Free Essay

Selenium

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By paawann
Words 7020
Pages 29
Selenium Reference

Concepts

A command is what tells Selenium what to do. Selenium commands come in three 'flavors': Actions, Accessors and Assertions. Each command call is one line in the test table of the form:
|command |target |value |

Actions are commands that generally manipulate the state of the application. They do things like "click this link" and "select that option". If an Action fails, or has an error, the execution of the current test is stopped.
Many Actions can be called with the "AndWait" suffix, e.g. "clickAndWait". This suffix tells Selenium that the action will cause the browser to make a call to the server, and that Selenium should wait for a new page to load.
Accessors examine the state of the application and store the results in variables, e.g. "storeTitle". They are also used to automatically generate Assertions.
Assertions are like Accessors, but they verify that the state of the application conforms to what is expected. Examples include "make sure the page title is X" and "verify that this checkbox is checked".
All Selenium Assertions can be used in 3 modes: "assert", "verify", and "waitFor". For example, you can "assertText", "verifyText" and "waitForText". When an "assert" fails, the test is aborted. When a "verify" fails, the test will continue execution, logging the failure. This allows a single "assert" to ensure that the application is on the correct page, followed by a bunch of "verify" assertions to test form field values, labels, etc.
"waitFor" commands wait for some condition to become true (which can be useful for testing Ajax applications). They will succeed immediately if the condition is already true. However, they will fail and halt the test if the condition does not become true within the current timeout setting (see the setTimeout action below).
Element Locators tell Selenium which HTML element a command refers to. Many commands require an Element Locator as the "target" attribute. Examples of Element Locators include "elementId" and "document.forms[0].element". These are described more clearly in the next section.
Patterns are used for various reasons, e.g. to specify the expected value of an input field, or identify a select option. Selenium supports various types of pattern, including regular-expressions, all of which are described in more detail below.
Defines an object that runs Selenium commands.

Element Locators

Element Locators tell Selenium which HTML element a command refers to. The format of a locator is: locatorType=argument We support the following strategies for locating elements: identifier=id Select the element with the specified @id attribute. If no match is found, select the first element whose @name attribute is id. (This is normally the default; see below.) id=id Select the element with the specified @id attribute. name=name Select the first element with the specified @name attribute. • username • name=username The name may optionally be followed by one or more element-filters, separated from the name by whitespace. If the filterType is not specified, value is assumed. • name=flavour value=chocolate dom=javascriptExpression Find an element using JavaScript traversal of the HTML Document Object Model. DOM locators must begin with "document.". • dom=document.forms['myForm'].myDropdown • dom=document.images[56] xpath=xpathExpression Locate an element using an XPath expression. • xpath=//img[@alt='The image alt text'] • xpath=//table[@id='table1']//tr[4]/td[2] link=textPattern Select the link (anchor) element which contains text matching the specified pattern. • link=The link text css=cssSelectorSyntax Select the element using css selectors. Please refer to CSS2 selectors, CSS3 selectors for more information. You can also check the TestCssLocators test in the selenium test suite for an example of usage, which is included in the downloaded selenium core package. • css=a[href="#id3"] • css=span#firstChild + span Currently the css selector locator supports all css1, css2 and css3 selectors except namespace in css3, some pseudo classes(:nth-of-type, :nth-last-of-type, :first-of-type, :last-of-type, :only-of-type, :visited, :hover, :active, :focus, :indeterminate) and pseudo elements(::first-line, ::first-letter, ::selection, ::before, ::after).
Without an explicit locator prefix, Selenium uses the following default strategies: • dom, for locators starting with "document." • xpath, for locators starting with "//" • identifier, otherwise

Element Filters

Element filters can be used with a locator to refine a list of candidate elements. They are currently used only in the 'name' element-locator.
Filters look much like locators, ie. filterType=argument Supported element-filters are: value=valuePattern Matches elements based on their values. This is particularly useful for refining a list of similarly-named toggle-buttons. index=index Selects a single element based on its position in the list (offset from zero).

String-match Patterns

Various Pattern syntaxes are available for matching string values: glob:pattern Match a string against a "glob" (aka "wildmat") pattern. "Glob" is a kind of limited regular-expression syntax typically used in command-line shells. In a glob pattern, "*" represents any sequence of characters, and "?" represents any single character. Glob patterns match against the entire string. regexp:regexp Match a string using a regular-expression. The full power of JavaScript regular-expressions is available. exact:string Match a string exactly, verbatim, without any of that fancy wildcard stuff.
If no pattern prefix is specified, Selenium assumes that it's a "glob" pattern.

Selenium Actions

addSelection ( locator,optionLocator ) Add a selection to the set of selected options in a multi-select element using an option locator. @see #doSelect for details of option locators Arguments: • locator - an element locator identifying a multi-select box • optionLocator - an option locator (a label by default)

answerOnNextPrompt ( answer ) Instructs Selenium to return the specified answer string in response to the next JavaScript prompt [window.prompt()]. Arguments: • answer - the answer to give in response to the prompt pop-up

check ( locator ) Check a toggle-button (checkbox/radio) Arguments: • locator - an element locator

chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation ( ) By default, Selenium's overridden window.confirm() function will return true, as if the user had manually clicked OK. After running this command, the next call to confirm() will return false, as if the user had clicked Cancel.

click ( locator ) Clicks on a link, button, checkbox or radio button. If the click action causes a new page to load (like a link usually does), call waitForPageToLoad. Arguments: • locator - an element locator

clickAt ( locator,coordString ) Clicks on a link, button, checkbox or radio button. If the click action causes a new page to load (like a link usually does), call waitForPageToLoad. Beware of http://jira.openqa.org/browse/SEL-280, which will lead some event handlers to get null event arguments. Read the bug for more details, including a workaround. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • coordString - specifies the x,y position (i.e. - 10,20) of the mouse event relative to the element returned by the locator.

close ( ) Simulates the user clicking the "close" button in the titlebar of a popup window or tab.

createCookie ( nameValuePair,optionsString ) Create a new cookie whose path and domain are same with those of current page under test, unless you specified a path for this cookie explicitly. Arguments: • nameValuePair - name and value of the cookie in a format "name=value" • optionsString - options for the cookie. Currently supported options include 'path' and 'max_age'. the optionsString's format is "path=/path/, max_age=60". The order of options are irrelevant, the unit of the value of 'max_age' is second.

deleteCookie ( name,path ) Delete a named cookie with specified path. Arguments: • name - the name of the cookie to be deleted • path - the path property of the cookie to be deleted

dragdrop ( locator,movementsString ) Drags an element a certain distance and then drops it Beware of http://jira.openqa.org/browse/SEL-280, which will lead some event handlers to get null event arguments. Read the bug for more details, including a workaround. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • movementsString - offset in pixels from the current location to which the element should be moved, e.g., "+70,-300"

fireEvent ( locator,eventName ) Explicitly simulate an event, to trigger the corresponding "onevent" handler. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • eventName - the event name, e.g. "focus" or "blur"

goBack ( ) Simulates the user clicking the "back" button on their browser.

keyDown ( locator,keySequence ) Simulates a user pressing a key (without releasing it yet). Arguments: • locator - an element locator • keySequence - Either be a string("\" followed by the numeric keycode of the key to be pressed, normally the ASCII value of that key), or a single character. For example: "w", "\119".

keyPress ( locator,keySequence ) Simulates a user pressing and releasing a key. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • keySequence - Either be a string("\" followed by the numeric keycode of the key to be pressed, normally the ASCII value of that key), or a single character. For example: "w", "\119".

keyUp ( locator,keySequence ) Simulates a user releasing a key. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • keySequence - Either be a string("\" followed by the numeric keycode of the key to be pressed, normally the ASCII value of that key), or a single character. For example: "w", "\119".

mouseDown ( locator ) Simulates a user pressing the mouse button (without releasing it yet) on the specified element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator

mouseDownAt ( locator,coordString ) Simulates a user pressing the mouse button (without releasing it yet) on the specified element. Beware of http://jira.openqa.org/browse/SEL-280, which will lead some event handlers to get null event arguments. Read the bug for more details, including a workaround. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • coordString - specifies the x,y position (i.e. - 10,20) of the mouse event relative to the element returned by the locator.

mouseMove ( locator ) Simulates a user pressing the mouse button (without releasing it yet) on the specified element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator

mouseMoveAt ( locator,coordString ) Simulates a user pressing the mouse button (without releasing it yet) on the specified element. Beware of http://jira.openqa.org/browse/SEL-280, which will lead some event handlers to get null event arguments. Read the bug for more details, including a workaround. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • coordString - specifies the x,y position (i.e. - 10,20) of the mouse event relative to the element returned by the locator.

mouseOut ( locator ) Simulates a user moving the mouse pointer away from the specified element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator

mouseOver ( locator ) Simulates a user hovering a mouse over the specified element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator

mouseUp ( locator ) Simulates a user pressing the mouse button (without releasing it yet) on the specified element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator

mouseUpAt ( locator,coordString ) Simulates a user pressing the mouse button (without releasing it yet) on the specified element. Beware of http://jira.openqa.org/browse/SEL-280, which will lead some event handlers to get null event arguments. Read the bug for more details, including a workaround. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • coordString - specifies the x,y position (i.e. - 10,20) of the mouse event relative to the element returned by the locator.

open ( url ) Opens an URL in the test frame. This accepts both relative and absolute URLs. The "open" command waits for the page to load before proceeding, ie. the "AndWait" suffix is implicit. Note: The URL must be on the same domain as the runner HTML due to security restrictions in the browser (Same Origin Policy). If you need to open an URL on another domain, use the Selenium Server to start a new browser session on that domain. Arguments: • url - the URL to open; may be relative or absolute

refresh ( ) Simulates the user clicking the "Refresh" button on their browser.

removeSelection ( locator,optionLocator ) Remove a selection from the set of selected options in a multi-select element using an option locator. @see #doSelect for details of option locators Arguments: • locator - an element locator identifying a multi-select box • optionLocator - an option locator (a label by default)

select ( selectLocator,optionLocator ) Select an option from a drop-down using an option locator. Option locators provide different ways of specifying options of an HTML Select element (e.g. for selecting a specific option, or for asserting that the selected option satisfies a specification). There are several forms of Select Option Locator. label=labelPattern matches options based on their labels, i.e. the visible text. (This is the default.) • label=regexp:^[Oo]ther value=valuePattern matches options based on their values. • value=other id=id matches options based on their ids. • id=option1 index=index matches an option based on its index (offset from zero). • index=2 If no option locator prefix is provided, the default behaviour is to match on label. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • optionLocator - an option locator (a label by default)

selectFrame ( locator ) Selects a frame within the current window. (You may invoke this command multiple times to select nested frames.) To select the parent frame, use "relative=parent" as a locator; to select the top frame, use "relative=top". You may also use a DOM expression to identify the frame you want directly, like this: dom=frames["main"].frames["subframe"] Arguments: • locator - an element locator identifying a frame or iframe

selectWindow ( windowID ) Selects a popup window; once a popup window has been selected, all commands go to that window. To select the main window again, use "null" as the target. Arguments: • windowID - the JavaScript window ID of the window to select

setContext ( context,logLevelThreshold ) Writes a message to the status bar and adds a note to the browser-side log. If logLevelThreshold is specified, set the threshold for logging to that level (debug, info, warn, error). (Note that the browser-side logs will not be sent back to the server, and are invisible to the Client Driver.) Arguments: • context - the message to be sent to the browser • logLevelThreshold - one of "debug", "info", "warn", "error", sets the threshold for browser-side logging

setCursorPosition ( locator,position ) Moves the text cursor to the specified position in the given input element or textarea. This method will fail if the specified element isn't an input element or textarea. Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an input element or textarea • position - the numerical position of the cursor in the field; position should be 0 to move the position to the beginning of the field. You can also set the cursor to -1 to move it to the end of the field.

setTimeout ( timeout ) Specifies the amount of time that Selenium will wait for actions to complete. Actions that require waiting include "open" and the "waitFor*" actions. The default timeout is 30 seconds. Arguments: • timeout - a timeout in milliseconds, after which the action will return with an error

submit ( formLocator ) Submit the specified form. This is particularly useful for forms without submit buttons, e.g. single-input "Search" forms. Arguments: • formLocator - an element locator for the form you want to submit

type ( locator,value ) Sets the value of an input field, as though you typed it in. Can also be used to set the value of combo boxes, check boxes, etc. In these cases, value should be the value of the option selected, not the visible text. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • value - the value to type

uncheck ( locator ) Uncheck a toggle-button (checkbox/radio) Arguments: • locator - an element locator

waitForCondition ( script,timeout ) Runs the specified JavaScript snippet repeatedly until it evaluates to "true". The snippet may have multiple lines, but only the result of the last line will be considered. Note that, by default, the snippet will be run in the runner's test window, not in the window of your application. To get the window of your application, you can use the JavaScript snippet selenium.browserbot.getCurrentWindow(), and then run your JavaScript in there Arguments: • script - the JavaScript snippet to run • timeout - a timeout in milliseconds, after which this command will return with an error

waitForPageToLoad ( timeout ) Waits for a new page to load. You can use this command instead of the "AndWait" suffixes, "clickAndWait", "selectAndWait", "typeAndWait" etc. (which are only available in the JS API). Selenium constantly keeps track of new pages loading, and sets a "newPageLoaded" flag when it first notices a page load. Running any other Selenium command after turns the flag to false. Hence, if you want to wait for a page to load, you must wait immediately after a Selenium command that caused a page-load. Arguments: • timeout - a timeout in milliseconds, after which this command will return with an error

waitForPopUp ( windowID,timeout ) Waits for a popup window to appear and load up. Arguments: • windowID - the JavaScript window ID of the window that will appear • timeout - a timeout in milliseconds, after which the action will return with an error

windowFocus ( windowName ) Gives focus to a window Arguments: • windowName - name of the window to be given focus

windowMaximize ( windowName ) Resize window to take up the entire screen Arguments: • windowName - name of the window to be enlarged

Selenium Accessors

storeAlert ( variableName ) Retrieves the message of a JavaScript alert generated during the previous action, or fail if there were no alerts. Getting an alert has the same effect as manually clicking OK. If an alert is generated but you do not get/verify it, the next Selenium action will fail. NOTE: under Selenium, JavaScript alerts will NOT pop up a visible alert dialog. NOTE: Selenium does NOT support JavaScript alerts that are generated in a page's onload() event handler. In this case a visible dialog WILL be generated and Selenium will hang until someone manually clicks OK. Returns: The message of the most recent JavaScript alert Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAlert ( pattern ) • assertNotAlert ( pattern ) • verifyAlert ( pattern ) • verifyNotAlert ( pattern ) • waitForAlert ( pattern ) • waitForNotAlert ( pattern )

storeAllButtons ( variableName ) Returns the IDs of all buttons on the page. If a given button has no ID, it will appear as "" in this array. Returns: the IDs of all buttons on the page Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAllButtons ( pattern ) • assertNotAllButtons ( pattern ) • verifyAllButtons ( pattern ) • verifyNotAllButtons ( pattern ) • waitForAllButtons ( pattern ) • waitForNotAllButtons ( pattern )

storeAllFields ( variableName ) Returns the IDs of all input fields on the page. If a given field has no ID, it will appear as "" in this array. Returns: the IDs of all field on the page Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAllFields ( pattern ) • assertNotAllFields ( pattern ) • verifyAllFields ( pattern ) • verifyNotAllFields ( pattern ) • waitForAllFields ( pattern ) • waitForNotAllFields ( pattern )

storeAllLinks ( variableName ) Returns the IDs of all links on the page. If a given link has no ID, it will appear as "" in this array. Returns: the IDs of all links on the page Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAllLinks ( pattern ) • assertNotAllLinks ( pattern ) • verifyAllLinks ( pattern ) • verifyNotAllLinks ( pattern ) • waitForAllLinks ( pattern ) • waitForNotAllLinks ( pattern )

storeAllWindowIds ( variableName ) Returns the IDs of all windows that the browser knows about. Returns: the IDs of all windows that the browser knows about. Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAllWindowIds ( pattern ) • assertNotAllWindowIds ( pattern ) • verifyAllWindowIds ( pattern ) • verifyNotAllWindowIds ( pattern ) • waitForAllWindowIds ( pattern ) • waitForNotAllWindowIds ( pattern )

storeAllWindowNames ( variableName ) Returns the names of all windows that the browser knows about. Returns: the names of all windows that the browser knows about. Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAllWindowNames ( pattern ) • assertNotAllWindowNames ( pattern ) • verifyAllWindowNames ( pattern ) • verifyNotAllWindowNames ( pattern ) • waitForAllWindowNames ( pattern ) • waitForNotAllWindowNames ( pattern )

storeAllWindowTitles ( variableName ) Returns the titles of all windows that the browser knows about. Returns: the titles of all windows that the browser knows about. Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAllWindowTitles ( pattern ) • assertNotAllWindowTitles ( pattern ) • verifyAllWindowTitles ( pattern ) • verifyNotAllWindowTitles ( pattern ) • waitForAllWindowTitles ( pattern ) • waitForNotAllWindowTitles ( pattern )

storeAttribute ( attributeLocator, variableName ) Gets the value of an element attribute. Beware of http://jira.openqa.org/browse/SEL-280, which will lead some event handlers to get null event arguments. Read the bug for more details, including a workaround. Arguments: • attributeLocator - an element locator followed by an • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the value of the specified attribute Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAttribute ( attributeLocator, pattern ) • assertNotAttribute ( attributeLocator, pattern ) • verifyAttribute ( attributeLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotAttribute ( attributeLocator, pattern ) • waitForAttribute ( attributeLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotAttribute ( attributeLocator, pattern )

storeAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, variableName ) Returns every instance of some attribute from all known windows. Arguments: • attributeName - name of an attribute on the windows • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the set of values of this attribute from all known windows. Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, pattern ) • assertNotAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, pattern ) • verifyAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, pattern ) • verifyNotAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, pattern ) • waitForAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, pattern ) • waitForNotAttributeFromAllWindows ( attributeName, pattern )

storeBodyText ( variableName ) Gets the entire text of the page. Returns: the entire text of the page Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertBodyText ( pattern ) • assertNotBodyText ( pattern ) • verifyBodyText ( pattern ) • verifyNotBodyText ( pattern ) • waitForBodyText ( pattern ) • waitForNotBodyText ( pattern )

storeConfirmation ( variableName ) Retrieves the message of a JavaScript confirmation dialog generated during the previous action. By default, the confirm function will return true, having the same effect as manually clicking OK. This can be changed by prior execution of the chooseCancelOnNextConfirmation command. If an confirmation is generated but you do not get/verify it, the next Selenium action will fail. NOTE: under Selenium, JavaScript confirmations will NOT pop up a visible dialog. NOTE: Selenium does NOT support JavaScript confirmations that are generated in a page's onload() event handler. In this case a visible dialog WILL be generated and Selenium will hang until you manually click OK. Returns: the message of the most recent JavaScript confirmation dialog Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertConfirmation ( pattern ) • assertNotConfirmation ( pattern ) • verifyConfirmation ( pattern ) • verifyNotConfirmation ( pattern ) • waitForConfirmation ( pattern ) • waitForNotConfirmation ( pattern )

storeCookie ( variableName ) Return all cookies of the current page under test. Returns: all cookies of the current page under test Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertCookie ( pattern ) • assertNotCookie ( pattern ) • verifyCookie ( pattern ) • verifyNotCookie ( pattern ) • waitForCookie ( pattern ) • waitForNotCookie ( pattern )

storeCursorPosition ( locator, variableName ) Retrieves the text cursor position in the given input element or textarea; beware, this may not work perfectly on all browsers. Specifically, if the cursor/selection has been cleared by JavaScript, this command will tend to return the position of the last location of the cursor, even though the cursor is now gone from the page. This is filed as SEL-243. This method will fail if the specified element isn't an input element or textarea, or there is no cursor in the element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an input element or textarea • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the numerical position of the cursor in the field Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertCursorPosition ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotCursorPosition ( locator, pattern ) • verifyCursorPosition ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotCursorPosition ( locator, pattern ) • waitForCursorPosition ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotCursorPosition ( locator, pattern )

storeElementHeight ( locator, variableName ) Retrieves the height of an element Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an element • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: height of an element in pixels Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertElementHeight ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotElementHeight ( locator, pattern ) • verifyElementHeight ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotElementHeight ( locator, pattern ) • waitForElementHeight ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotElementHeight ( locator, pattern )

storeElementIndex ( locator, variableName ) Get the relative index of an element to its parent (starting from 0). The comment node and empty text node will be ignored. Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an element • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: of relative index of the element to its parent (starting from 0) Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertElementIndex ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotElementIndex ( locator, pattern ) • verifyElementIndex ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotElementIndex ( locator, pattern ) • waitForElementIndex ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotElementIndex ( locator, pattern )

storeElementPositionLeft ( locator, variableName ) Retrieves the horizontal position of an element Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an element OR an element itself • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: of pixels from the edge of the frame. Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertElementPositionLeft ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotElementPositionLeft ( locator, pattern ) • verifyElementPositionLeft ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotElementPositionLeft ( locator, pattern ) • waitForElementPositionLeft ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotElementPositionLeft ( locator, pattern )

storeElementPositionTop ( locator, variableName ) Retrieves the vertical position of an element Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an element OR an element itself • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: of pixels from the edge of the frame. Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertElementPositionTop ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotElementPositionTop ( locator, pattern ) • verifyElementPositionTop ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotElementPositionTop ( locator, pattern ) • waitForElementPositionTop ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotElementPositionTop ( locator, pattern )

storeElementWidth ( locator, variableName ) Retrieves the width of an element Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to an element • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: width of an element in pixels Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertElementWidth ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotElementWidth ( locator, pattern ) • verifyElementWidth ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotElementWidth ( locator, pattern ) • waitForElementWidth ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotElementWidth ( locator, pattern )

storeEval ( script, variableName ) Gets the result of evaluating the specified JavaScript snippet. The snippet may have multiple lines, but only the result of the last line will be returned. Note that, by default, the snippet will run in the context of the "selenium" object itself, so this will refer to the Selenium object, and window will refer to the top-level runner test window, not the window of your application. If you need a reference to the window of your application, you can refer to this.browserbot.getCurrentWindow() and if you need to use a locator to refer to a single element in your application page, you can use this.page().findElement("foo") where "foo" is your locator. Arguments: • script - the JavaScript snippet to run • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the results of evaluating the snippet Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertEval ( script, pattern ) • assertNotEval ( script, pattern ) • verifyEval ( script, pattern ) • verifyNotEval ( script, pattern ) • waitForEval ( script, pattern ) • waitForNotEval ( script, pattern )

storeExpression ( expression, variableName ) Returns the specified expression. This is useful because of JavaScript preprocessing. It is used to generate commands like assertExpression and waitForExpression. Arguments: • expression - the value to return • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the value passed in Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertExpression ( expression, pattern ) • assertNotExpression ( expression, pattern ) • verifyExpression ( expression, pattern ) • verifyNotExpression ( expression, pattern ) • waitForExpression ( expression, pattern ) • waitForNotExpression ( expression, pattern )

storeHtmlSource ( variableName ) Returns the entire HTML source between the opening and closing "html" tags. Returns: the entire HTML source Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertHtmlSource ( pattern ) • assertNotHtmlSource ( pattern ) • verifyHtmlSource ( pattern ) • verifyNotHtmlSource ( pattern ) • waitForHtmlSource ( pattern ) • waitForNotHtmlSource ( pattern )

storeLocation ( variableName ) Gets the absolute URL of the current page. Returns: the absolute URL of the current page Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertLocation ( pattern ) • assertNotLocation ( pattern ) • verifyLocation ( pattern ) • verifyNotLocation ( pattern ) • waitForLocation ( pattern ) • waitForNotLocation ( pattern )

storeLogMessages ( variableName ) Return the contents of the log. This is a placeholder intended to make the code generator make this API available to clients. The selenium server will intercept this call, however, and return its recordkeeping of log messages since the last call to this API. Thus this code in JavaScript will never be called. The reason I opted for a servercentric solution is to be able to support multiple frames served from different domains, which would break a centralized JavaScript logging mechanism under some conditions. Returns: all log messages seen since the last call to this API Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertLogMessages ( pattern ) • assertNotLogMessages ( pattern ) • verifyLogMessages ( pattern ) • verifyNotLogMessages ( pattern ) • waitForLogMessages ( pattern ) • waitForNotLogMessages ( pattern )

storePrompt ( variableName ) Retrieves the message of a JavaScript question prompt dialog generated during the previous action. Successful handling of the prompt requires prior execution of the answerOnNextPrompt command. If a prompt is generated but you do not get/verify it, the next Selenium action will fail. NOTE: under Selenium, JavaScript prompts will NOT pop up a visible dialog. NOTE: Selenium does NOT support JavaScript prompts that are generated in a page's onload() event handler. In this case a visible dialog WILL be generated and Selenium will hang until someone manually clicks OK. Returns: the message of the most recent JavaScript question prompt Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertPrompt ( pattern ) • assertNotPrompt ( pattern ) • verifyPrompt ( pattern ) • verifyNotPrompt ( pattern ) • waitForPrompt ( pattern ) • waitForNotPrompt ( pattern )

storeSelectedId ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets option element ID for selected option in the specified select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the selected option ID in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedId ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedId ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedId ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedId ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedId ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedId ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedIds ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets all option element IDs for selected options in the specified select or multi-select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: an array of all selected option IDs in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedIds ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedIds ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedIds ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedIds ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedIds ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedIds ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedIndex ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets option index (option number, starting at 0) for selected option in the specified select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the selected option index in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedIndex ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedIndex ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedIndex ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedIndex ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedIndex ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedIndex ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets all option indexes (option number, starting at 0) for selected options in the specified select or multi-select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: an array of all selected option indexes in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedIndexes ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedLabel ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets option label (visible text) for selected option in the specified select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the selected option label in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedLabel ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedLabel ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedLabel ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedLabel ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedLabel ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedLabel ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedLabels ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets all option labels (visible text) for selected options in the specified select or multi-select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: an array of all selected option labels in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedLabels ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedLabels ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedLabels ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedLabels ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedLabels ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedLabels ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedValue ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets option value (value attribute) for selected option in the specified select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the selected option value in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedValue ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedValue ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedValue ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedValue ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedValue ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedValue ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectedValues ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets all option values (value attributes) for selected options in the specified select or multi-select element. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: an array of all selected option values in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectedValues ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectedValues ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectedValues ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectedValues ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectedValues ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectedValues ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeSelectOptions ( selectLocator, variableName ) Gets all option labels in the specified select drop-down. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: an array of all option labels in the specified select drop-down Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSelectOptions ( selectLocator, pattern ) • assertNotSelectOptions ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifySelectOptions ( selectLocator, pattern ) • verifyNotSelectOptions ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForSelectOptions ( selectLocator, pattern ) • waitForNotSelectOptions ( selectLocator, pattern )

storeTable ( tableCellAddress, variableName ) Gets the text from a cell of a table. The cellAddress syntax tableLocator.row.column, where row and column start at 0. Arguments: • tableCellAddress - a cell address, e.g. "foo.1.4" • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the text from the specified cell Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertTable ( tableCellAddress, pattern ) • assertNotTable ( tableCellAddress, pattern ) • verifyTable ( tableCellAddress, pattern ) • verifyNotTable ( tableCellAddress, pattern ) • waitForTable ( tableCellAddress, pattern ) • waitForNotTable ( tableCellAddress, pattern )

storeText ( locator, variableName ) Gets the text of an element. This works for any element that contains text. This command uses either the textContent (Mozilla-like browsers) or the innerText (IE-like browsers) of the element, which is the rendered text shown to the user. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the text of the element Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertText ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotText ( locator, pattern ) • verifyText ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotText ( locator, pattern ) • waitForText ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotText ( locator, pattern )

storeTitle ( variableName ) Gets the title of the current page. Returns: the title of the current page Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertTitle ( pattern ) • assertNotTitle ( pattern ) • verifyTitle ( pattern ) • verifyNotTitle ( pattern ) • waitForTitle ( pattern ) • waitForNotTitle ( pattern )

storeValue ( locator, variableName ) Gets the (whitespace-trimmed) value of an input field (or anything else with a value parameter). For checkbox/radio elements, the value will be "on" or "off" depending on whether the element is checked or not. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: the element value, or "on/off" for checkbox/radio elements Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertValue ( locator, pattern ) • assertNotValue ( locator, pattern ) • verifyValue ( locator, pattern ) • verifyNotValue ( locator, pattern ) • waitForValue ( locator, pattern ) • waitForNotValue ( locator, pattern )

storeWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target, variableName ) Determine whether current/locator identify the frame containing this running code. This is useful in proxy injection mode, where this code runs in every browser frame and window, and sometimes the selenium server needs to identify the "current" frame. In this case, when the test calls selectFrame, this routine is called for each frame to figure out which one has been selected. The selected frame will return true, while all others will return false. Arguments: • currentFrameString - starting frame • target - new frame (which might be relative to the current one) • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if the new frame is this code's window Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target ) • assertNotWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target ) • verifyWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target ) • verifyNotWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target ) • waitForWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target ) • waitForNotWhetherThisFrameMatchFrameExpression ( currentFrameString, target )

storeAlertPresent ( variableName ) Has an alert occurred? This function never throws an exception Returns: true if there is an alert Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertAlertPresent ( ) • assertAlertNotPresent ( ) • verifyAlertPresent ( ) • verifyAlertNotPresent ( ) • waitForAlertPresent ( ) • waitForAlertNotPresent ( )

storeChecked ( locator, variableName ) Gets whether a toggle-button (checkbox/radio) is checked. Fails if the specified element doesn't exist or isn't a toggle-button. Arguments: • locator - an element locator pointing to a checkbox or radio button • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if the checkbox is checked, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertChecked ( locator ) • assertNotChecked ( locator ) • verifyChecked ( locator ) • verifyNotChecked ( locator ) • waitForChecked ( locator ) • waitForNotChecked ( locator )

storeConfirmationPresent ( variableName ) Has confirm() been called? This function never throws an exception Returns: true if there is a pending confirmation Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertConfirmationPresent ( ) • assertConfirmationNotPresent ( ) • verifyConfirmationPresent ( ) • verifyConfirmationNotPresent ( ) • waitForConfirmationPresent ( ) • waitForConfirmationNotPresent ( )

storeEditable ( locator, variableName ) Determines whether the specified input element is editable, ie hasn't been disabled. This method will fail if the specified element isn't an input element. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if the input element is editable, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertEditable ( locator ) • assertNotEditable ( locator ) • verifyEditable ( locator ) • verifyNotEditable ( locator ) • waitForEditable ( locator ) • waitForNotEditable ( locator )

storeElementPresent ( locator, variableName ) Verifies that the specified element is somewhere on the page. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if the element is present, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertElementPresent ( locator ) • assertElementNotPresent ( locator ) • verifyElementPresent ( locator ) • verifyElementNotPresent ( locator ) • waitForElementPresent ( locator ) • waitForElementNotPresent ( locator )

storeOrdered ( locator1, locator2, variableName ) Check if these two elements have same parent and are ordered. Two same elements will not be considered ordered. Arguments: • locator1 - an element locator pointing to the first element • locator2 - an element locator pointing to the second element • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if two elements are ordered and have same parent, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertOrdered ( locator1, locator2 ) • assertNotOrdered ( locator1, locator2 ) • verifyOrdered ( locator1, locator2 ) • verifyNotOrdered ( locator1, locator2 ) • waitForOrdered ( locator1, locator2 ) • waitForNotOrdered ( locator1, locator2 )

storePromptPresent ( variableName ) Has a prompt occurred? This function never throws an exception Returns: true if there is a pending prompt Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertPromptPresent ( ) • assertPromptNotPresent ( ) • verifyPromptPresent ( ) • verifyPromptNotPresent ( ) • waitForPromptPresent ( ) • waitForPromptNotPresent ( )

storeSomethingSelected ( selectLocator, variableName ) Determines whether some option in a drop-down menu is selected. Arguments: • selectLocator - an element locator identifying a drop-down menu • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if some option has been selected, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertSomethingSelected ( selectLocator ) • assertNotSomethingSelected ( selectLocator ) • verifySomethingSelected ( selectLocator ) • verifyNotSomethingSelected ( selectLocator ) • waitForSomethingSelected ( selectLocator ) • waitForNotSomethingSelected ( selectLocator )

storeTextPresent ( pattern, variableName ) Verifies that the specified text pattern appears somewhere on the rendered page shown to the user. Arguments: • pattern - a pattern to match with the text of the page • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if the pattern matches the text, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertTextPresent ( pattern ) • assertTextNotPresent ( pattern ) • verifyTextPresent ( pattern ) • verifyTextNotPresent ( pattern ) • waitForTextPresent ( pattern ) • waitForTextNotPresent ( pattern )

storeVisible ( locator, variableName ) Determines if the specified element is visible. An element can be rendered invisible by setting the CSS "visibility" property to "hidden", or the "display" property to "none", either for the element itself or one if its ancestors. This method will fail if the element is not present. Arguments: • locator - an element locator • variableName - the name of a variable in which the result is to be stored. Returns: true if the specified element is visible, false otherwise Related Assertions, automatically generated: • assertVisible ( locator ) • assertNotVisible ( locator ) • verifyVisible ( locator ) • verifyNotVisible ( locator ) • waitForVisible ( locator ) • waitForNotVisible ( locator )

Parameter construction and Variables

All Selenium command parameters can be constructed using both simple variable substitution as well as full javascript. Both of these mechanisms can access previously stored variables, but do so using different syntax.
Stored Variables
The commands store, storeValue and storeText can be used to store a variable value for later access. Internally, these variables are stored in a map called "storedVars", with values keyed by the variable name. These commands are documented in the command reference.
Variable substitution
Variable substitution provides a simple way to include a previously stored variable in a command parameter. This is a simple mechanism, by which the variable to substitute is indicated by ${variableName}. Multiple variables can be substituted, and intermixed with static text.
Example:
|store |Mr |title |
|storeValue |nameField |surname |
|store |${title} ${surname} |fullname |
|type |textElement |Full name is: ${fullname} |

Javascript evaluation
Javascript evaluation provides the full power of javascript in constructing a command parameter. To use this mechanism, the entire parameter value must be prefixed by 'javascript{' with a trailing '}'. The text inside the braces is evaluated as a javascript expression, and can access previously stored variables using the storedVars map detailed above. Note that variable substitution cannot be combined with javascript evaluation.
Example:
|store |javascript{'merchant' + (new |merchantId |
| |Date()).getTime()} | |
|type |textElement |javascript{storedVars['merchantId'].toUpperCase()} |

Extending Selenium

It can be quite simple to extend Selenium, adding your own actions, assertions and locator-strategies. This is done with javascript by adding methods to the Selenium object prototype, and the PageBot object prototype. On startup, Selenium will automatically look through methods on these prototypes, using name patterns to recognise which ones are actions, assertions and locators.
The following examples try to give an indication of how Selenium can be extended with javascript.
Actions
All doFoo methods on the Selenium prototype are added as actions. For each action foo there is also an action fooAndWait registered. An action method can take up to 2 parameters, which will be passed the second and third column values in the test.
Example: Add a "typeRepeated" action to Selenium, which types the text twice into a text box. Selenium.prototype.doTypeRepeated = function(locator, text) { // All locator-strategies are automatically handled by "findElement" var element = this.page().findElement(locator);

// Create the text to type var valueToType = text + text;

// Replace the element text with the new text this.page().replaceText(element, valueToType); };

Accessors/Assertions
All getFoo and isFoo methods on the Selenium prototype are added as accessors (storeFoo). For each accessor there is an assertFoo, verifyFoo and waitForFoo registered. An assert method can take up to 2 parameters, which will be passed the second and third column values in the test. You can also define your own assertions literally as simple "assert" methods, which will also auto-generate "verify" and "waitFor" commands.
Example: Add a valueRepeated assertion, that makes sure that the element value consists of the supplied text repeated. The 2 commands that would be available in tests would be assertValueRepeated and verifyValueRepeated. Selenium.prototype.assertValueRepeated = function(locator, text) { // All locator-strategies are automatically handled by "findElement" var element = this.page().findElement(locator);

// Create the text to verify var expectedValue = text + text;

// Get the actual element value var actualValue = element.value;

// Make sure the actual value matches the expected Assert.matches(expectedValue, actualValue); };

Automatic availability of storeFoo, assertFoo, assertNotFoo, waitForFoo and waitForNotFoo for every getFoo
All getFoo and isFoo methods on the Selenium prototype automatically result in the availability of storeFoo, assertFoo, assertNotFoo, verifyFoo, verifyNotFoo, waitForFoo, and waitForNotFoo commands.
Example, if you add a getTextLength() method, the following commands will automatically be available: storeTextLength, assertTextLength, assertNotTextLength, verifyTextLength, verifyNotTextLength, waitForTextLength, and waitForNotTextLength commands. Selenium.prototype.getTextLength = function(locator, text) { return this.getText(locator).length; };

Also note that the assertValueRepeated method described above could have been implemented using isValueRepeated, with the added benefit of also automatically getting assertNotValueRepeated, storeValueRepeated, waitForValueRepeated and waitForNotValueRepeated.
Locator Strategies
All locateElementByFoo methods on the PageBot prototype are added as locator-strategies. A locator strategy takes 2 parameters, the first being the locator string (minus the prefix), and the second being the document in which to search.
Example: Add a "valuerepeated=" locator, that finds the first element a value attribute equal to the the supplied value repeated. // The "inDocument" is a the document you are searching. PageBot.prototype.locateElementByValueRepeated = function(text, inDocument) { // Create the text to search for var expectedValue = text + text;

// Loop through all elements, looking for ones that have // a value === our expected value var allElements = inDocument.getElementsByTagName("*"); for (var i = 0; i < allElements.length; i++) { var testElement = allElements[i]; if (testElement.value && testElement.value === expectedValue) { return testElement; } } return null; };

user-extensions.js
By default, Selenium looks for a file called "user-extensions.js", and loads the javascript code found in that file. This file provides a convenient location for adding features to Selenium, without needing to modify the core Selenium sources.
In the standard distibution, this file does not exist. Users can create this file and place their extension code in this common location, removing the need to modify the Selenium sources, and hopefully assisting with the upgrade process.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Selenium in Egg

...What Is Selenium? Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that is required by the human body and is of fundamental importance in ensuring good health. Selenium was discovered in 1817 by Jons Berzelius and takes its name from the Greek word Selene (the goddess of the moon). Until recently, selenium was a little-known trace mineral. International research on Selenium has established that it is an essential component of the human diet in the sustaining of good health and general well-being because of its protective and preservative characteristics. It has also been found that selenium deficiency may lead to increased susceptibility to disease and ill health. Organic And Inorganic Selenium Explained Selenium exists in two chemical forms in nature, Organic Selenium and Inorganic Selenium. Inorganic Selenium can be found in different minerals in the form of selenite, selenate and selenide as well as in metallic form. In contrast, in vegetable feed Organic Selenium is an integral part of amino acids. Therefore, in nature animals receive selenium mainly in the organic form. Research had shown that Organic Selenium is far more beneficial for us as our body absorbs and retain Organic Selenium at a better rate. Organic Selenium vs Inorganic Selenium Organic Selenium Inorganic Selenium • Exists in the form of seleno-amino acids, i.e. selenomethionine. • Exists in the form of mineral salt. • Is actively absorbed by amino acid routes. • Is passively absorbed from the small......

Words: 1706 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Software Quality Assurance

...  Table of Content 1. Introduction………………………………………………………..…..1-2 1.1 Software Quality…………………………………………..……..2 1.2 Software Quality Assurance……………………………..……….2 1.3 Software Testing………………………………………..………2-3 2. Software Quality Assurance Tools………………………………..…….3-7 3. Selected QA Tools…………………………………………………………8 3.1 Selenium IDE…………………………………………………..9-14 3.2 FabaSoft………………………………………………………15-19 4. Future and Conclusion……………………………………………………20   1. Introduction Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Tools play a major role in common software user community and in the field of software development. SQA tools are the specially developed software tools for the purpose of assisting in the QA processes. 1.1 Software Quality The quality of software is assessed by a number of variables. These variables can be divided into external and internal quality criteria. External quality is what the user experiences when running the software in its operational mode. Internal quality refers to the aspects that are code-dependent, and are not visible to the end-user. External quality is critical to the user, while internal quality is meaningful to the developer only. When the quality comes to software quality conformance, requirement consider as software functional quality and fitness for use named as software structural quality. 1.2 Software Quality Assurance Software quality assurance (SQA) consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering process and methods used to......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Wal-Mart

...many benefits of taking dietary supplements. There are supplements that are purported to promote health and prevent disease of the cardiovascular system, vitamin E is an extremely important antioxidant that is important in maintaining healthy blood vessels, also producing and maintains strong bones is very important for our health, including mobility and blood cell production, therefore, several essential nutritional supplements may promote bone growth or reduce the risk of osteoporosis, such as calcium, vitamin D and magnesium. Adults should take 1,000 to 1,200 calcium, 600 to 800 iu of vitamin D and 300 to 400 magnesium per day. Vitamin B6 and selenium or two potential supplements that may help us maintain a healthy immune system. Adults should get about 55 micrograms of selenium 1.5 mg of B6 per day. Omega-3 fatty acid, lycopme, selenium and vitamin D maybe protective benefits against some forms of cancer. http://livestrong.com/article/362747-the-t The FDAC ( food and drug administration ) published a rule that prohibits the use in human food, including dietary supplements, because cattle materials that have the highest risk of harboring ( bonnie spongiform encephalopathy) BSE infectivity. It is a rule that applies to both domestic and imported dietary supplements and their ingredients, because most ingredients that is used to produce dietary supplement come from cattle that have been slaughtered, when they were less than 30 months old, and because of their age, present......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ecosystem Function

...biggest cycle that has been affected by humans is the biogeochemical cycling of selenium. Since California is the leading agricultural state in the United States most of the farming is done in the Central Valley and this requires an extensive amount of irrigation to keep up with the production of food. Unfortunately with all this irrigation it created soil salinization problems (Presser, T.S. & Ohlendorf, H.M., 1987). There has been solutions to save the threatened agricultural lands for the salinization however this then caused problems for the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge. In 1985 the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was closed due to selenium poisoning in the water fowl, fish, and mammals. There was also high concentrations of boron, chromium, and molybdenum which disrupted the natural ionic balance of the aquatic system. Farms around the refuge were the ones to blame for the contamination because they were discharging their waste water in the wetlands cannels. In 1996 a proposal was made to reopen the San Luis Drain, so that farmers could dispose of their waste water with the drain instead of releasing the waste water into the Mud Slough. The Mud Slough was also extended in the refuge to help fix the toxic levels, and restore the refuge back to normal. Since the Drain was reopened for the farmers and no longer was waste water being drained into the wetlands through the Mud Sloughs the selenium levels have dropped. To this day samples are taken every year to......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Manager

...Manual testing and Automated testing Using tools Selenium - Java. ✓ Experience in Functional & GUI testing in CRM and ERP domain. ✓ Experience in Database Testing (MySql). ✓ Successfully Participated in 32 hrs training on automation tools such as Mercury Interactive Quick Test Pro 9.2, Test Director (QC). ✓ Solid communicator with exceptional team-building skills. ✓ Strong problem-solver, design solutions and assist developers with issues. Employment History: • Over all experience more than six years along with project management. • Working as Sr. Test Lead in HCL Technologies Limited, Bangalore since Sep. 2011 to till date. • Working as Sr. QA Engineer in BKA Software Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore since Oct. 2006 to Sep. 2011. • Worked as an Asst. Engineer (QA) in Ramesh Bros. Engg. Corpn., Kolkata from Sep. 2003 to Sep. 2006 Education: • Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical) from V. T. U., Karnataka in 2003 with first class • Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from P. E. S. Polytechnic in 1999 with first class Acheivement: LiveWire Certification of Excellence (Automated Twitter using Selenium and Java) Technical Skills: Operating System : Windows-XP, Unix/Linux, Win-2003, MS-DOS Package : Ms-Office 2000. RDBMS : MySql 5.0, Ms-Access. Tools : Eclipse, CVS, SVN Web Technology : Front Page, Html, XML Language : Knowledge of Core Java and C Testing Tools : Selenium, QTP 9.2, Junit Bug Tracking Tools :......

Words: 1430 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mountaintop Removal and Its Effects on the Ecosystem

...builds up over time causing the oxygen levels to change (S. Burns, 05). Over time this makes it imposable for the stream to sustain life for fish and other types of organisms. This disrupts the biodiversity that needs the river system to survive. Excess sediment is not the only issue but also the toxins, like selenium, that is released into the water from the coal. Selenium is a natural element in coal so when the coal is extracted the selenium is released into the ground water. Once in the water this, like the salamander, can cause genetic mutations in the fish and other aquatic life that alters their life span, reproductive systems, and physical traits. This in turn would cause the stream population to drop making it harder for other animals that eat the fish and aquatic life to survive (A. Lemly 09). References Burns, Shirley (2005). Bring Down the Mountains: The Impact of Mountaintop Removal Surface Coal Mining on Southern West Virginia Communities, 1970-2004. Retrieved from http://wvuscholar.wvu.edu:8881//exlibris/dtl/d3_1/apache_media/L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS8yMDY4NQ==.pdf Lemly, A. (April 2009). Aquatic Hazard of Selenium Pollution From Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining, Retrieved from http://www.filonverde.org/images/informe_selenio_en_minas_a_cielo_abierto.pdf Williams, Jennifer (2003). Impacts on Terrestrial and Streamside Herpetofauna by Mountaintop Removal Mining in Sothern West Virginia, Retrieved from http://wvuscholar.wvu.edu:88...

Words: 373 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Banana as a Natural Remedy

...the help of this vitamin. POTASSIUM: This is the food for the muscles, nerves, brain and source of intelligence. ALUMINIUM: It protects the glands. SODIUM CHLORIDE: It protects the body and gives the required strength in time of hard period. NATURAL SALT: Any form of salt except natural or fruit salt is dangerous to health because, Salt promotes diabetes and hypertension. Natural salt aids digestion, formation and cleaning of blood, muscles and bones. CALCIUM & MAGNESSIUM: Calcium protects the bones, teeth nerves and muscles while magnesium promotes growth and normal respiration. Calcium and magnesium known as dolomite enable the heart to function properly. PHOSPHORUS: it helps in the formation of the bones. SELENIUM: it prevents cancer. Selenium and Vitamins E combined have proven to neutralize cancer- causing free radical cells. Banana also contains some medicinal properties for the treatment of ulcer, constipation, diarrhea and other diseases of the stomach and intestine. Banana can lower high blood pressure. Make sure you add one to two fingers of banana to your meals every day, to avert some of the avoidable diseases. Expect more in our next edition! SHEPHERDESS AGBABIAKA, A.O Culled from “The Nature,” volume 8...

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Week 5 Homework

...having nine hundred micrograms of Vitamin A and with the help of carrots, broccoli, and most fruits I can increase my micrograms. When looking at the RDA for Vitamin E fifteen milligrams is the standard and I was well under that number. Leafy green vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage, or broccoli are all great sources of Vitamin E that I can easily incorporate in to my diet to increase my milligrams. Fit day pointed out my deficiencies as well as my abundances in week one. My selenium levels compared to RDA were considered high almost every day during week one. Not really knowing what selenium was I researched it and found that it is required for thyroid gland to function proper and that it also helps to protect my body from cancers. Taking in too much selenium can cause bad breath, diarrhea, and hair loss. Chicken, turkey, whole grains and Brazil nuts (which happen to be one of my favorite snacks) are good sources of selenium. After reading all of this and having a better understanding of what selenium really is I understood why I had such high statistics compared to the RDA standard. I consume a lot of chicken, brown rice, and fish during my every day diet. My sodium intake each day is more than twice the amount I should be consuming. Going by the RDA standards I should be consuming fifteen hundred milligrams each day and I took in at least four thousand milligrams per day during week one which put me in the seventy sixth percentile compared to RDA. My carbohydrate intake......

Words: 1503 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Biology 1322

... lutein, and zeaxnthin are carotenoids known to have and antioxidant functions. Green leafy vegetables, peas, broccoli, brussels sprouts, and zucchini are rich in these antioxidants. 10.6 Other Phytochemicals Functional foods- Foods that have health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Zoochemicals- Chemicals found in animal products that have health-protective actions. Selenium acts as an aid to the body’s natural antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase. This chemically converts potential damaging peroxides into water. Selenium spares vitamin E while indirectly helping maintain cell-membrane integrity. Selenium deficiency has the capabilities of impairing thyroid function and the ability to metabolize peroxides; which can stunt growth. Gene expression- A process of which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of functional gene product. Fish, meat, shellfish, eggs, brazil nuts and grains are good sources selenium. Garlic odor of the breath, gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, sloughing of the nails, fatigue, irritability and neurological damage are signs of selenium toxicity. Chapter 11 (11.1) Bone Physiology Periosteum- A membrane of fibrous outer layer and a cellular inner layer. Three functions; the isolation of bone from surrounding tissues, provides route for circulatory/nervous supply, while actively participating in bone growth and repair. Cortical bone- The compact/dense bone found on the outer surfaces of......

Words: 2007 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Tester

...RAJANI BHASHKAR E-mail:rajanibaranwal2000@gmail.com Mobile: +91 7507578738 Objective Seeking challenging opportunity as a software test engineer with strong academic background, excellent communication, knowledge of software testing principals and automation tools like Quick Test Professional (QTP) and Selenium having certification from SEED Infotech. Summary Highly motivated and enthusiastic aspiring software tester with good knowledge in C and Java technologies. Excellent communication skills. Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical and creative skills. Selective Accomplishments * B.Tech. (Computer Science) from Karnataka University with first class. * Secured grade A+ in ‘Diploma in Software Testing’ through SEED infotech. Technical Skills Programming Languages | C, Java, SQL | Technologies | Web applications | Tools | Bugzilla, QuickTestPro (QTP)9.0, Selenium, Test Link, Quality Center | Technical Experience Internship Project Project Title | Orange HRM(New Level of HR Management) | Client | Seed Infotech | Duration | 20th April,2015 to 27th April,2015 | Technologies | Visual Basic, C, SQL Server | Roles and Responsibilities | * Writing test cases for time module * Test execution of test cases of leave module * Defect reporting | Technologies | Java | Project Title | Orange HRM and Flights | | * Prerequisites of automation * Easy record and playback * Use of......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Comparision of Tools

...MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT III SOFTWARE TESTING TOOL COMPARISION QTP, SELENIUM AND TESTINGWHIZ BY, S.Shahida Banu. 120071601087. COMPARING QTP, SELENIUM AND TESTINGWHIZ INTRODUCTION: When it comes to test automation tools for web application testing it is hard to choose between the available options in the market and the right alternative that offers best of the latest technologies from the market place at the right budget. Open source tools provide the benefit of low initial investment but, they’re not always the best alternative in the long run due to lack of official support & training. Commercial tools on the other hand are highly expensive to implement resulting in higher cost of failure should the right tool not be selected.  Automation is a continuous process and it’s very important to have the basics right:- * Setting up the test environment  * Screening the available tool options  * Creating a Proof of Concept with a few sample test scenarios for the application  * Preparing (automation) frameworks  * Building libraries of functions & methods  * Defining configuration parameters To help test managers and automation engineers choose the right alternative, we have prepared a comparison matrix between the three closest contenders that are highly rated by Test Managers and Automation Engineers alike. Here is a comparison between HP QTP with Selenium and TestingWhiz. QTP vs SELENIUM vs TESTINGWHIZ: Testing automation tools enable......

Words: 1194 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Selenium

...Selenium Web Driver Code 1. geTitle, getCurrentUrl, getPageSource //created object driver WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver(); //open google web site driver.get("http://www.google.com"); //get title of the page System.out.println(driver.getTitle()); //get current URL System.out.println(driver.getCurrentUrl()); //get the source of the page System.out.println(driver.getPageSource()); //close the browser driver.close(); 2. Locator Techniques Xpath Id - Classname- name - linktext - tagname- WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); //go to facebook website driver.get("http://www.facebook.com"); //find the element email driver.findElement(By.xpath(".//*[@id='email']")).sendKeys("Archana"); driver.findElement(By.xpath(".//*[@id='pass']")).sendKeys("Password"); driver.findElement(By.xpath(".//*[@id='u_0_o']")).click(); driver.findElement(By.linkText("Forgot your password?")).click(); driver.findElement(By.id("identify_email")).sendKeys("Canvas"); driver.findElement(By.name("did_submit")).click(); driver.findElement(By.className("uiButton")).click(); //get tag that starts with a and count List<WebElement> Var = driver.findElements(By.tagName("a")); System.out.println(Var.size()); //navigate to google driver.navigate().to("http://www.google.com"); WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); driver.get("http://www.yahoo.com"); WebElement box =......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Chemistry

...that you are an environmental scientist. Working in collaboration with a university chemist, you were able to determine from mass spectrometry that four elements exist in your soil samples. They are Se, Sn, Pb, and Cd. You need to determine which elements will most likely combine with oxygen to produce oxides that are present in your sample. To do so, refer to the periodic table to determine the electron configuration and ionization energy of each element. This will show the number of valence electrons for each element. • What are the electron configurations for Se, Sn, Pb, and Cd? Selenium=[Ar]3d 10 4s2 4p4, Tin=[Kr]4d10 5s2 5p2, Lead=[Xe]4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, Cadmium=[Kr]4d10 5s2 • What are the valence electrons for Se, Sn, Pb, and Cd? Selenium=Valence 6, Tin=Valence 4, Lead=Valence 4, Cadmium=Valence 2 • Rank the elements in increasing ionization energy. Selenium=941.2045, 2973.7, 4144, 6590, 7880, 14990 kj/mol. Cadmium=867.8, 1631.4, 3616 kj/mol, Lead=715.6, 1450.5, 3081.5, 4083, 6640 kj/mol. Tin=708.6, 1411.8, 2943, 3930.3, 7456 kj/mol • Which element will form oxides? Lead. 2. Imagine that, as an employee of a pharmaceutical company, you are working on an H-K-ATPase. It is the enzyme that pumps acid into the stomach to help in digestion. You are trying to determine whether a compound will fit inside the pocket of this enzyme in order to inhibit the enzyme. To do so, you must know the molecular shape of the compound. Draw the......

Words: 512 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Fda Proposals

...  The proposal will allow the FDA to collect information from a study about the relationship between selenium and the risk of various cancers. The proposal will also dig deeper into scientific evidence of whether health claims are ‘complete, truthful and not misleading’. The proposal will enforce companies to enable the public to comprehend the information provided and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet. 3. Write the public comment which you would submit to this proposal. If the proposed regulation deadline has already passed, write the comment you would have submitted. Explain briefly what you wish to accomplish with your comment. (10 points) My comment is that I encourage this new scientific study to be done so that the public is not misled on whether or not Selenium (trace mineral that is essential to good health but required only in small amounts) is beneficial to the body or not. There have been several claims that conclude that the mineral reduces the risk of certain cancers, but the FDA has ruled that these claims are very limited and not conclusive. For this reason, more research should be conducted. This new proposal will lead to the truth behind the alleged claims. I wish to have them carry-out this new proposal so that consumers are not misinformed, or misled by the current perception of Selenium. 4. The submission of comments either written or electronic must be done by March 27,......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Volvariella Volvacea Production

...Size of Production 300 square meters 2. Marketing Size 2-3 inches 3. Raising Period 5 months 4. Projected Selling Price 60.00php per kilogram 5. Projected Gross Revenue 54 000.00 php 6. Estimated Cost of Production 19 865.00 php 7. Projected Net Income 34 135.00 php 8. Projected Return of Investment 172% 9. Projected Benefit Cost Ratio 37% JUSTIFICATION Mushroom has started to gain popularity these past few years. Often grouped with vegetables, mushrooms provide many of the nutritional attributes more commonly found in meat, beans or grains. Mushrooms are low in calories, fat-free, cholesterol-free and very low in sodium, yet they provide several nutrients, including riboflavin, niacin and selenium, which are typically found in animal foods or grains. Unfortunately, mushroom is not quite available to most places. An example of this is Mintal area, where consumers would have to go to Bankerohan in order to buy fresh mushroom. Thus, the need of supply has grown over the years. Especially when people has started to learn just how nutritious mushroom could get. It would be highly beneficial to consumers that they have access to fresh mushroom. Mushrooms provide our bodies with the nutrients, proteins, minerals, and vitamins it needs to generate energy and repair cells. They are one of the most remarkable elements for a healthy immune system. They have been used to cure or improve eyesight, hearing, circulation, impotency, stop......

Words: 2226 - Pages: 9