat  Small East African goat Sheep  Dorper  Red Maasai  Black head Persian Rabbits  New Zealand White  California White  Chinchilla Pigs  Hand race  Large white  Black Hampshire  And crosses Poultry Chicken Exotic layers  Brown Issa  Leghorn crosses Indigenous layers Indigenous (for table) Turkeys and Ducks Donkeys Bees A. Mellifera Provide draft power 15 Kgs of honey per hive per year Source: District Livestock Production Office 2007- Meru North District Key Environmental Issues    Competition for resources and land use changes Lack of gainful market for agricultural and livestock products Low productivity and poor breeds 18 50-60 eggs per year per bird 1.5-2.0 Kgs live weight 220-240 eggs per year per bird 70-80 Kgs live weight 1.5-2.0 Kgs live weight 1 litre per day (though milking goats is not common popular with time) 18-22 Kgs live weight 15-18 Kgs live weight

Other breeds for slaughter practice, its becoming

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013      Pests and diseases Overstocking and the resultant overgrazing have led to soil erosion either by wind or water. Conflicts and insecurity Land degradation Inadequate extension facilities

Proposed Interventions           Promotion of the dairy goat keeping– produces more milk and consumes less forage, thus making it less expensive to keep. Cross breeding to upgrade some of the local breeds like Zebu Construction of water pans to store storm water to create more watering points Enhancing and safeguarding security to curb cattle rustling and loss of both animals and human life. Supporting emerging alternative livestock like bee keeping and fisheries to encourage diversification. Provision of technical advice on stocking to avoid overgrazing and the resultant environmental degradation Survey for viable markets to facilitate farmers to sell their animals profitably Encourage appropriate and sustainable land uses to can be easily supported by the fragile environment Promote peace and security in the area to curb cattle rustling Promote water and soil conservation measure to curb soil erosion.

Table 14 indicates the types and status of livestock production systems in the district.

19

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Table 14: Types and Status of Livestock Production Systems Type Beef farming Lack of proper marketing channel for livestock products Inappropriate land tenure system, sub division of range areas makes the units unsuitable for livestock enterprises Few numbers due to drought and theft Lack of processing of livestock products Invasion of tsetse Dairy farming Milk Lack of processing (value adding)of livestock products Lack of proper marketing channel for livestock products Rearing of smaller Milk, Meat, Skins Poor breeds Establish plants for hygienic processing of the livestock products Disease search and treatment Establish plants for hygienic processing of the livestock products Improve the marketing of both livestock and livestock products Improve the breed quality by enhancing animal husbandry Locatio n Livestock Products Beef, Hides & skins Poor livestock breeds Improve the beef quality by enhancing animal husbandry Improve the marketing of both livestock and livestock products Ensure that the land tenure system of the Northern Grazing Area is properly addressed to stop subdivision to unviable sizes Stop cattle rustling Challenges Proposed Interventions

20

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 livestock – goats, sheep Lack of proper marketing channel for livestock products Improve the marketing of both livestock and livestock products

Source: District Livestock Production Office 2007 - Meru North District

Key Environmental Issues     Over stocking and overgrazing leading to land degradation Competition for resources like water and pasture Conflicts over resource use and cattle rustling Disease spread and infection

Proposed Interventions        Promotion of the alternative livestock e.g. dairy goat – produces more milk and consumes less forage, thus making it less expensive to keep. Construction of water pans to store storm water to create more watering points Enhancing and safeguarding security to curb cattle rustling and loss of both animals and human life. Supporting emerging alternative livestock like bee keeping and fisheries to encourage diversification. Provision of technical advice on stocking to avoid overgrazing and the resultant environmental degradation Survey for viable markets to facilitate farmers to sell their animals profitably Adoption of other methods of rearing livestock e.g. zero grazing where applicable Disease research and treatment especially where there is migration of animals. 2.5 Fisheries resources Table 15: Types and status of fisheries production systems in the district

21

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 15:

Types and Status of Fisheries Production Systems Type of Status Challenges production Current system Aquacultur e (Fish farming) production level 0.152 tons p.a. Potential production level 25,000 tons p.a. Competition for water resources Pollution of water sources Incomplete land adjudication process hindering investment in fish ponds Competition for land space with other uses Capture fisheries 0.465 tons p.a. Approximately 7 tons p.a. Poor harvesting techniques Little adoption of new fisheries techniques

Proposed interventions

Training of farmers and staff on management techniques Construct demonstration ponds/fingerlings multiplication centres in selected areas of the district

Training of farmers and staff on management techniques

Source: District Fisheries Office 2007 – Meru North District

Key Environmental Issues     Competition for water resources Pollution of water sources Competition for land space with other uses Poor harvesting techniques 22

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Proposed Interventions    Training of farmers and staff on management techniques Construct demonstration ponds/fingerlings multiplication centres in selected areas of the district Training of farmers and staff on management techniques

2.6 Water resources Kenya has been classified as water deficit area yet water is vital for the sustenance of all life. Adequate quantity and quality of water is recognized as a basic requirement for economic growth. 2.6.1 Types of Water Sources There are about twenty seven (27) protected rivers, seventy (70) and eighty eight (88) protected and unprotected springs respectively in the district. There are also five (5) dams in the Northern Grazing Zone and several wetlands e.g. the Mporoko, Mbututia, Matiru and Amwamba swamps. On ground water sources, there are 135 wells and 126 boreholes although only 25 are in operation. Table 16 below indicate the main water sources in the district.
Table 16:

Main Water Sources Water Sources

Numbers 27 70 88 5 4 135 126 – Only 25 are operational

Protected rivers Protected springs Unprotected springs Dams Wetlands and swamps Wells Boreholes Source: District Water Office 2007 - Meru North District

WATER CATCHMENTS AND DRAINAGE AREAS To the north of Nyambene ranges, many rivers drain into the Uaso Nyiro river basin. They include Kathima, Murompa, Kalibiuri and Liliaba. To the south west and south east of the crest, the rivers drain into river Tana. They include Thangatha, Thanantu, Thiiti, Ura, Thungu and several others.

23

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Nyambene Hills form the main catchment area in the district, with two drainage areas namely, the Tana and the Uaso Nyiro basins. To the south of the Nyambene ranges several seasonal rivers drain to the Uaso-Nyiro River. These rivers include Lathima, Murompa, Kalibu Liliaba Likiundu and Buathumara. These rivers are of more permanent nature. They include; Thangatha, Thanantu, Thiiri, Ura, Thungu, Kanjoo, among others 2.6.2 Status and Trends of Water Resources Among the total population of the district 49% have access to portable water (safe drinking) and 46%of them are served with piped water supply. The others get their water mainly from the rivers, streams and spring as well as boreholes. More than 95% of population in the district are within an average distance of 2 KM to the nearest portable water source. The demand for water is still less than its supply for high potential agricultural zones while in the rangelands the demand surpasses supply during the dry seasons. 2.6.3 Main Water Uses Domestic The main domestic uses of water include washing, drinking, cooking and watering of livestock. On extension some homesteads have kitchen gardens for growing common vegetables for family use and use some of water within the home to water the gardens. Industrial The only industrial use of water in the district is in the coffee factories in the pulping process, the very first stage in the processing of coffee after which it is dried and sent to millers for milling. Agricultural There are a number of irrigation schemes (about 50) both major and minor serving farmers at different locations and levels.

24

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 2.6.4 Impacts of Water use and Demand on the Environment and Natural resources. Water pollution Main sources of pollutants to Water resource are  Urban wastes – plastic papers, garage wastes e.g. oils, kitchen wastes  Human waste – sewage and domestic waste  Agro based chemicals and fertilizers  Coffee factories effluent from the pulping process  Dissolved solids from erosion during rainy seasons Key Environmental Issues     Conflicts between people living downstream and those who are upstream when water is on a limited supply especially between the months of Sept – Oct. Human - wildlife conflict is also reported as animals from the parks encroach on peoples’ land in search of water. Inter-district human conflicts have also arisen in some cases e.g. Meru North and Isiolo on River Likiundu especially concerning livestock watering points. Polluting the water or over abstracting by individuals who use the water resource in a manner that infringes on the right of others to derive benefits from the river Proposed Interventions      Improve storage facilities Improve on harvesting techniques Facilitate access to these technologies to the communities Reduce soil erosion and siltation levels of the dams and pans Disseminate the information on sustainable rain water harvesting to the community

25

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Table 17:

Sources and Status of Water Resources Usage Domest ic Irrigatio n Industri al - few Manageme nt system Commun ity based projects Key Environmental Drought Siltation Pollution Encroachment of the catchment areas Destruction of the riparian reserves Inadequate community capacity to manage the projects. Over abstraction of river water Proposed Interventions Community training and capacity building for management committees Continuous rehabilitation to reduce the cost of maintenance Community training and capacity building for management committees Continuous rehabilitation to reduce the cost of maintenance

Source Surface water – rivers, streams

Ground water borehole s

Domest ic k

Community based

Salinity Cost of maintenance and rehabilitation

Livestoc projects

Rainwate Domest r ic

Individual initiative to harvest rain water

Cost of rain water harvesting Lack of appropriate technologies and materials

Avail the necessary technology and skills

Source: District Water Office 2007 - Meru North District

26

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Key Environmental Issues  Reduced volume of water flow  Water use conflicts  Pollution  Collapsed projects and unused infrastructure  Projects mismanagement and collapse Proposed Intervention         Regulation and monitoring abstraction and flow volumes Conservation of water catchment areas and the riparian reserves Formation of water users associations Improvement of management and utilization of existing water resources Community mobilisation Rehabilitation of existing water projects Water Users Associations Empowerment of the communities to manage water projects in their areas

2.7 Forestry There are three categories of forests in the district classified according to the legal status on the land upon which they stand and they are mainly covered with indigenous trees and vegetation.  Government gazetted forests  Trust land forests  Private forests Area under Forestry Cover There are five (5) government gazetted forests within Meru North district, covering a total area of 11,018.30 Ha, out of which indigenous protected forest covers a total area of 10,912.4 Ha, while the exotic plantations cover a total area of 105.9 Ha (about 1 % of the total gazetted forests). These forest lands are shown in table 19 below.

27

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 18:

Government Gazetted Forest Acreage (Ha) 5391.2 734.5 4139.9 206.4 546.3 11,018.3

Name of the Forest Nyambene / Kilimantiiri Thuuri Ngaya Kibithewa Kieiga Total

Source: District Development Plan 2002 - 2008 2.7.1 Trust Land Forests These are forests vested under Nyambene County Council by the virtue of the fact that the Council is the custodian of all trust land in the district. They cover the hill tops scattered all over the district covering a total area of 359.6 Ha as shown in table 19 and 21

Table 19: Trust Land Forests

Name of the Forest Land Muthungutha Kibilaku Kithelemwa (Mukuani) Nchura Ithai Lukununu Tamani Kithetu Tiiri Ntonyiri Kwani Kieni Total

Acreage (Ha) 13.0 15.0 20.0 37.6 4.0 127.0 15.0 40.0 35.0 38.0 7.5 7.5 359.6

Source: District Forestry Office2007- Meru North District

28

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 2.7.2 Status and Trends of Forest Resources
Table 20:

Types and Status of Forests Extent (Ha) Distribut Location ion (% of total) 10,912.4 95.3% Ndoleli Tigania East Uringu Igembe Central Igembe S. West Tigania North Mutuati Laare Conserva tion Purposes Gazetted Forest uses Status % of Degrada tion 6.2% Propose d intervent ions Rehabilita tion of degraded areas

Type of forest Indige nous Forest s

Exotic Forest s

105.9

0.9%

Tigania East Tigania North Igembe Central Uringu Igembe S. West

Industrial Purposes

Gazetted

Trust land Forest s

359.6

3.1%

Mutuati Igembe Central Tigania North Akithi

Conserva tion Purposes

Trust land

29

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Uringu Private 76.4 Forest s 0.7% Igembe S. Commerc Private West Tigania East ial Purposes More area to be put under exotic plantation s Source: District Forestry Office 2007– Maua

Key Environmental Issues            Forest encroachment poaching Forest fires Illegal cultivation Over exploitation Protect the indigenous tree cover Conserve the water catchment areas Rehabilitation of degraded sites, Tree planting initiatives to be developed and implemented Promote on farm tree planting and agro forestry Gazettement of trust land forested hills

d Interventions

2.8 Wildlife resources Different animal species are found in a variety of places such as on trees, rocks, rivers, swamps, caves, and other microhabitats situated in Meru North Most of the wildlife is found in the protected areas. Outside the protected areas where human activities have destroyed wildlife habitat, wildlife is minimal and mostly birds. They are comprised of mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, amphibians and mollusks. Of major importance, however, is the mammalian and bird life. 2.8.1 The Area under wildlife Meru National Park (in Meru District) covers an area of 870 km2 MNP, Kora National Park and the 30

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 two National Reserves of Mwingi in Mwingi District and Bisanadi (in Isiolo District) constitute an important conservation area in Kenya and cover an area of 4008 sq. km The following areas are gazetted as protected areas and are management by KWS as part of the wider Meru Conservation Area. i) ii) Meru National Park within which there is the Rhino Sanctuary Kora National Park

iii) Bisinadi National Reserve iv) Mwingi Natonal Park – Mwingi district The following table 22 shows the number of endangered animals found in Meru National Park
Table 21:

Type and Number of Endangered Animals Numbers in the Park 450 18 225 128 3000 400 9

Name of the Animals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Elephant Rhino Reticulated giraffe Reedbuck Buffalo Impala Grevy Zebra

Source: Kenya Wildlife Service 2007 - Meru National Park Vegetation The vegetation of the park can subjectively be characterised into four communities: i) Acacia wooded grassland, ii) Combretum Wooded grassland, iii) Acacia-Commiphora bushland and iv) A unique riverine vegetation consisting mainly of stands of Hyphaene and Raphia palms, and a network of Ficus trees (Ament, 1975). 2.8.2 Types of Wildlife Species A large population of resident herbivores is a feature of Meru Conservation Area together with the high density of wild fauna including carnivores, rodents and insectivores. Elephants, Rhinos, Rheed buck, Lion, Cheetah, can all be seen along with Kudu, Eland, Waterbuck, Grant's and Thomson's gazelle, Oryx, Buffalo, Reticulated Giraffe and Impala. Also common are the Monkeys, Crocodiles 31

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 and a plethora of bird species (including the Palm nut Vulture and Marshall Eagle) in the dense vegetation alongside watercourses, of which Ura and Tana rivers on the southern boundary are the most dramatic. It has over 280 bird species of which 5 of them are regionally threatened; it is also listed as one of important bird areas in Kenya (IBAs, 2000). Status and Trends of Wildlife Resources Wildlife numbers (of some species) have been on the increase from the year 1990. This has been shown by the steady increase of some wildlife species that were reintroduced in the park i.e. elephants were 413 in the year 2002 and by 2004 they were 450. Regulatory and Management Arrangements          Erection of an electric fence- rhino sanctuary Documenting competition and predation of the plains and the grevy's zebras Monitoring the impact of the top predators on the other restocked and introduced species All adult animals fitted with horn transmitters to assist in post-release monitoring Determining factors that limit population growth in the introduced species Assessing practical conservation measures for the restocked and introduced species Monitoring of the introduced species as well as the already existing ones Determining elephant movement patterns Aerial surveys

2.8.3 Exploitation of Wildlife Resources KWS has initiated a community programme in which there are components of community involvement in sharing the benefits from the park and the wildlife at large. This was mooted to sensitise the community on the need to conserve wildlife as their heritage and also to mitigate against the impacts of human wildlife conflict. This programme involves community education, support for community projects and limited access to the national park by the community either to supply foodstuffs or collect some firewood. There is however no evidence of voluntary sharing of losses. Cases in which this may occur is when crops are destroyed when animals get astray or in case a fire breaks out and destroys property next to the park. The resources are also being exploited sometime illegally through  Charcoal burning 32

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013      Bush meat Harvesting of medicinal plants Harvesting of trees for poles and ropes. Honey harvesting Livestock grazing

Key Environmental Issues     Encroachment into the park and grazing of the livestock. Charcoal burning around the park and in Ngaya forest Water diversion from river flowing into the park leaving very little for the wildlife downstream Environmental degradation through overgrazing and occasional breakdown of security

Proposed Interventions          Sensitise the communities on conservation issues General research to establish wildlife carrying capacity of the park, requirement behaviour, distribution patterns, relative abundance level and absolute densities for key species Erection of an electric fence on some parts of the park to reduce cases of stray animals and reduce cases of human wildlife conflict Community education and awareness programme for their involvement in wildlife conservation activities Establish community benefit sharing schemes Establishment of a migratory corridor to Ngaya forest (the breeding ground for the elephants) to reduce cases of human wildlife conflict Development of conservancies to promote community involvement and eco tourism Promote conservation of the catchment areas and other important ecosystems to wildlife survival Undertake holistic and integrated natural resource management strategies. Table 22 shows the types and status of wildlife in the district.

33

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 22: Types and Status of Wildlife

Type of wildlife area Meru National Park

Extent (Sq. Km) 878.2

% of the district area 22%

Locatio Wildlif Status n e Uses Meru Conser vation Area Meru Nationa l Park Touris m Protecte d/ Gazette d

Threats

Proposed interventions

Poaching Encroachm ent Invasion by livestock

Community sensitisation Erection of an electric fence Establish community benefit sharing schemes Undertake holistic and integrated natural resource management strategies.

Source: District Development Plan 2002-2008 Key Environment Issues     National Park and Forest encroachment Deforestation and loss of vegetative cover General land degradation Human wildlife conflict

Proposed Intervention         Forest patrols to reduce illegal felling of trees Protection of the indigenous tree cover Conservation of the water catchment areas Rehabilitation of degraded sites Promotion of on farm forestry Enhance community participation and create awareness Curb charcoal burning activities Protect the indigenous tree cover 34

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013               Tree planting initiatives to be developed and implemented Promote on farm tree planting and agro forestry Gazettement of trust land forested hills Patrols Protection of the gazetted area Community sensitisation Community education and awareness programme for their involvement in conservation activities Establish community benefit sharing schemes Development of conservancies to promote community involvement and eco tourism Promote conservation of the catchment areas and other important ecosystems Undertake holistic and integrated natural resource management strategies. Re-forestation and afforestation Soil and water conservation General research to establish wildlife carrying capacity of the park, requirement behaviour, distribution patterns, relative abundance level and absolute densities for key species      Electric fence constructed in some areas Community education on the behaviour and movement of animals Game patrols Erection of an electric fence on some parts of the park to reduce cases of stray animals and reduce cases of human wildlife conflict Establishment of a migratory corridor to Ngaya forest (the breeding ground for the elephants) to reduce cases of human wildlife conflict

2.9 Biodiversity conservation This chapter covers issues on marine, inland aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, species diversity, and other cross-cutting issues. However, some aspects of biodiversity have been covered under forestry, wildlife agriculture, livestock and fisheries

35

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 2.9.1 Biodiversity Data and Information Environmentally significant areas that has most of the biological biodiversity in the district include:    Ngaya forest reserve, Nyambene forest reserve, Swamps –Mbututia, Mporoko and Amwamba

Threatened and Invader Invader species Pennisetum mezianum, Tarchonanthus camphorates, Ocimum suave, Solanum inanum, Pennisetum mezianum, Cymobopogon laesius, Utica massaica, Eragrostis tenuifolia, Sida schimpheriana, Aparchne shimperi, 2.9.2 Species Conservation Status In the year 2000, IFAW helped the KWS trans-locate 10 elephants to MNP from the Laikipia area, 6 from Ol Pejeta ranch and 4 from Lewa Downs’s ranch. Later in 2001, 56 elephants were translocated from sweet-waters in the Ol Pejeta ranch in Laikipia to MNP. In addition to the elephants, 103 common zebra and 18 reticulated giraffe were introduced to the park from Lewa Downs. Lewa Wildlife Conservancy further donated 51 reticulated giraffes while Laikipia Wildlife Forum together with Kruger farm donated 504 plains zebra and 144 Bohor reedbucks respectively. It is hoped that the introduction of viable breeding population achieved in these translocations will boost the animal numbers and diversity of species. The current lion population in Meru National Park is over 100 and this is having a great impact by preying on the trans-located animals particularly zebras. KWS seeks to restore progressively balanced animal population in terms of species and numbers which is compatible with the habitat's potential; build sufficient numbers of the famous species in 36 Threatened Species    Doum palm Rhino's - black. Grevy's zebra Bidens pilosa, Oxygonum sinuatum, Cynodin dactyolon, Penssisetum mezianum, Leonotis spp.

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 order to attract tourists; maintain and if possible improve or restore the quality of the habitat by setting up an adoptive system to manage the plant cover and the animal populations; and reduce poaching and ensure security for wildlife. To date the following animals have been trans-located during the first phase implemented in the year 2003. Nine white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) were trans-located to Nakuru National Park where a rhino sanctuary has been established. 50 reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata), 500 plains zebra (Equus burchelli) and 400 impala (A. melampus) were trans-located from Lewa Wildlife Conservancy. Plans are under way to translocate about 15 black rhinos (Diceros bicornis) and 5 white rhinos (c. simum), and approximately 1000 - 1200 plains zebra (E. burchelli), 100 Beisa oryx (Oryx beisa), 50 Grevy's zebra (E.grevyi) and 150 kongoni (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii).
Table 23:

Types and Status of Biological Resources Location Ndoleli Tigania East Uringu Igembe Central Igembe S. West Tigania North Mutuati Laare Size (Ha) 10,912. 4 Key species Ocotea is Newtonia i Prunus africana Vitex kenyinesis Croton megalocor pus Trichilia roka Illegal and poaching Threats Statu Proposed s Thre d interventions Policing Community sensitisation Enrichment planting

Ecosystems Gazett ed Forests Indigen ous

usambares exploitation atene

buchanani Fire

2

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Plantati on Tigania East Tigania North Igembe Central Uringu Igembe S. West County Forests Mutuati Igembe Central Tigania North Akithi Uringu 359.6 Newtonia i Acacia species Ficus netalensis Mukumbu species Grevillea robusta Eucalyptu s saligna Community Forests Private Forests Igembe S. West Tigania East Agricultural Wildlife areas Meru National Park 878 km
2

105.9

Eucalyptu s saligna Eucalyptu s globulus s lusitania Grevillea robusta

Illegal and poaching

Thre d

Policing Community sensitisation Enrichment planting

exploitation atene

Cupplessu Fire

Illegal and poaching Fire

Thre d

Policing Community sensitisation Enrichment planting Gazettement

buchanani exploitation atene

None 76.4 Eucalyptu s ssp Grevillea robusta Mono cropping Poaching Illegal invasion Increase the area under exotic species

Source: District Forestry Office – Maua KWS - Meru Conservation Area 3

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Major Threats     Increasing use of inorganic fertilisers and pesticides Mono cropping and demand for specific crops – traditional food crops systematically being ignored Demand for more farmland leading to more areas being opened up for cultivation Soil erosion and general land degradation

Key Environmental Issues    Pollution of air and water Encroachment of environmentally significant and conservation areas e.g. wetlands, hill tops, forest land Ecosystems disruption and habitat destruction by human activity

Proposed Interventions  Training farmers in making and using of organic fertilisers  Discourage burning of crop residues and encourage their incorporation into the soil  Training of farmers on crop protection and enterprise development  Emphasis on soil and water conservation  Encourage farming of traditional food crops  Promote agro-forestry into the current cropping pattern  Training farmers on safe use of agro-chemicals to avoid misuse, resistance and emergence of other pests foreign to the environment.  Training on integrated pest management to reduce use of agro chemicals  Awareness creation on the protection of wetlands and marshlands, and discourage draining them  Discourage cultivation and opening up of the fragile environments.  Encourage diversification even in our farming system

4

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Human settlement and infrastructure Human settlements and infrastructure are physical articulations or form of the social, economic, political and environmental interaction of people living in communities. The communities can either be urban or rural. The development of these communities involves changing the environment from its natural state to a built one. These activities are significant agents of environmental change and economic development. 3.1 Human settlement and planning Human settlements and infrastructure influence the location of investment, which provides employment, generates revenue for and creates demand for materials and services. This includes education, commercial, industrial, recreational, residential, agriculture, public utility (services include supply of water, waste disposal, sanitation, telephone, power and services including supply of water, sewers, etc.). Public purpose will include (religious institutions) and protected land (public parks, national parks and reserves, forests). Transport (roads, railways, airways, lake/sea ports). These activities can have negative or positive impacts on the environment. Table 25 indicates land tenure systems and area (ha) in the district
Table 24:

Land Tenure Systems and Area (Ha) in the district Area (sq. km) 2005 Remarks

Tenure Type Freehold Trust land Gazetted Forest Un gazetted Forest National Parks Land currently under demarcation Wetlands Total

110 359.6 878.2 70,059.33 120.3 Acres Ha

Source: District Development Plan 2002 – 2008

5

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 3.1.1 Planning Human Settlement Settlements with over 500 people are considered urban, and they include: Maua, Laare, Mukinduri, Mutuati, arama,Muriri,Ngundune,NchiruMuthara, Kiengu, Kianjai, , Kangeta, and Maili Tatu. The only planned urban settlement in the district is Maua Town. Table 26 shows Planned Urban Areas.
Table 25:

Planned Urban Areas Local Plans 1980s 1990s Plan revised in 1992 Commenced, but incomplete Regional Plans 2005

City / Municipality Maua Town Greater Meru Region

First planned in 1983

Source District Physical Planning Office2007 - Maua 3.1.2 Urban areas needing urgent planning services     Maua – revision of the existing plan Laare Mukinduri Mutuati 2.76 % 45.6/1,000 10.7/ 1000 5.8/Woman 37.3/1,000 live births 70/1,000 live births Male: 58.4 Female: 63.3  Net migrants Male: -1.3% Female: 15.7%     Muthara Kianjai Ngundune Kangeta

Record of some of the district population parameters Inter census growth of       Crude birth rate Crude death rate Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate Under 5 mortality rate Life Expectancy

6

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Housing There are many types of houses in the district representative of the different economic classes of the people ranging from the very rich to the very poor. The demand for housing is relatively high in the urban areas especially Maua town due to the migration from the rural areas. This pressure reduces the supply levels because the rate of urban growth is not at par with the rate of urban population growth. Table 27 indicates households by main type of roofing, wall and floor material in the district
Table 26:

Households by main type of roofing, wall and floor material in the district No. of households by main type of wall material Stone Brick / Block Mud / Wood Mud / Cement Wood only Gras / Reeds Tin Iron sheets 4.0% 2.5% 49.1% 1.3% 40.5% 1.7% 0.1% 0.4% No. of households by main type of floor material Cement Tile Wood Earth Other 18.7% 0.2% 1.4% 79.4% 0.3%

No. of households by main type of roofing material Iron sheets Tiles Concrete Asbestos Grass Makuti Tin Other 82.4% 0.6% 0.2% 0.8% 14.3% 0.2% 1.2% 0.3%

Source: Kenya 1999 Population and Housing Census 3.1.3 Informal Settlements Most of the population lives in the rural areas where there is adequate land, although some parts are yet to be demarcated. There are cases in some of the trading centres where development has taken place in the absence of a development plan, but those are yet to be qualified as informal settlement because apart for their haphazard nature they still meet some basic requirements and offer minimum essential services. There are some places in the district where people have settled in clusters informally due to various factors like access to basic amenities and services, security reasons and market for labour, goods and services.

2

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

3.2 Land adjudication and settlement process Areas Already Adjudicated / Registered Sections
Table 27:

Areas Already Adjudicated / Registered Sections Nturene Njoune Thananga Kirimachuma Mikinduri / Athwana Auki Njia cia Mwende Uringu 111         Antuamburi Akithi 1 Antuanduru Mituntu Burieruri Liburu Kirindine Mbeu 11         Kiegoi Akithi 11 Kirima Thau Kinyanka Athwana / Akithi Thau mumui Mbeu 111

       

Source: District Land Adjudication Office – 2007
Table 28:

On-Going Adjudication Sections A/R stage Demarcation Stage            Kianjai Amwathi / Maua Akirang’ondu ‘B’ Kiguchwa Akithi 111 Atinga Athanja Kitheo Kangeta Athiru Ruujine Kitharene Uringu 1           Amugenti ‘A’ Akirang’ondu ‘B’ Antubetwe Kiongo Amwathi Mutuati 11 ‘A’ Amwathi Mutuati 11 ‘B’ Karama Uringu 11 Anntamburi Akaiga Ankamia

Source: District Land Adjudication Office - 2007

3

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 29:

On-Going Adjudication Sections A/R Stage Demarcation Stage     Old Kiare Mbeu 1 Naathu NdoleliA / Kiongo         Kiengu Kanjoo Amungenti ‘B’ Upper A / Gaiti Lower A / Gaiti Amwathi 1 Kirindire ‘B’ Ndoleli A / Ruujine Buuri

Source: District Land Adjudication Office - 2007 Not Adjudicated Since 1960 Dormant Adjudication Sections     Nturene 11 Akirangondu 11 Antuamburi 11 Igarie

3.3 Impact of land tenure on environment Individuals have therefore been allocated land on very unsuitable places like on wetlands, steep slopes, hill tops and degraded sites. This impedes on preservation / conservation of these environmentally fragile areas. There is no elaborate land policy that would govern and harmonise the various land laws to cover all sectors. Trust land vested under the county council is not adequately protected and conservation measures are sometimes hard to implement due to interference, unplanned settlement and improper allocation. The tendency to hire land from absent landlords does not impose any obligation of part of the farmer to implement conservation measures and many are reluctant to invest on conservation on a land they know does not belong to them. Factors Influencing Type of Shelter and Settlement Patterns  Poverty and income levels  Locality and availability of materials

\ 4

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Environmental Impacts  Waste management among the poor and unplanned settlements  Lack of / inadequate supportive infrastructure leading to pollution of both air and water

Proposed Interventions  Review policies on settlement of the landless.      Review and restructure the land allocation committees Plan ahead of time to encourage proper settlement and development Review land ownership and housing legislation to ensure affordable and decent housing. Promote investment in middle and low cost housing. Enforce building codes and by-laws

3.4 Human and Environmental Health The following are the common diseases influenced by environmental factors reported for the year 2004.as indicated in Table 31
Table 30:

Disease Incidences and Distribution: No of Reported

Diseases Malaria Diseases of the Respiratory System Intestinal worms Pneumonia Diarrhoeal diseases Typhoid fever

Cases (Year 2004) 241,270 142,066 55,916 22,005 20,197 3,093

Source: MOH Nyambene District Hospital - 2004 Intervention Measures to Address the Prevalence of Diseases  Provision of treated nets to curb the spread of malaria    Improve sanitation and general hygiene Vaccination and immunisation Public education and awareness/sensitisation programs

Pollution and Waste Generated From Human Settlement Types of waste 5

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013   Agro chemicals and fertilisers Domestic waste – human waste

Key Impacts of the Pollutants and Wastes to the Environment  Pollution of water, land and air     Inhibit natural processes and cause disruption of the eco-systems Cause death of animals and plants Alters the aesthetic value of the polluted environment Increases the incidence of diseases

Proposed Interventions  Improve the sewerage and drainage systems   Adopt more appropriate methods of solid waste disposal Plan human settlement to avoid haphazard development and ease waste collection and disposal 3.5 Communication Networks The district is partially served with Telkom Kenya landline telephones on the divisions along the tarmac, but mobile phone services both for Zain and Safaricom are more accessible and used by the people who can afford them. KBC and Nation Television network broadcasts are received fully and in some parts of the district respectively. The district is also covered by most of FM Radio transmission considering that most have their boosters at the top of Nyambene Hills. Postal services are also readily available for use by the members of the public. Other services to facilitate communication are as the ones offered by the Securicor group and EMS speed post for faster and efficient delivery of mails. Road transport is the main form of transport in the district where the people use different means that include motor vehicle, motor cycles, bicycles, and animal driven carts or by foot to move from one place to another and also move their goods.

6

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 There are several classified and unclassified roads, but only two of them are tarmac roads (Maua – Meru Rd, and Maili Tatu – Mutuati Rd). The Farm to Meru National Park road is currently under construction. The other places (the bigger portion of the district) are served with earth roads which are inadequate and impassable during the rainy season. Due to the rugged and hilly terrain of the district, the road are so rough that only four wheel drive vehicles access the hinterland even during the dry season.

Extent of Communication Network in the District Road Transport (2002) Total kilometres of roads 664.8 km (exclude unclassified Roads) Bitumen Gravel Rural Access Roads (50% earth) Earth roads Unclassified roads Number of Public service vehicles: Buses, Mini-buses Others: (Nissan, Pick-ups, Matatus, Station Wagons, Land-Rovers) Petroleum filling stations 62 9 10 57.0 km 95.6 km 102.3 km 409.9 km 865.0 km

Source: District Development Plan 2002 - 2008 Communication Number of households with: Telephone connections (Landline) Maua Exchange Kianiai Exchange Mikinduri Exchange Number of private and public Organizations with telephone Connections Source: District Development Plan 2002 - 2008 3.6 Social economic services and infrastructure The district has several types of water facilities ranging from boreholes, furrow, rivers, wells and springs as well as piped water. 7 379 I, 669 1,402 201 66

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 3.6.1 Major Water Sources The water services are not evenly distributed with some areas only depending on surface run off or underground water. The water facilities in the district are not adequately developed for agricultural growth and homestead requirements with accessibility to safe drinking water at 49% of the total population. Major Sources of Water Pollution The major sources of pollution in the district include     Agricultural activities Industrial processing – coffee & tea Jua kali activities – garages, wielding & furniture workshops Domestic activities

Mitigation measures  Involvement of all stakeholders in water provision and sanitation  Commercialize water sector operations

3.7 Sanitation The sanitation situation in the district is most wanting, where none of the urban settlements including Maua town is severed with a sewerage system. The towns mainly depend on septic tanks, soak pits and pit latrines that are emptied whenever full, even though the Municipal council does not have an exhauster. The district has latrine coverage of 75%, with a share of VIPS (Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines) of 25% and ordinary pit latrines at 55% respectively, Key Environmental issues  Incidences of water borne diseases  Water pollution

3.7.1 Health Facilities The health facilities in the district are not adequate and some divisions like Ndoleli and Tigania East have no facilities at all. Even the existing facilities are usually poorly equipped with low staffing levels to cope with the increasing demand for health services. Some people also seek medical help from herbalists and traditional medicine men and there are a number of chemists in the urban centres. Table 32 and 33 shows number of health and educational facilities in the district

8

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Table 31:

Number of Health Facilities in the District Number 3 1 18 8 21 6

Category Hospitals Sub Hospital Health centres Nursing Homes / Maternity Dispensaries Clinics (Private)

Source: District Development Plan 2002 - 2008
Table 32:

Number of Educational Facilities in the district (2002) Pre-primary Number of pre-primary schools Total enrolment rates Teacher/Pupil ratio Average years of school attendance Primary Number of primary schools Total enrolment rates Total drop-outs rates Teacher/pupil ratio Average years of school Boys attendance Secondary No. of Secondary Schools Total rates Total drop enrolment Boys Girls out Boys 40 (Public 36, Private 4) 12% 12% 19% Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls 354 79% 78% 48% 43% 1:35 6 years 6 years Boys Girls 354 (Public = 325, Private = 29) 32% 29% 1:43 2 years

9

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 rates Teacher / Pupil ratio Average years of Boys school attendance Tertiary Main type of training institutions 1 – College of technology 6 – Youth Polytechnics Secretarial & Commercial colleges Enrolment college technology Enrolment youth polytechnics Adult Education Number of adult education classes. Enrolment Drop-out rates Women Men Women Men Literacy levels Women Men 164 1,707 714 67% 77% 58% 64% Female 319 in Male 130 in Male of Female 95 71 Girls Girls 19% 1:15 13 years 13 years

Source: District Development Plan 2002 - 2008 3.8 Energy sector Kenya relies on two forms of energy namely: renewable and non-renewable. The raw materials for energy include biomass, fossil fuel, and radioactive minerals. Other sources of energy include hydro, geothermal, solar and wind. The Government recognizes that alternative renewable energy sources hold tremendous potential, especially for reducing heavy dependence on woody biomass. Exploitation of these energy sources creates opportunities for income and employment generation, both of which have a positive impact on improving the quality of life while reducing poverty.

10

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 3.8.2 Types and Status of Energy Sources Different types and sources of available energy sources ranked according to their availability and utilisation levels within the district.  Wood fuel (Firewood and charcoal)  Fossil fuels e.g. kerosene and LPG  Electricity  Solar energy  Bio gas

Firewood and Charcoal Almost all households in the district use firewood or/and charcoal as their main source of energy thus recording a whopping 100% inclusive of those households that use other sources of energy supply for specific purposes but still use wood related sources simultaneously. Firewood is a key source of energy and even used by the two tea factories in the processing of tea. This places the forestry (trees and shrubs) resources at a critical position in the provision of the energy needs within the district and places enormous pressure on them due to the increasing demand for energy as firewood or charcoal. Electricity Even though important to spur economic growth, the district is inadequately covered by the electricity network. Only 27 trading centres out of a total of more than 200 are connected with electricity. These centres act as the main focus areas of trade and rural development by providing market for and access of products and services in the rural areas of the district Only 540(Five-forty) households are connected to the electricity supply, which represent about 0.4% of the total households in the district. Electricity is mainly used for lighting purposes while fuel wood provides energy for other purposes, like cooking and heating. Solar This is the least utilised yet most abundant energy resource. The use of solar energy is limited to a few households especially within the urban and trading centres, while zero percent of the rural households are recorded to use solar power. This is mainly due to inaccessibility of the necessary technology to the majority of the population and lack of promotion of solar energy as alternative energy source especially to electricity. 11

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Biogas and Fossil Fuels There is a recorded 1% of the households using bio gas and fossil fuels (kerosene and LPG), which translates into about 1,300 households and represents mainly those within the urban centres. Bio gas utilisation extends to some rural areas where it is mainly generated using bio mass and livestock dung among livestock farmers. Other products like petrol are mainly sold to the motor vehicles in the transport sector. There are an estimated one hundred vehicles plying the roads within the district that mainly sustain a network of 10 petroleum filling stations. 3.8.3 Trends in Energy production, consumption, costs and projections. There is a record increasing demand of energy considering the increasing population and urbanisation rate. The increasing demand is for all the energy sources from wood fuel to petroleum products. Consequently the market forces of demand and supply dictate the increasing cost of energy in the district. This has put a lot of pressure especially on wood lots outside the gazetted areas. The supply especially of wood fuel will soon be overtaken by the demand unless intensive reafforestation and reforestation is undertaken in the farmlands to help bridge the gap. Alternative sources of energy like wind and solar need to be developed to achieve full potential. There are no major or land scale hydro power, geothermal, biomass, solar, or wind generation of power in the district, but only very scale utilisation of biomass, wind and solar energy at the household level at 0.1% of the population. Table 33 indicate energy consumption and costs
Table 33:

Source

Energy Consumption and Costs of Point of Production Point Consumption Within the district Outside the district Outside the district Within the district Within the district

of Unit cost Environmental Impacts (Kshs) 50 65 Deforestation Land degradation Vehicular air pollution

Energy Wood fuel Fossil fuels Electricity Solar Bio gas

Within the district Within the district Within the district Within the district Within the district

Source: District Environment Office2007 - Meru North District

12

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 3.8.4 Energy Supplies Energy supplies include electricity, wood fuel, solar, wind and petroleum based fuels. Electricity supply is connected in urban centres such as Mutuati, Maua, Mikinduri and all the towns along the tarmac. Mainly it is used in the tea and coffee factories and also in the markets for small businesses as wielding and in the households for lighting. Wood fuel is the most commonly used form of energy mainly in the rural households, by jua kali fabricators who use a lot of charcoal and for curing tobacco in places like Tigania East, Uringu and Igembe Central. This land led to significant environmental degradation. Petroleum products are mainly used in the transport sector although products like kerosene are also consumed in great quantities by the households. These products are readily available in the markets. Energy sources like wind and solar are not fully utilised although there is a high potential mainly because of lack of appropriate technology especially in the rural interior. Table 35: shows status of energy supply in the district.
Table 34:

Status of Energy Supply in the District - 2002 Number of trading centres with electricity Number of households with electricity connections Percentage of rural households using solar power

27 540

0% 100% 1%

Percentage of rural households using firewood/charcoal Percentage of households using kerosene, gas or biogas Source District Development Plan 2002-2008

Types of Pollutants and Waste The major pollution emanating from energy usage in the district includes both air and water pollution and manifested in the following:    Smoke emissions from automobile and kitchens Oil spills especially in petroleum outlets and sometimes on the road Used oil from vehicle either on the roads or at garages 13

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 3.8.5 Factors Influencing Trends in Energy Consumption     Population growth Economic growth rate The rate of urbanisation Adoption of technologies

Key Environmental Issues The major pollution emanating from energy usage in the district includes:        Both air and water pollution and manifested from Smoke emissions from automobile and kitchens Oil spills especially in petroleum outlets and sometimes on the road Used oil from vehicle either on the roads or at the garage Deforestation and loss of vegetative cover Low adoption of alternative sources of energy and technologies to harness the same Ever increasing demand for energy Inefficient systems and utilisation leading to wastage

Proposed Interventions       Expand the electricity grid coverage to the rural areas and all market centres Promote use of alternative sources of energy Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit( factories – tea and coffee Petrol stations and Garages) Expansion of the electricity coverage Intensify afforestation programmes Explore and expand alternative energy sources to generation of solar, wind and hydro power.

14

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Industry, trade and services Industries, trade and services can benefit a lot by adopting environmental management systems that not only address production processes but also promote waste minimization, treatment and disposal. 4.1 Industrial sector There are only a few agro based industries in the district and they include:    Kiegoi and Micii Mikuru Tea Factory Mukululu Vineyard Camp - wine press operated by the Catholic Church and 52 coffee factories (Including private ones)

Other forms of industrial activities are found in the small scale informal sector (Jua Kali) and include such trade as:  Carpentry and Metal workshops  Automobile garages 4.1.1 Trends in Industrial Development in the District Considering the agricultural potential of the district, agro-based and other industrial activities may be developed to include:         Fruit processing Processing of herbal products Processing of nuts Dairy and livestock products Industries to support eco tourism Wood and forest products Alternative energy provision Processing of Miraa

There is a proposed Igembe Tea Factory to be constructed to ease the pressure of the tea produce at Kiegoi Tea Factory.

15

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 35:

Type

Type and Trends in Industrial Development of 1963 1982 Projections for 2010 Micii Mikuru Kiegoi Factory Tea One (1)

Remarks Proposed Tea Factory Igembe

industry Agro-based Tea factory

Source: District Environment Office2007 - Meru North District Types of Pollutants and Wastes  Oils and greases  Waste water Key Environmental Issues in the Industrial Sector  Air and water pollution       Waste management Lack of supportive infrastructure Waste and effluent management Occupational safety Air pollution Lack of detailed analyses of the impact      Provide an enabling environment for industrial development. (Power, roads, sewerage systems) Improve micro/small enterprise regulatory framework Adopt more appropriate disposal methods Employ more cleaner technologies EIA and EA for upcoming projects and existing industrial concerns

Proposed Interventions

4.2 Trade sector Kenya's domestic and international trading patterns revolve around trading in agro-based goods and other products from the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Due to lack of industrial activities in the district the impacts of trade on the environment is limited to sales of goods, consumption, waste generation and disposal. The environment has faithfully supported the business venture in the tourism and agricultural sector. 4.2.1 Types of Trade in the District   Retail and wholesale Hawking 16

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Main Traded Goods in the district  Miraa             Consumer goods Textiles Pharmaceuticals Construction materials Plastics Household goods Electronics Electrical appliances Auto spares Horticultural products Dairy products Petroleum products

17

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 36:

Impacts of Trade on Environment Type of Products Wastes Trade Retail and Consumer wholesale Pharmaceuticals, materials, Textiles, appliances, Petroleum products Hawking Miraa Textiles Solid Plastics, Auto Household spares, products, goods, Electronics, Electrical goods, Solid Construction

Key environmental impacts waste – garbage

Mitigation measures waste – collection activities waste management

Accumulation of solid Increase

which interferes with Adopt proper solid the environment Water pollution and land systems

Horticultural products, Dairy Garbage accumulation Increase waste

collection activities Adopt proper solid waste management systems

Source: District Environment Office 2007 - Meru North District Key Environmental Issues related to Trade  Lack of access to credit for small-scale entrepreneurs in order to enhance growth and sustainability   Lack of managerial skills and relevant information among entrepreneurs Inadequate infrastructure to support business initiatives 2

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013    Lack of organisation among traders Solid waste accumulation – garbage Polythene paper bags and plastics off-loaded to the environment

Proposed Interventions         Strengthening the small- scale and Jua Kali enterprises by facilitating use of available resources Provision of business finance by joint loan credit scheme and identification of alternative sources of finance Organise traders and business people along speciality line to form Small organised and self help groups To enhance training for Self improvement at an individual basis to skills upgrading and entrepreneurial training Providing technical and managerial skills to the enterprises Collection, analysis and dissemination of relevant trade data Application of efficiency technology to limit waste handling and disposal Improve the infrastructural development to accommodate more business initiatives

4.3 Services sector The services sector plays an important role in creating and supporting an enabling environment that facilitates private sector investment, growth and job creation. The provisions of adequate services, coupled with macroeconomic stability and a long-term development strategy, are essential preconditions for sustainable economic and social development.

3

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

4.3.1 Major Service Sectors in the District Transport Services Road transport, which provides services through private and public service vehicles There is one airstrip in the process of being expanded to facilitate air travel especially for the transportation of goods. Hospitality Services Number of tourist class hotels in the district:     3 Hotels in Maua Town 2 Hotels in Meru National Park 2 Self-Service Bandas 718 registered hotels (i.e. eating houses, restaurants, bars, lodges)

Telecommunication Services Communication services in the district are provided mainly by Telkom Kenya through the Maua, Kianiai Mikinduri telephone exchange centres and the two Mobile phones service providers – Safaricom Communications and Zain companies. In addition there are two Cyber cafes to provide internet connectivity. Banking Services There are two main commercial banks in the district: Consolidated Bank of Kenya and Kenya Co-operative Bank .Other financial institutions include Nyambene Arimi SACCO,Maua Methodist SACCO and Meru North Farmers SACCO. While Micro-finance institutions includes-BIMAS, Kenya Women Finance Trust and Faulu Kenya

4

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Table 37:

Impacts of Service Sector to the Environment Service Sector Impacts to Environmental Proposed interventions degradation Telecommunication Use of poles in the transmission leading Alternative s to deforestation method approach with in The erection of transmission stations near Re-forestation residential areas and the resultant health Precautionary risk Hospitality Solid waste and effluent disposal dealing transmission EA for all the facilities Upgrade Transport Air pollution from vehicles emission Oils and greases from garages the disposal infrastructure and systems Regular vehicle inspection and maintenance radio transmission

Source: District Environment Office 2007- Meru North District 4.4 Tourism The tourism industry is heavily dependent on the vast and abundant natural resources in the country; these include: wildlife, beaches, landscapes, and diversity of cultural, historical and archaeological resources. Since the natural and cultural resources are unique, fixed in location and often irreplaceable, it is important to control the degree and manner in which they are exploited and to anticipate the effect on the sustainability of tourism by different methods of exploitation. Tourism, if properly planned will contribute to the conservation and management of the environment. 5

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 4.4.1 Tourism Attractions The main tourist attraction in the district is wildlife due to the presence of the Meru National Park within the Meru Conservation Area, which is currently undergoing rehabilitation after years of dilapidation caused by conflicts and cattle rustling activities. After the rehabilitation of the park and provision of necessary infrastructure the trend in tourism activities are expected to increase with time. Other tourist attractions include cultural monument sites, crater lakes, forests, craters (volcanic) and beautiful scenery.

6

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Table 38:

Tourism Attraction Sites in the district No. Attraction No. of Geographical Environmental facilities Location 1. Wildlife 2 3 Park Maua Town Impacts existing facilities Waste management problems Meru National Pressure on the

Source: Kenya Wildlife Service 2007- Meru National Park Key Environmental Issues  Solid and effluent disposal – this is complicated by lack of adequate sewerage and waste collection and disposal facilities.       Insecurity Human wildlife conflicts Poor infrastructure e.g. roads going to the park Cattle influx into the protected area Diversion of river waters to individual farms Dependency on wildlife tourism

Proposed Interventions  Enhance the solid and liquid waste disposal and treatment capacity to accommodate the increasing demand for tourist services and human settlement.  Enhancement of security measures for safety of both visitors and wildlife 7

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013             Increased routine security patrols/operations and aerial surveillance Enhanced animal control activities Erection of the electric fence Curb the human-wildlife conflict in areas surrounding the Park Create a wildlife corridor - more protected area- consider Ngaya forest for this purpose Promote wildlife and environmental conservation awareness. Maintenance of the road network and airstrip in the park for ease of mobility Controlling the invasion of livestock into the protected area Enforcement of the legal requirements and curbing illegal abstraction from the rivers Regulate and inspect water flow volume Aggressive marketing so as to increase the number of tourists Encourage and initiate more tourism activities, camping, game walking, night game drives, sundowners, rafting etc

4.4 Mining Kenya has great potential for mineral resources exploration and exploitation for economic development. Mining methods involve some disturbance of the earth surface and the underlying strata including aquifers. Some potential adverse impacts on the environment from mining and quarrying activities are likely to occur. 4.4.1 Minerals There are no minerals of any significant value which have been identified in the district. It’s hard to tell the mining potential of the district considering that no mineral exploration has been done and the current indigenous knowledge does not indicate existence of minerals anywhere in the district. There are cases of sand harvesting in the district. 8

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Key Environmental Issues    Carry out mineral prospecting surveys to determine whether there are any minerals of economic value in the district Protection of environment in the prospecting process Over-exploitation of the sand reserves.

Proposed Intervention  Carry out prospecting surveys  Control sand harvesting 4.5 Quarrying Types of Stones and Status of Quarrying Activities in the District Quarrying activities are limited in the district due to the nature of the soil and the terrain. The stones are of volcanic origin and either too soft or too hard and rugged to be of any building value. The lack of minerals of any significant monetary or cultural value limits mining activities to quarrying of building materials especially     Hardcore Sand (limited to riverside sources) Ballast and Murram

Most of building materials used in the district is imported – sand from Isiolo and stones from Meru Central or Meru South districts. There are about ten small quarries in the district mainly producing murram to grade rural access roads within the district. The mineral contribution to GDP is very minimal because quarrying activities are localised to very small pockets within the district. Table 40 indicates the status and location of quarries and material quarried 9

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 39:

Status and Location of Quarries and Material Quarried Name of the Material Location Status quarry Kwani Hill Micii Mikuru Nturuba Antuanduru Kithelemwa Hill Nkinyang’a Kamuciere hill Kimachia Mzalendo Quarried Stones Murram Murram Murram Stones Murram Murram Sand Murram Laare road Near Kangete Near Karama Kithelemwa Nkinyanga Near Liliaba Tigania North On-going On - going On-going On-going On-going On-going On-going On-going Not exhausted, but no current activity Farm – Mulika Murram road Kiinji (2) Sand Farm – Mulika On-going road Next to Ongoing prone area Landslide Mwamba river quarrying

Source: District Environment Office 2007- Meru North District

10

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Trends and Extent of Quarries Quarrying activities are limited due to the availability of materials, but the demand for construction materials has continued to give pressure to the little materials available especially murram and sand. Key Environmental Issues  Lack of rehabilitation efforts leading to gaping and dangerous holes     Collapsing river beds in case of murram harvesting Destroy infrastructure especially for roadside quarrying Increased erosion of the loose soil and chippings and the resultant effects Makes the land susceptible to land slides

Proposed Interventions    Rehabilitation of all quarrying sites EIA / EA for all quarrying activities in the district Regulation and monitoring of quarrying activities

Table 41 indicates types of quarries and methods of extraction in the district.

11

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 40:

Type

Types of Quarries and Methods of Extraction of Methods of Area Affected Geographic Size of Quarry Environmental Quarrying and Purifications al Location by Riparian reserve Kiinji by Hilly grassland Nkinyanga Small scale Small scale Collapsing river beds in case Destroy infrastructure especially for roadside quarrying by Steep hillside Maua Small scale Increased erosion of the loose soil and chippings / Excavation hand by Steep hillside Maua Small scale Makes slides the land susceptible to land (Ha) Impacts

Quarry

Sand/Murra Excavation m Murram hand Excavation hand Murram Ballast Hardcore Murram Hardcore / Excavation / hand

Source: District Environment Office 2007 - Meru North District Types of Pollutants and Wastes  Dust and air suspended materials    Noise pollution. Land degradation Destruction of the riparian reserve 12 Key Environmental Issues

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013    Air pollution - dust Abandoned quarries Lack of regulatory framework.

Proposed Intervention      Soil and water conservation measures Reclaim the collapsed riverbanks Control dust and suspension released to the atmosphere Rehabilitation of abandoned quarries Development and enforcement of regulations.

4.6 Sand harvesting 4.6.1 Status of Sand Harvesting Activities Due to lack of significant sand deposits in the district there is very limited sand harvesting activities, and most of the building sand is imported from other districts like Isiolo and Meru Central.

13

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 Environmental hazards and disasters Most environmental disasters are climate/weather and tectonic movements related. Environmental disasters have a tendency to retard and erode gains made in building meaningful livelihood and economic development Hazard: A potentially damaging physical event, human activity or phenomenon with a potential to cause loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption of life, environmental degradation among other effects. And few cases of Environmental disasters have been reported in the district. Disaster: A disaster can be defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of the society causing widespread human, material or environmental damage and losses which exceed the ability of the affected community to cope using their own resources 5.1 Extent and trends of environmental hazards and disasters This section describes environmental hazards and disasters, their extent and trend including geological, climatic, biological, and technological hazards as well as existing mitigation measures, physical, indigenous knowledge. 5.1.1 Environmental Hazards and Disasters The terrain in some parts of the district is steep, rugged and prone to disasters like landslides, especially on the slopes of the Nyambene ranges. The Nyambene ranges also influences the soils and the underlying bed rock. Most of the landscape on the North and North East is punctuated by rocky outcrops that make even communication very difficult. The most frequent hazards and disasters experienced in the district are landslides and drought with the resultant famine. Most of the area affected by landslides includes the steep rugged slopes of the Nyambene Hills, and those areas most vulnerable

14

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 to drought are the ASALs where pastoralism takes place. The main hazards in the district are droughts which occur at an interval of 3 to 7 years and landslides which occur during heavy downpour. These hazards result in loss of life and property to the community.

5.1.2. Traditional Coping Mechanisms There are some traditional coping mechanisms that even though not so popular today used to work for the benefit of the community and the environment. Some of these include:    De-stocking in anticipation of an imminent drought No settlement on areas perceived to be prone to landslides. These areas were out of bound and were left out as conservation areas. Food preservation for consumption during dry spells

5.1.3 District Environmental Response Mechanisms There exists a District Disaster Management Committee whose main responsibility is to respond to disaster occurrences and organise for relief to ease the impacts of disaster on the lives of the people. This committee should be empowered to have the necessary capacity to develop and implement systems and mechanism not only to react to disaster situation but also to proactively act on the causative factors of the most occurring disaster situation. 5.1.4 Status of Early Warning and Preparedness Capacities to mitigate and recover from disasters are often constrained by lack of early warning systems and preparedness, keeping in minds the social dimensions and livelihood options that hamper the building of resilience from external shocks.

15

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 41:

Sector Capacities for Disaster Preparedness and Response Sector Type of Human Resource Lead agency Disaster Agriculture Drought Health Security Wildlife Extension workers public health officers Conflicts Drought / Conflict / Fire Forestry Water Fire Drought Forest guards Hydrologists Forest Dept WRMA Security agencies Warders Provincial Administration KWS Epidemics Social workers, doctors and Public health

Source: District Environment Office2007 - Meru North District Key Environmental Issues    Lack of preparedness Lack of appropriate early warning systems and technologies Inadequate capacity and resources to handle disasters

Proposed Interventions  Adoption of environmental early warning systems and preparedness strategy  Development of response plans 16

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013       Establishment of food reserves Plan and stock up and be ready for any disaster Develop appropriate warning systems for each disaster Ad hoc arrangements and response Allocate more resource for disaster response Acquire skill in disaster management

17

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

CHAPTER SIX 6.0 Environmental education and technology As Kenya aspires to achieve sustainable development, there is need to educate the public on the importance to participate in environmental conservation and application of appropriate technology while addressing their socio-economic development concerns. 6.1 Status of Environmental Education In the endeavour to participate in conservation efforts, there are a number of initiatives started by various groups to promote environmental educational programmes in the district. An environmental group called Itinerant Group for Environmental Amelioration (IGEA) has been involved with about 10 schools in Ntonyiri and Igembe in nursery establishment and tree planting programmes. Various schools, both secondary and primary have initiated clubs like Wildlife Clubs of Kenya, 4K clubs and Environmental clubs to promote conservation of the environment in and around their schools. There are over 50 schools with such initiatives and the District Environment Officer is coordinating their activities. Table 42 documents the environmental programmes and challenges in the district
Table 42:

Environmental Programmes and Challenges in the District Environmental Key players Challenges Proposed Interventions Programmes Environmental Amelioration Tree planting IGEA, NEMA and IGEA, Forest Lack of appropriate seeds Training farmers and technical capacity Extension services 18 nursery establishment Dept, Schools, Forest Lack of materials to Develop appropriate Dept, Schools, sensitise the public materials for sensitisation

Source: District Environment Office2007 - Meru North District

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013

Key Environmental issues    Lack of awareness creation materials (resource / documentation centre) Poverty and ignorance and lack of awareness Poor infrastructure.

Proposed Interventions  Develop materials for awareness creation    Collect and gather materials that are appropriate to priority environmental issues Share and disseminate pertinent information among the stakeholders Improve infrastructure.

6.3 Public awareness and participation When information on the environment is made available to the public it enhances internalization of values that support sustainable environmental management. Key Players Some of the key players in environmental awareness and public participation in the district include:   Community self help groups –IGEA, Nyambene Mazingira Provincial administration – organise public meetings 19

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013    Forest department – collaboration with farmers and stakeholders Ministry of Agriculture – provision of extension services NEMA – environmental awareness and sensitisation

6.3.1 Challenges in Creating Environmental Awareness       Lack of awareness creation materials (resource / documentation centre) Incomplete adjudication process and land disputes creating conflict zones Poverty and high levels of illiteracy Community apathy Transport and accessibility Politicisation of some key environmental resources

6.4 Technologies Technologies can contribute to economic development and environmental conservation when used appropriately. The level of application of modern technology in the management of the environment is limited, and includes construction of gabions and other modern structures. People still largely depend on indigenous technologies, innovations and practices which include that are diverse and include soil and water conservation structures like trenches, benches and lining up crop residue, rotational cropping, preservation technologies and others. Key Environmental Issues  Lack of awareness creation materials (resource / documentation centre)   Poverty and high levels of illiteracy Community apathy 20

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013   Poor infrastructure Low adoption of appropriate technology

Proposed Interventions  Development of relevant materials         Development of a resource centre Poverty alleviation programmes and education Community sensitisation and awareness Reach out to people in accessible area Infrastructure rehabilitation Community training and education Enhance technology transfer through demonstration Provision if extension services

6.5 Environmental Information Systems The broad challenge in harnessing environmental information and communication technology include inadequate resources and capacity for information collection, analysis, storage and dissemination; inadequate awareness among environmental managers and the public; and lack of knowledge sharing networks at grass root level. 6.5.1 Types and Sources of Environmental Information Most of the information available in the district is scattered among the different organisations and institutions and in different forms and types and is available mostly as:  Research and surveys reports 21

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013     Departmental progress reports Population Census data and household surveys results Maps and drawings Books

Some information is not documented at all, especially that which relates to indigenous conservation knowledge and natural resources utilisation among others. Institutions where the data is available  GOK departments on sector specific information and data   Institutions like schools and hospitals Among the civil society organisations and community groups

All documented data and information is freely accessible to the public, the only hindrance being the level of literacy among the population. Access to digitalised information is limited .

22

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013
Table 43: Information and data types in the district

Sector

Type of Form of Institutions Access Information Information conditions/ policy Agriculture Crop Reports Dept of Free development Posters Agriculture and Maps husbandry Leaflets Agrochemicals Agro industries Soil and water conservation Marketing Land Land Maps Land Consultation adjudication Reports Adjudication Land Plans and registration drawings process Land sizes Parcel numbers Conservation areas Health Prevalence of Hospital Hospitals Restricted diseases reports Health centres Dispensaries and clinics Forestry Forest types Maps Forest Dept Free and

Users CBO Farmers Extension workers Staff

System Of updating Annual

Farmers Planners Surveyors Staff Business people

Periodical

Health workers

Manual and periodical Periodical

Community 23

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Gazetted forest Non – gazetted forests Plantations Exotic species Biodiversity Catchments Industry Types Processing Raw materials Products Waste and by-products Wildlife Conservation areas Wildlife dispersal areas Cases of conflicts Animal numbers, status, behaviour Quarrying Quarry sites Rehabilitated quarries Abandoned quarries Reports accessible Staff Other departments Industries CBOs NGOs

Reports Diagrams

Industries

Free

Maps, Reports,

KWS

Free

Staff Interested persons Government officials Farmers Staff Periodical Tourists Conservationists Planners Environmentalists Community

NEMA

Free

Local Authorities Contractors Quarry owners

24

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Materials quarrried Types of fish Fishing areas Marketing of fish Rivers with fish Fish ponds Fish farmers Rivers Water accessibility Boreholes Drainage patterns Water availability Irrigation schemes Water uses Abstraction levels Rainfall and temp

Fisheries

Maps Magazines reports

Fisheries Dept.

Free

Fish farmers Staff

Water

Maps Reports Diagrams

Water Dept

Free

Water users association Water projects Community Staff Other dept Industries Farmers

Climate Tables Free and Reports weather Source: District Respective Departments 2007 - Meru North District

Staff Farmers Community

Regular

6.5.2 Status of Environmental Information Management Systems The sharing of information among institutions/lead agencies communities, taskforces is complicated due to the nature in which this information is stored. There are bulks of filed reports and booklets that contain different pieces of information and data and this can be cumbersome and time consuming. 25

MERU NORTH DEAP 2009-2013 Though the channels are open most information is not available t o end users in a form that is easily consumable. Stakeholders usually organise meetings to share out information on specific issues and this ought to be encouraged. There is also very limited capacities among institutions to generate analyse and store data and information in a form that can easily be shared out among the stakeholders. This is mainly due to inadequate skills in information technology among the producers if data and the users of the same. There are also limited sk…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Social Issue

...A social problem is a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. Everyone would agree about some social problems, such as murders and DWI traffic deaths. Other social problems may be viewed as such by certain groups of people. Teenagers who play loud music in a public park obviously do not view it as a problem, but some other people may consider it an undesirable social condition. Some nonsmokers view smoking as an undesirable social condition that should be banned or restricted in public buildings. Every newspaper is filled with stories about undesirable social conditions. Examples include crime, violence, drug abuse, and environmental problems. Such social problems can be found at the local, state, national and international levels. There are many social problems that teenagers go threw. Drugs and Teenagers Drug use is the increasing problem among teenagers in today’s high schools. Most drug use begins in the preteen and teenage years, these years most crucial in the maturation process. During these years adolescents are faced with difficult tasks of discovering their self identity, clarifying their sexual roles, assenting independence, learning to cope with authority and searching for goals that would give their lives meaning. Drugs are readily, adolescents are curious and venerable, and there is peer pressure to experiment, and there us a temptation to escape from conflicts. The use of drugs by teenagers is the result......

Words: 2163 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Male vs Female : Social Issues Nowadays, social issues in our country become widely and it’s out of our control. The globalization makes our world become smaller and all the information could be easily to get by computers or which means emerge as internet. Social problems become more serious because bad things from other countries enter to ours. There are also has a good cultures however it also have bad things cultures that can influence to ours especially among teenagers. Most young generations cannot identify and also can’t analyze what are the different between good and bad things. They’re thinking speculation is far away from what adults do. The bad things that affect them could be eliminate the moral values for young generation. However, it’s not just among teenagers which means opposite sex such as male and female but almost many stage of people have this kind problem of social issues. To begin with, social issues are considered to affect the people of the society either directly or indirectly. The main things is, some people thought that it is from male carriage this kind of issues. For an example, a gay among of teenagers. Gay is the relationship within the same sex that involves man with man relation. When talking about same-sex relation, what comes in people’s mind is abnormal relationship. The first factor that caused this problem is biological influence. Therefore, natural biological is one of the reason why they get involve in gay. However, everyone knows......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Dimensions of Social Inequality Julie McElwain Park University Abstract Social inequality is how different categories of individuals are prescribed by the society. The society uses basic characteristics such as gender, sex, education, and ethnicity among other factors in order to categorize an individual. The social inequalities determine the access to limited goods such as market labor force, education, health care facilities, and other forms of participation in the society. Different forms of social inequalities are constructs of geographical distribution, and status within the country, however, cultural aspects, mostly integrated with cultural identities, of society are perceived to be the major contributor of social inequality. Discourses have, therefore, been raised on whether the poor deserve to be poor or not and whether the rich deserve to be rich or not. In order to address this question, I examined different dimensions of social inequalities in my life such as social class, educational level, and race among other factors. In this paper, I will also try to bring out understanding of different theories in attempt to explain social stratification. A comparison will be done between different perspectives through interviews and my own perspective of social inequalities. In essence all factors discussed in this paper show a link between social inequalities and different factors such as economic and political system. Trends such as widening......

Words: 3161 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Social Issues

...imperial, trade and business, deterritorialised diasporas -    what other (newer) forms are there?  Economic, political (EU border issues). More modern notions that might not ‘fit’ traditional ideas of ‘diaspora’.  Even the word seems rather outdated now? -   Diaspora/transnational communities – relationships in the ‘hostland’, relationships with the ‘homeland’ – transnationalism and integration in the homeland TYPES Victim  Labour  Imperial  Trade  Deterritorialised New ideas   Characteristics of diaspora:  key features they have in common -     Dispersal: -      Or – Expansion -      Memory of homeland – idealisation of home. -      Idealisation of the ancestral homeland – -      Development of a return movement to the homeland – transnationalism. -      A strong ethnic group consciousness – based on distinctiveness, common history, common cultural and religious heritage -      ‘troubled’ relationship with host societies – integration – suggesting a lack of acceptance: Mazzucato research below. -      empathy with co-ethnic members in other countries of settlement. Aided by electronic communication, Skype, email, facebook, cheap phone calls, cheap flights. -      possibility of a distinctive, enriching life in host countries – integration – those with a tolerance for pluralism, anyway. INTERSECTIONS WITH LANGUAGE ISSUES Emerging from diaspora/transnational communities. New forms being researched/written about: 1. Rampton:......

Words: 3234 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Social Issue

...A social issue (also called a social problem or a social ill) is an issue that relates to society's perception of people's personal lives. Different societies have different perceptions and what may be "normal" behaviour in one society may be a significant social issue in another society. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues. Some issues have both social and economic aspects, such asimmigration. There are also issues that don't fall into either category, such as wars. Thomas Paine, in Rights of Man and Common Sense, addresses man's duty to "allow the same rights to others as we allow ourselves". The failure to do so causes the birth of a social issue. Personal issues versus social issues[edit] Personal issues are those that individuals deal with themselves and within a small range of their peers and relationships.[1] On the other hand, social issues threaten values cherished by widespread society.[1] For example, the unemployment rate of 7.8 percent[2] in the U.S. as of October 2012 is a social issue. The line between a personal issue and a public issue may be subjective, however, when a large enough sector of society is affected by an issue, it becomes a social issue. Although one person fired is not a social issue, the repercussions of 13 million people being fired is likely to generate social issues. Caste system[edit] Caste system in India resulted in most oppressed Untouchables on earth for the past 3000 years . UK recently banned caste......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Issue

...1) Ethical and conceptual issues Current research and research results It is increasingly recognized that within many areas (e.g., disability and handicap), conceptual issues and ethical issues about proper conduct and underlying values are highly intergrated. The treatment of ethical and policy issues depends on the content of the concepts employed and, at the same time, many central concepts are informed by moral opinions and, as a result, contested on ethical grounds. Taking this intergration of conceptual and ethical issues seriously from a research point of view requires that they are very strongly interconnected, i.e. mere studies of the way in which concepts are in fact informed by moral opinions and social values is not siffucient. Outright normative analyses of underlying ethical views need to underpin suggestions with regard to the way in which central concepts should be employed in policy contexts. This has been recognised in research on the basic ethical issue of what should be seen as the basic determinant of the quality of life or well-being (Brülde 1998, 2006), as well as research on applied ethics of relevance for disability (Brülde 2003; Munthe 1996, 1999; Juth 2005; Juth & Munthe 2006), and concepts such as happiness, health, illness, and mental disorder (Brülde 2000, 2006a, 2006b). Research on several of the conceptual issues has demonstrated how they are strongly connected to ethical problems related to health care policies and public health......

Words: 2008 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...always been and will be the subject of heated discussions among economists, sociologists and political scientists. This issue is not only an ideological one, but also of significant importance for the state functioning. It is undisputable that the implementation of particular tasks by the state turns out indispensable for the functioning of society, however, in terms of market existence the underlying advantages, to be discussed below, are much less favorable. The classification of social regulations In the course of the recent 50 years the decrease of economic regulations is quite noticeable while the social ones present an increasing tendency and have been gaining significance after the Second World War. New government institutions have been established and keep preparing an increasing number of regulations referring to social issues. This trend is present both in USA and in the EU countries. As opposed to economic regulations, which refer to market and economic variables, social regulations are focused on the influence of companies and the market on workers, clients and citizens. These regulations are mainly related to the following spheres: * employment, i.e. the protection of employees against discrimination, ensuring labor safety, proper working conditions, possibilities for promotion, appropriate remuneration for work, social security costs, social benefits, annuities and pensions (e.g. in USA OSHA, EEOC). * consumer protection against the threats......

Words: 1736 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Social Issue

... |Investigate a Social Issue | |Antonio Coleman | |Dr. Cameron D. Lippard | |SOC 100 | |12/09/2012 | | | In life today one of the most controversial social issues facing Americans today regards the rights of homosexuals. Specifically, the question of whether gay men and lesbians should be allowed to legally marry has come up in several states. Proponents of same-sex marriage argue that, by being denied the right to marry and to receive the social and financial benefits of marriage, they are being deprived of fundamental equal protection under the law. Supporters also argue that legalizing same-sex marriages will positively impact society at large, not just homosexuals. Opponents of same-sex unions claim that marriage is a religious tradition that must not “cave in” to immoral attitudes; in fact, many states have or have attempted to pass constitutional bans on same-sex marriage. After considering the arguments on both sides and reviewing several readings on the matter, it seems that homosexual couples should, in......

Words: 1099 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Social Issue

...ASSIGNMENT 4: Final paper Investigate a Social Issue By June 07th , 2014 SOC 100 Instructor: Professor NAZER In recent years, the relationship between crime and economy crises has been highly studied by economies and has sparked up interest among members of the general public, the media, policy makers, and criminal justice practitioners. Although there are many conflicting ideas on how the economy downturn affects crime rates, it is reasonable to study how crime rates have varied in the past and recent years. Taking a closer look at the current economy trend in the United States, both federal and state budgets have been affected as well as individuals. Many people have been laid off their jobs because the state cannot allocate money for them to be paid. Hence, many such people look for other means to raise money for survival including property theft and other related crimes. It is therefore convenient to say that more people are willing to commit crime in a declining economy so as to meet their daily needs, though it could be a difficult hypothesis to test. Bad economics leads to property theft and robberies as criminals steal items they cannot afford. Since 2008, there has been an increase recession in the United States as said by data from police records. However, the FBI in 2010 release records of a drop in violent crimes but not property theft and robberies. This can be seen on the media reports and even major adverts on the streets such as bus stops where......

Words: 2153 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Research project on social issue Crime (robbery) Abstract Crime has increased rapidly over the years in Antigua. A major increase in robberies and many other crimes have impacted the economy and its citizens. The goals and objectives of this paper are to ascertain the causes and the effects of the high robbery rate in Antigua. The reasons behind these robberies and how it affects the economy, the level of education attained by these criminals, the impact these criminal activities have on the tourism industry and finally the effects it has on victims. In researching this topic, methods such as interviews which were conducted along with the distribution of questionnaires to citizens affected by this act, to get further information on how this crime has impacted their lives and the effect it has on businesses or operators who are victims to such a criminal activities. Newspaper articles, surveys, ministry of tourism statistical reports showing the number of tourists by sea and air has declined, Royal Police Force of Antigua and Barbuda statistical reports on the number of robberies carried out over the past 5yrs. Introduction Crime is prevalent in most societies it is an act that violates one’s mind. The crime I will be focusing on is robbery. This is a crime of taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. The citizens of Antigua and Barbuda are concerned, and are deeply distressed by the recent......

Words: 428 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Social issues Social trend: The use of media as a marketing strategy to influence consumer behaviour Social factors have great influence and importance to businesses as it relates to changes in social structures, consumer lifestyles and behaviours. (100, 2013) Opinions of consumers play an essential role in the growth of a business. As such, businesses often make use of positive reviews from customers to attract new diners. (Solution, 2013) For instance, engaging reputable online personalities like Lady Iron Chef to review your dishes is a form of advertisement. Through positive blog reviews, it employs the influence of the blogger to market the name of the eatery in an appealing way to his/her followers. Fig 1.1: Blogger's webpage featuring eateries Fig 1.2: Updates on daily specials (Ladyironchef, 2013) (Twelve Cupcakes, 2013) It is evident from the figures above that the use of media is a common marketing strategy. With the surge in social networking sites like Facebook and twitter, businesses are seizing the opportunity to publicize their products. (Fig 1.2) Moreover, the use of review websites (Fig 1.1) is also an effective method employed to advertise. Fig 1.3: Twelve Cupcakes featured on The Walker (TwelveCupcakes, 2013) Social media creates opportunities for the F&B industry to prosper. Being an efficient and effective tool, sharing of information online can create opportunities for a business. One such company which benefitted from social media is Twelve......

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Social Issue

...worsens, as well as the enormous health challenges involved, the social and economic consequences may set these countries back, reversing some gains a number of these countries have made in recent years. Back to top Where does the Ebola virus come from? According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in the US, the initial human infection comes from contact with an infected animal, most likely a bat. From there, human to human transmission spreads the disease. Virus Ecology Graphic, CDC, August 1, 2014 As The Guardian has noted, drugs and vaccines for Ebola has typically been low priority for the main drugs companies although now there is a new focus and sense of urgency: Until now, pharmaceutical firms have given Ebola very low priority. The few potential drugs and vaccines under development are now being sped into trials. Healthy volunteers in the UK and US have been injected with a candidate vaccine to test safety. Drug trials will soon be set up in west Africa, but they are several months away and there is no certainty that they will work. — Briefing: West Africa’s Ebola crisis, The Guardian, last accessed, September 27, 2014 As has been mentioned on this site for years, unfortunately diseases affecting the poorest countries the worst have typically received little attention or investment, sometimes as there isn’t any profit in it for drugs companies, which raises a whole set of other issues about drug treatments and access to essential......

Words: 799 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...IS IT ETHICAL FOR EARNING MONEY FROM SELLING CUSTOMER’S INFORMATION? Social networks on the Internet are becoming powerful in our life due to a huge number of users. One of the reason for that success is the fact that those networks sell information of their customers for other companies such as: advertising firms, sale enterprises, etc. However, this issue has raised arguments about users’ privacy. Some people claim that it is not ethical for making profit from personal information while others state that it is not privacy detection when social networks give individual data, which users provide on public websites (e.g.: Facebook, Twitter, etc.), to business companies. The author of this essay believe that selling personal information is unethical business because of the following reasons that utilize Facebook as an circumstance to illustrate the author’s view. To begin with, it is possible that social networks such as Facebook has earned a great amount of money from its user’s data. Founded in 2004, Facebook is one of the biggest social networks providing a connection among people, and where a person can aware what is happening or share his/her own feelings. This network has achieved outstanding success by attracting a huge number of customers. In addition, it earned 7,872,000 in 2013 and there were 864 million daily active users on average for September 2014. One part of this success is proved to come from selling Facebook users’ information for the companies that want to...

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...(2013). Including people who experience homelessness: A scoping review of the literature. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 33(3), 136-151. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443331311308203 * Problem Homelessness has been associated with isolation, marginalization and social exclusion. It is well understood that those impacted by homelessness often have fewer opportunities than the general population to participate in policy processes, especially in relation to decisions that affect them. Being homeless has many health and social consequences that affect an individual's life chances and opportunities for participation in decision-making over the life course. * Review of Literature Principles of inclusion in policy development have emerged in discourses on disability, the mental health consumer movement, and have begun to inform discussions of drug use. Without the voices and participation of those impacted by homelessness, there is a risk that important understandings essential to the development of effective solutions to homelessness will remain obscured. A search of peer reviewed and grey literature to generate recommendations for the development of guidelines for social inclusion of those impacted by homelessness as part of a community-based response to ending homelessness in effort to answer, how to foster social inclusion in programs and policy between housed and unhoused people? * Hypothesis The findings from the review......

Words: 1148 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Social Issues

...A social issue (also called a social problem, social conflict, or social illness) is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's social issue is the source of a conflicting opinion on the grounds of what is perceived as a morally just personal life or societal order. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues; however, some issues (such as immigration) have both social and economic aspects. There are also issues that don't fall into either category, such as warfare. There can be disagreements about what social issues are worth solving, or which should take precedence. Different individuals and different societies have different perceptions. In Rights of Man and Common Sense, Thomas Paine addresses man's duty to "allow the same rights to others as we allow ourselves". The failure to do so causes the birth of a social issue. There are a variety of methods people use to combat social issues. Some people vote for leaders in a democracy to advance their ideals. Outside the political process, people donate or share their time, money, energy, or other resources. This often takes the form of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are often formed for the sole purpose of solving a particular social issue. Community organizing involves gathering people together for a common purpose. A distinct but related meaning of the term "social issue" (used......

Words: 297 - Pages: 2