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Slange Gift

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Tobiaspriess
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Redegørelse for efterløn & Radikale venstre ifh til efterløn. Side 2

Analysering af debat indlæg. Side 3-4

Diskussion/konklussion. Side 5

Kildeliste/Litteratur liste:

Debat indlæg: Debat indlæg skrevet af formanden for HK, Leo Jensen og udgivet d.2 september i 2011 på avisen jyllandspostens hjemmeside: http://jp.dk/aarhus/meninger/breve/article2532977.ece
Efterløn: tekst på 33 linjer som findes på side 117 i skole bogen ”Liv i Danmark” (Den nye), skrevet af Benny Jacobsen og Ove Outzen, og udgivet af forlaget Columbus, i 2011.
Figur 8.1: Statistik over helbredsproblemer pga. Nedslidning, som findes på side 28 i statistik bogen ”Samfundsstatistik”, som er redigeret og skrevet af Allan christensen, Henrik Arbo-Bärh og Niels Knap, og udgivet i 2011 af Columbus.
Figur 11.4: Statistik over fuldtidsledige, findes på side 48 i statistik bogen ”Samfundsstatistik”, som er redigeret og skrevet af Allan christensen, Henrik Arbo-Bärh og Niels Knap, og udgivet i 2011 af Columbus. Web 1: Indlæg skrevet af Jesper Boe Jensen og offentliggjort på Radikale venstres hjemmeside; http://www.radikale.dk/CMS/vis.aspx?aid=93986
Web 2: Artikel som forklarer efterlønnen og dets historik, udgivet på informationssiden wikipedia: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efterl%C3%B8n
Web 3: Artikel som redegører for efterlønsreformen i 2006, udgivet på informationssiden wikipedia: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velf%C3%A6rdsreform
Web 4: Artikel som forklarer tilbagetrækningsreformen i 2011, udgivet på informationssiden wikipedia: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilbagetr%C3%A6kningsreformen
Web 5: Rapport skrevet af chef økonom Mads Lundby Hansen d.10 maj 2010 og udgivet på det politiske informations site ”CEPOS”: http://www.cepos.dk/fileadmin/user_upload/Arkiv/PDF/Ny_beregning_-_Afvikling_af_efterloen_forbedrer_de_offentlige_finanser_med_16_mia_notat.pdf
Web 6: Artikel som forklarer konsekvenser af efterlønnen, udgivet d. 14 marts 2011 på SF’s hjemmeside: http://www.sf.dk/presse/nyheder/2011/03/14/afskaffelse-af-efterl%C3%B8n-koster-7-mia
Web 7: Statistik over førtidspensionister, og udgivet på statistik siden; Danmarks statistik: http://www.dst.dk/da/Statistik/emner/offentligt-forsoergede/foertidspensionister.aspx?tab=nog
Web 8: Statistik over kontanthjælps modtagere, udgivet på statistik siden; Danmarks statistik: http://www.dst.dk/da/Statistik/emner/offentligt-forsoergede/kontanthjaelp.aspx

Redegørelse af efterlønnen og Radikale venstres holdning til efterlønnen.

”Efter statsministeren pludselig erklærede sig klar til reformer i sin nytårstale, er efterlønnen kommet på alles læber i Danmark. Men Radikale Venstre har jo længe ville afskaffe efterlønnen.” sådan står det tydeligt trykt sort på hvidt på radikale venstres cv. Ifølge radikale venstre er efterlønnen en byrde som det danske samfund ikke har råd til, og den bør afskaffes. Det førende argument for at afskaffe efterlønnen er at det kan løsne op mod 27 milliarder kroner frem mod 2020, som skal bruges til at at lappe det store hul i statskassen, men også til at gøre efterlønnen unødvendig. Forstået som at der skal investeres i at arbejdsmiljøerne og arbejdernes forhold skal forbedres – både fysisk og psykisk, så nedslidning forebygges og der ikke vil være grund til at gå på efterløn. Førtidspension skal være tilgengængeligt hvis en læge vurderer at det ikke er forsvarligt for individet at forblive på arbejdsmarkedet. Radikale venstre bygger deres store tal om besparelser igennem efterlønnen på, at den gennemsnitlige dansker som går på efterløn kun betaler cirka én femtedel af efterløns forløbet, hvor staten betaler de resterende 80 procent. Der kan udover de penge som løsnes ved en afvikling af efterlønnen, yderligere hentes milliarder ind i skattepenge som arbejderne vil betale de år hvor de ellers ville være på overførselsindkomst fra staten. Kort sagt vil radikale venstre vende en udgift til en indtægt. Et andet tungt vejende argument er også at en afskaffelsen af efterlønnen, vil forebygge nødden for at skære budgettet i sundhedsystemet, skoler og uddannelse, som i følge radikale bør stå højere i priortet. Og som vil være yderst asocialt at nedpriortere.

Efterlønnen som blev vedtaget i 1979 af SV regeringen under statsminister Anker Jørgensen, er en dansk velfærdsordning som via overførselsindkomst vil give mulighed for tilbagetrækning fra arbejdsmarkedet 5 år før folkepensionsalderen. Begrundelse for efterlønnen i sin tid var for at give plads til unge på arbejdsmarkedet, og på den måde få de ny uddannede unge ud på markedet. Den oprindelige efterløn gav mulighed for efterløn fra man var 60 til 67 år, og det var anskuet at cirka 17.000 danskere ville benytte denne ordning, men målinger i 2009 viste at op mod 135.000 danskere gik på efterløn, som mere bedgyndte at ligne en tidlig pension. I 1999 ændrede folketinget på efterlønnen, det krævede nu at man skal have været medlem af en a-kasse i 25 år af de seneste 30 år, og et kontingent som i 2011 nåede 439 kroner, samt at efterlønnen blev reduceret hvis man gik på efterløn som 60 årig, men man kunne få udstedt et efterlønsbevis, som ville sige at man ventede de 2 år til man var 62 år, og så derfra få fuld efterløn til pensionen, samtidig med at folkepensionsalderen blev sænket fra 67 til 65 år. I 2006 var der en yderligere ændring i efterlønnen som et led i velfærdsreformen, i et forlig imellem venstre, konservative folkeparti, dansk folkeparti, Radikale venstre og Socialdemokraterne. Det indebar at efterlønnen i perioden 2019-2022 bliver hævet fra 60 til 62 år, og at pensions alderen skulle hæves fra 65 til 67 år imellem 2024 og 2027. 13. maj 2011 blev en tilbagetrækningsreform gennemført af Lars Lykke Rasmussen som indebar en fremrykning af pensions alderen som hæves til 67 år, samt at efterlønnens forkortelse fra 5-3 år også blev fremrykket.

Efterlønnen - nu er det nok

”Efterlønnen – nu er det nok” er et debat indlæg som er skrevet af Leo Laursen og offentliggjort 18. maj 2011 på jyllandspostens hjemme side. Leos udgangspunkt i sit indlæg er at efterlønnen var til for at de ældre kunne trække sig tilbage fra arbejdsmarkedet, sådan så at de unge kunne tage deres plads, som han skriver i de først linjer; ” Lad mig slå fast, at efterlønnen blev etableret i 1979, fordi mange unge mennesker ikke kunne få et arbejde.
Med efterlønsordningen - 1979 - kunne ældre medarbejdere gå på efterløn og give plads til yngre på arbejdsmarkedet.”. Indlægget fremstår som et argument for at afskaffe efterlønnen, som ifølge ham mere er blevet en ordning som gør det muligt for folk at slippe for at arbejde og leve på overførselsindkomst. Han baserer sine udtalelser på personlige observeringer, fx; ” Jeg kender til en maskinarbejder (60 år), som fortalte mig: »Nu går jeg på pension.« Jeg svarede: »Du går ikke på pension, du udnytter efterlønsordningen.« Han svarede: »Jeg gider sku ikke mere.«”. Anklagerne for at udnytte ordningen kommer også til overfladen når han konkludere genfortællingen; ”Så kan han nyde sin ”pension” fra 60-65 år og passe sin kolonihave. Men det er alle andre skatteydere, der er med til at betale for denne luksus.”.
Leo er overbevist om at bare fordi man er er blevet 60, så betyder det ikke at man ikke er egnet til arbejdsmarkedet mere. Det kommer især til tyde i slutningen af indlægget hvor han prøver at sende et budskab til de venstreorienterede politikere og fagbevægelsen; ” Til de venstreorienterede politikere og fagbevægelsen: Der er mange, der kan fortsætte deres arbejde efter en alder på 60 år. Jeg kender flere over 65 år, som stadig arbejder og er glade for det. De, der er nedslidte, kan jo få en førtidspension uden arbejdsprøvning.”. I den sidste linje af debat indlægget konkludere Leo; ” Kan man, så skal man bidrage til samfundet og ikke blot modtage efterløn = overførselsindkomst.”.

Efterløn handler om mennesker – ikke tal

”Efterløn handler om mennesker – ikke tal”, er et debat indlæg som er skrevet af Leo Jensen og offentliggjort 2. september 2011 på jyllandspostens hjemmeside, under grenen ”jpaarhus”.
Leo jensen har bygget sit indlæg op med en indledning og tre underemner som taler for efterlønnen. Leo Jensens udgangspunkt er at efterlønnen handler om mennesker og ikke tal, som det blandt andet fremgår i titlen, og i nogle af de første linjer i indledningen; ” I debatten om efterløn eller ej svirrer det med tal. Men efterløn handler om mennesker, ikke om tal.”. Alleredde i indledningen fokusere Leo Jensen på at det ikke er fordi de ældre tager pladserne, men at de unge ikke er udstyret til arbejdsmarkedet; ” Og den der med, at vi slet ikke kan undvære de ældre på arbejdsmarkedet, er svær at tage alvorligt, så længe vi ikke en gang sørger for at uddanne de unge, og så længe ungdomsledigheden er så stor.”. I det første underemne i indlægget argumenterer Leo Jensen for at efterlønnen gavner seniortilværelse, så de ældre kan nyde deres liv; ” Efterløn eller ej - det handler om de mennesker, der efter et langt liv på arbejdsmarkedet skal have mulighed for at trække sig tilbage i tide, så de kan få noget ud af seniortilværelsen.”. Han henviser også til at det selvfølgelig skal være muligt at fortsætte på arbejdsmarkedet, men det skal være ”vores” valg. Leo Jensen påstår at arbejdsmarkedet i dag er mere nedslidende, og efterlønnen mere nødvendig; ” Det skal være muligt at gå på efterløn, og med det øgede pres, der er blevet på mange arbejdspladser de seneste år, vil mange have behovet, fordi de mentalt er slidt ned.”. I det næste punkt i indlægget, angriber Leo Jensen forligspartierne, som ønsker en forringet efterløn, og anklager førtidspensionen for at være utilstrækkelig; ” Derfor er vi ikke i tvivl om, at det bliver svært at opnå seniorførtidspension, og at den kun vil være en spinkel mulighed i modsætning til efterlønnen”. Samtidigt mener Leo Jensen at førtidspensions processen er ydmygende for de ældre borgere; ” det vil være en hån mod dem, der efter mange år på arbejdsmarkedet skal igennem en ydmygende proces, hvor der søges pension.”.
I det sidste punkt i indlægget bruger Leo Jensen den store arbejdsløshed især blandt unge for at argumentere for hvorfor efterlønnen bør bevares; ” I en tid med flere og flere langtidsledige og en fordobling af ungdomsledigheden er det svært at forstå, hvorfor tusinder skal fastholdes på arbejdsmarkedet frem for at kunne gå på efterløn.”. Han nævner at ingen kan forudse hvordan arbejdsmarkedet udvikler sig, men forsikre at en afskaffelse af efterlønnen kun vil gøre situationen værre; ”Med den ledighed, vi har nu, vil en udhuling af efterlønnen skabe yderligere arbejdsløshed, og dermed trykke løn- og arbejdsforhold. Det vil være til skade for alle lønmodtagere uanset alder.”.
Leo Jensen afslutter sit debatindlæg med at repetere problemstillingen som nævnt før; ”I en tid med flere og flere langtidsledige og en fordobling af ungdomsledigheden er det svært at forstå, hvorfor tusinder skal fastholdes på arbejdsmarkedet frem for at kunne gå på efterløn.”.

Vurdering

De vejende argumenter for at læmpe eller helt afskaffe efterlønnen er løsrivelse af penge og flere hænder på arbejdsmarkedet. Radikale venstre hævder at der kan løsnes op mod 27 milliarder kroner i 2020 hvis efterlønnen blev afskaffet . Statistikker beregner også at hvis efterlønnen blev afskedet i 2011, ville beskæftigelsen blive øget med op til 100.000 borgere. SF hævder tilgengæld at en afskaffelse vil øge statsgælden med yderligere 7 milliarder, før den positive effekt skulle tage fat. Men som Leo Jensen skriver i sit indlæg, ” Selvfølgelig har vi råd til efterlønnen, hvis vi vil. Det er et spørgsmål om politik og prioritering.”,og som det indgår i titlen ”Efterløn handler om mennesker – ikke tal”, så handler det måske bare om at bide konsekvenserne af efterlønnen i sig, og så vedligeholde velfærdsordningen, som Danmark jo er så kendt for. Argumenter for bevarelse af efterløn, er som det oprindeligt var tænkt, at sørge for en udskiftning imellem ældre og unge på arbejdsmarkedet, og for at aflaste nedslidte ældre borgere. I dag er cirka 16 procent af borgerne mellem 60-64 år på efterløn. Hvis man kigger på statistikkerne, så kan det ses at arbejdsløsheden blandt unge 16-24 år er blevet halveret fra 1985 til 2010, imens arbejdsløsheden blandt ældre 60-66 år kun har ændret sig en lille smule, hvilket vel også kan argumenterer for at efterlønnen har gjort sit arbejde, og fortsat kan gøre det? Samtidigt har det vist sig at antallet af borgere på førtidspension er stigende, hvilket indikere at stadig flere borgere nedslides, og så er det vel godt at vi har efterløn?
Nu snakkes der så meget om efterløn, men hvad med andre velfærdsydelser? Mere end 20 milliarder kroner blev udbetalt i kontanthjælps ydelser i 2010. Fx hvis kontanthjælp ydelsen ”introduktionsydelse”, som er økonomisk støtte til ny tilkommende borgere i landet, blev afskaffet ville man kunne løsne op mod 250 millioner kroner årligt.
Jeg tror personligt, på Radikale venstres plan om efterløn. Jeg tror på at det er en forældet ydelse og at den er for dyr til det moderne velfærdssamfund. De ydelser som efterlønnen dækker, skal kompenseres for på andre måder, billigere måder. Som Radikale venstre skriver, så kan en andel af de penge som løsrives som konsekvens af en afskaffelse, bruges på at forbedre arbejdspladserne og formindske nedslidning. Man kunne også bruge nogle af efterløns-pengene på at forbedre uddannelser, fx omskoling og vider uddannelser, sådan så de unge kan tilpasse sig arbejdsmarkedets behov. På den måde vil man nedsætte nødvendigheden for efterløn og man vil samtidig også kunne mindske antallet af borgere som lever på overførselsindkomst, som følge af førtidspension. Og som tidligere forklaret, vil beskæftigelsen øges markant, og Danmarks BNP vil kunne øges med 0,3 procent. Det ville være en stor hjælp til at bære Danmark ud af den økonomiske krise.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Web 1;”Hvorfor afskaffe efterløn?”. Radikales hjemmeside: http://www.radikale.dk/CMS/vis.aspx?aid=93986
[ 2 ]. Afsnittet ”Efterløn” tekst på 33 linjer som findes på side 117 i bogen ”Liv i Danmark” (Den nye), skrevet af Ove Outzen og Benny Jacobsen og udgivet af forlaget Columbus.
Web 2; Artikel om efterløn: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efterl%C3%B8n.
Web 3;Artikel om velfærdsreformen: http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velf%C3%A6rdsreform
Web 4;Artikel om tilbagetrækningsreformen: http://da.wikipe dia.org/wiki/Tilbagetr%C3%A6kningsreformen
[ 3 ]. Web 1;”Hvorfor afskaffe efterløn?”. Radikales hjemmeside: http://www.radikale.dk/CMS/vis.aspx?aid=93986
[ 4 ]. Web 5; ”CEPOS”: http://www.cepos.dk/fileadmin/user_upload/Arkiv/PDF/Ny_beregning_-_Afvikling_af_efterloen_forbedrer_de_offentlige_finanser_med_16_mia_notat.pdf
[ 5 ]. Web 6; ”Afskaffelse af efterløn koster 7 milliarder”. SF: http://www.sf.dk/presse/nyheder/2011/03/14/afskaffelse-af-efterl%C3%B8n-koster-7-mia
[ 6 ]. Debatindlæg Jyllandsposten: http://jp.dk/aarhus/meninger/breve/article2532977.ece
[ 7 ]. Figur 8.1 Samfundsstatistik s.28.
[ 8 ]. Figur 11.4 Samfundsstatistik s.48.
[ 9 ]. Web 7; ”Førtidspensionister”: http://www.dst.dk/da/Statistik/emner/offentligt-forsoergede/foertidspensionister.aspx
[ 10 ]. Web 8;”Kontanthjælp”: http://www.dst.dk/da/Statistik/emner/offentligt-forsoergede/kontanthjaelp.aspx
[ 11 ]. Web 1; Hvorfor afskaffe efterløn?”. Radikales hjemmeside: http://www.radikale.dk/CMS/vis.aspx?aid=93986…...

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