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Samuel Johnos

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UNIVERSITATEA „DANUBIUS“ DIN GALAŢI
DEPARTAMENTUL DE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT LA
DISTANŢĂ ŞI FRECVENŢĂ REDUSĂ
FACULTATEA DE DREPT

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
Anul II, Semestrul al II-lea

ALINA CHEŞCĂ

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CUPRINS
1. LAW REFORM IN THE E. U.
Law Reform in E.U.
The Environment in Europe
Specific objectives
Summary
Self-evaluation tests
Bibliography

2. ENTERTAINMENT AND MASS MEDIA
Entertainment and Mass-Media
Mass-Media and Culture
Specific objectives
Summary
Self-evaluation tests
Bibliography

3. THE ECONOMY IN THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
The Economy in the European countries
The Third World
Specific objectives
Summary
Self-evaluation tests
Bibliography

4. THE RIGHT VERBAL FORM
The Right Verbal Form
Phrasal Verbs
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Summary
Self-evaluation tests
Bibliography

Bibliografie (de elaborare a cursului)

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INTRODUCERE
This English course designed for the 1st year students - Distance learning department – aims at creating the competences of communication in English.
Every chapter contains a number of lessons which ensure a progressive and structured learning. The learning activities are meant to back up the new knowledge and create the competences to be acquired by the students. The assessment tests used at the end of each lesson, the summary and the conclusions also contribute to backing up the knowledge and competences taken into consideration. After you have studied all the information and solved the exercises, you will acquire the following competences:


understanding both the spoken and written
English;












recognizing structure signals (verb tenses, personal pronouns, singular/plural markers); identifying sentences; making up sentences, transformations, expansions, reductions; comprehending and producing a discourse involving several speakers; talking about a certain topic; summarizing what is spoken or written; reading sentences and paragraphs; doing an intensive reading (scanning and skimming); doing an extensive reading (for specific information); writing texts that demonstrate grammatical. lexical and semantic appropriateness. After every chapter you will find assessment tests with clear requirements; thus you will achieve the objectives considered. If you cannot solve the first task very well, you will read the lesson again and after that you will be able to easily find the right answers.

The course is divided into four chapters:
The former part of the first chapter, Law Reform in E.U, approaches several aspects of this issue, such as: Criminal Law Reform Division and Civil
Law Reform. Law reform is one of the main functions of the Department.
The Criminal Law Reform and Human Rights Division and the Civil Law
Reform Division have responsibility for the implementation of the
Department’s legislative programme, which is designed to give effect to the Government’s legislation programme.
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The latter part, The Environment in Europe, approaches issues such as:
Climate and water, Greenhouse gases, Organic farming. You will also be requested to translate texts, thus learning new words and using them in sentences and texts of your own.

The second chapter, Entertainment and Mass-Media, will approach issues such as: Entertainment and mass-media; Culture, mass media and elites; The dominant social paradigm and culture; The role of mass media today; Goals and control mechanisms; Media and culture in a democratic society; Culture and a democratic conception of citizenship. Just like in the first chapter, you will also read and translate texts, thus learning new words and using them in sentences and texts of your own.

The former part of the third chapter, The Economy in the European countries, approaches issues such as: Foreign markets, Fairs, exhibitions and trade shows,
Distribution, wholesale and retail, Service marketing, Advertising, Global versus local, Legal aspects of export-import, Risk coverage. The latter part,
The Third World, approaches issues like: A new Europe and the third world;
Europe, a single market; A new Europe and the third world and Technology.
Moreover, you will read and translate texts, thus learning more new words and using them in sentences and texts of your own; you will also have debates on such issues.

The fourth chapter, The Right Verbal Form, points out the rules of the sequence of tenses, offering exercises that highlight all the problems that could come up, thus allowing the students to make a comparison between English and Romanian. The latter part, The Phrasal Verbs, approaches the
Verb+Adverbial Particle Combination. You will be given examples of verbs combined with adverbial particles and analyse how the meaning of these verbs change with every combination. Moreover, you will make sentences of your own using various phrasal verbs. Limba engleză

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1. LAW REFORM IN THE E. U.
1.1. Law Reform in E.U.
1.2. The Environment in Europe
Specific objectives
Summary
Self-evaluation tests
Bibliography
Specific objectives:
At the end of the chapter you will be able to:
 discuss and make debates about the Law Reform and its main important aspects: Criminal Law Reform and Civil Law Reform
 explain its responsibility for the implementation of the Department’s legislative programme;
 discuss and make debates about The Environment in Europe and all the aspects regarding the ecological problems;
 use all the new terms in translations and texts of your own.
Estimated time for individual study: 3 hours

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Alina Cheşcă

1.1.

Ways of expressing futurity

LAW REFORM

Law reform is one of the main functions of the Department. The Criminal Law Reform and Human
Rights Division and the Civil Law Reform Division have responsibility for the implementation of the
Department’s legislative programme, which is designed to give effect to the Government’s legislation programme. For a better understanding of grammar and for vocabulary practice
 Read the following text.
 Try to translate it without using a dictionary, then look for the unknown words and write them down. Try to use each of the new words in a sentence.

Criminal Law Reform Division
We are responsible for advising the Minister and the Government in the development of policy on criminal law reform needed to meet political commitments or fulfill domestic or international legal obligations falling within the Minister’s remit, as well as drawing up any subsequent legislative proposals for approval by Government. This involves keeping the criminal law under review so as to identify potential reforms for consideration by
Government. As part of this process, we engage in and promote research and assess reports or submissions from advisory or research bodies, notably from the Law Reform Commission and consult with relevant interests. It also involves us in close co-operation with relevant departments in relation to policy development, and the implementation and monitoring of legislation and international instruments.

Activity 1
Translate the following text into English:
Civil Law Reform
The Civil Law Reform Division has the function of preparing laws relating to civil (.i.e. non-criminal) law that does not come within the functional remit of any other specific department, as well as servicing the legislative needs of other divisions within the Department. We keep areas of the civil law under review so as to identify the potential for reform. In addition, staff of the division participate in international meetings at the European Union, Council of Europe and United Nations in relation to
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Alina Cheşcă

Ways of expressing futurity civil law matters dealing with the drawing up of agreements, treaties and other international instruments on matters of mutual interest. The European
Judicial Network in civil and commercial matters provides user-friendly access to information concerning some EU civil law instruments. We are also responsible for the preparation of legislation to give effect in the state to those instruments.
The website of the Hague Conference on Private International Law contains details of international conventions on various matters, including the 1980 Convention on Civil
Aspects of International Child Abduction, the 2005 Choice of Court Convention and a draft Convention on Maintenance Obligations.
The division also has responsibility for the liaison and mutual co-operation with other countries in regard to international child abduction and maintenance recovery.

1.2.

THE ENVIRONMENT IN EUROPE

Climate and water

As floods devastated central Europe and Asia this summer, climate scientists found themselves in great demand from journalists struggling to explain the connections between recent catastrophic weather and expected long-term changes in climate.
The problem for climate scientists lies in determining whether recent events fall outside natural variability: a single summer of excessive rainfall could be just the 100-year or even
1000-year flood. But it is clear that water and climate are — and always have been — intricately linked. Changes in climate are likely to bring changes to the hydrological cycle — the most important feedback cycle in the Earth's climate system.
The oceans play the central role in this feedback loop via heat storage and transport around the globe. Atmospheric water vapour produces rainfall, and acts as the most important greenhouse gas. But through the formation of clouds, water vapour also leads to the reflection of sunlight back into space. And over geological time-scales, the waxing and waning of ice sheets changes the reflection of the sun's light back into space, and largely determines the sea level. Limba engleză

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Alina Cheşcă

Ways of expressing futurity

This web focus encompasses a specially commissioned Insight on Climate and Water, together with a selection of recent articles handpicked from the pages of Nature, all of which illuminate the connections between climate and water in ice, oceans and atmosphere.
The exploitation of fossil fuels to satisfy the majority of our energy needs impacts on the environment, economics, and politics — and drives continued and often heated public debate.
Here Nature presents a web focus on some of the many implications of hydrocarbon fuel usage. This includes collections of reviews, features and original research on the economic, social and environmental impact of fossil fuels, the science of fuel formation and extraction, and future energy resources.

Activity 2
Read and translate the following article:
Greenhouse gases over eight glacial cycles
Ice cores are invaluable archives of past environmental conditions on
Earth. In 1996, the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica
(EPICA) set out to provide the longest ice-core climate record yet, by drilling a core from 3,270 m thick ice at a site known as Dome C in
East Antarctica. The team's findings to date, including a complete
Antarctic climate record over the past 800,000 years and atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide records from 650,000 years ago to the present, have significantly advanced our understanding of the Earth's climate over the past eight glacial cycles. Here Nature presents the latest results, the complete records of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide over the past 800,000 years, along with some of the previous Dome C ice-core papers and a collection of related articles.

Activity 3
Read and translate the following article:

Organic farming
Is organic the future of farming? In its pure form, maybe not. But elements of the organic philosophy are starting to be deployed in mainstream agriculture. Here, Nature analyses this trend, assesses the
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Alina Cheşcă

Ways of expressing futurity

extent of organic farming, and frames the questions on which its wider adoption will depend

Summary
The former part of the first chapter, Law Reform in U.E., has approached several aspects of this issue, such as: Criminal Law Reform Division and
Civil Law Reform. The text has advanced the idea that Law reform is one of the main functions of the Department. The Criminal Law Reform and
Human Rights Division and the Civil Law Reform Division have responsibility for the implementation of the Department’s legislative programme, which is designed to give effect to the Government’s legislation programme.
The latter part, The Environment in Europe, has approached issues such as:
Climate and water, Greenhouse gases, Organic farming. You have also been requested to translate texts, thus learning new words and using them in sentences and texts of your own.

Self-evaluation tests
Read and translate the folowing text:
Exclusive: Bees facing a poisoned spring
New kind of pesticide, widely used in UK, may be helping to kill off the world's honeybees
By Michael McCarthy, Environment Editor
Thursday, 20 January 2011
A bee collecting pollen hovers above a golden rape bloom

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Alina Cheşcă

Ways of expressing futurity

A new generation of pesticides is making honeybees far more susceptible to disease, even at tiny doses, and may be a clue to the mysterious colony collapse disorder that has devastated bees across the world, the US government's leading bee researcher has found. Yet the discovery has remained unpublished for nearly two years since it was made by the US
Department of Agriculture's Bee Research Laboratory.
The release of such a finding from the American government's own bee lab would put a major question mark over the use of neonicotinoid insecticides – relatively new compounds which mimic the insect-killing properties of nicotine, and which are increasingly used on crops in the US, Britain and around the world.
Bayer, the German chemicals giant which developed the insecticides and makes most of them, insists that they are safe for bees if used properly, but they have already been widely linked to bee mortality. The US findings raise questions about the substance used in the bee lab's experiment, imidacloprid, which was Bayer's top-selling insecticide in 2009, earning the company £510m. The worry is that neonicotinoids, which are neurotoxins – that is, they attack the central nervous system – are also "systemic", meaning they are taken up into every part of the plant which is treated with them, including the pollen and nectar. This means that bees and other pollinating insects can absorb them and carry them back to their hives or nests
– even if they are not the insecticide's target species.

Bibliography:
Brookes, Michael; Horner, E. (2002) Business English. Engleza pentru afaceri. Bucureşti: Ed. Teora.
Brookes, Michael (2003). Engleza pentru jurişti. Bucureşti: Ed. Teora.
Chirălescu, M.; Paidos C. (2005). Proficiency in English. Institutul European.
Cook, J.; Gethin, A. (1995). A New Way to Proficiency in English. Oxford.
Dayan, A.; Lindsay, W.H. (2000). Engleza pentru marketing si publicitate.
Bucureşti: Teora.
Delgiudice, Luminita (1999). Fifty Useful Tests in English. Bucureşti: Ed.
Aramis.
Demazet, Bertrand (1999). Engleza comertului exterior. Bucureşti: Teora.
Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, G. (2000). Limba engleză în conversatie. Bucureşti: Ed.
Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică.
Gheorghitoiu, Andreea (1998). Dictionar englez-roman de verbe cu particula adverbiala. Bucureşti: Teora.
Hanga, Vladimir (2003). Dictionar juridic englez-roman. Bucureşti: Lumina
Lex.
Health, R.B. (2002). Impact Assignments in English. London: Longman.
Hulban H. (1997). English for You. Iaşi: Ed. Răzeşu.
Le Divenach, Eloi (2005). Engleza in presa. Bucureşti: Teora.
Lupuleasa, R. (2004). Ready for Exams. Bucureşti: Polirom.
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Alina Cheşcă

Ways of expressing futurity

Marie-Claude, Roland (2000). CV in limba engleza. Un pas spre angajare,
Bucureşti: Teora.
Martin, M. Combe (2000). Listening and Comprehending. Macmillan.
Mihaescu, Alexandra (2007). Gramatica limbii engleze. Bucureşti: Ed.
Niculescu.
Molnar Oprea, Nicoleta (2000). Curs de limba engleza pentru studentii facultatilor cu profil juridic. Bucureşti: Ed. All Educational.
Oprescu, Simona (1999). Engleza pentru jurişti. Bucureşti: Ed. Oscar Print.
Peters, Jo-Ann (2004). Let’s Learn English. Metodă Larousse de învăţare a limbii engleze. Bucureşti: Ed. Teora.
Rusu, Liliana (2001). Limba engleza pentru studentii facultatii de drept.
Bucureşti: Ed. Sylvi.

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...Samuel Anoints David as King 1 Now the Lord said to Samuel, “You have mourned long enough for Saul. I have rejected him as king of Israel, so fill your flask with olive oil and go to Bethlehem. Find a man named Jesse who lives there, for I have selected one of his sons to be my king.” 1. Why was he morning? 2 But Samuel asked, “How can I do that? If Saul hears about it, he will kill me.” “Take a heifer with you,” the Lord replied, “and say that you have come to make a sacrifice to the Lord. 3 Invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you which of his sons to anoint for me.” 1. God gives Samuel a plan a. Samuel was a afraid, (If Saul hears about it, he will kill me. b. God Lays out 4 So Samuel did as the Lord instructed. When he arrived at Bethlehem, the elders of the town came trembling to meet him. “What’s wrong?” they asked. “Do you come in peace?” 1. 5 “Yes,” Samuel replied. “I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Purify yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice.” Then Samuel performed the purification rite for Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice, too. 6 When they arrived, Samuel took one look at Eliab and thought, “Surely this is the Lord’s anointed!” 7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Don’t judge by his appearance or height, for I have rejected him. TheLord doesn’t see things the way you see them. People judge by outward appearance, but the Lordlooks at the heart.” 8 Then Jesse told his son Abinadab......

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Biblical Worldview - During the Time of Samuel

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Samuel the Prophet of God

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