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Sains Islam

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CETUSAN SAINS ISLAM

Oleh Hafizah Iszahanid dan Nasron Sira Rahim
Berita Harian

Rahsia ilmu sains, teknologi dinyatakan dalam al-Quran terus dibongkar
“BACALAH dengan nama Tuhanmu yang menciptakan sekian makhluk. Ia menciptakan manusia dari sebuku darah beku. Bacalah dan Tuhanmu yang Maha Pemurah; yang mengajar manusia melalui pena dan tulisan. Ia mengajar manusia apa yang tidak diketahuinya,” (al-Alaq: 1 hingga 5).

Dimulakan dengan wahyu pertama daripada Al-Quran itu, dunia Jahiliyah yang menggambarkan kemunduran tamadun manusia dari segi sains, teknologi dan intelektual sekitar zaman Rasulullah SAW terus dipacu menuju ke puncak pencapaian.

Berdasarkan teori dan asas pengetahuan pelbagai bidang yang termaktub dalam al-Quran, kajian demi kajian dipelopori umat Islam mewujudkan satu tamadun gemilang dari sudut ilmu, khususnya sains dan teknologi.

Ketika al-Quran diturunkan, pelbagai fakta di dalamnya jelas masih asing di kalangan manusia ketika itu.
Tiada siapa mengetahui hakikat kehidupan seperti tertera dalam al-Quran antaranya cakerawala bergerak secara terapung (Yaasiin: 40), bumi bergerak (An-Naml: 88), pokok menghasilkan bahan bakar (Yaasiin: 80), atom adalah benda terkecil (Yunus: 61) dan semakin tinggi semakin sukar bernafas (Al-An'aam: 125).

Berbekalkan maklumat daripada kalam Allah itu, umat Islam mula meneroka ilmu sains dan kegemilangannya memuncak pada adab ketujuh apabila umat Islam menunjukkan kecenderungan dan minat mengkaji serta mempelajari pelbagai pengetahuan.

Menjelang pertengahan abad kesembilan, ilmu pengetahuan yang semakin berkembang membuktikan fakta sains dibawa al-Quran adalah benar dan ilmu dalam kitab itu mendahului zaman ia diturunkan.

Ia sekali gus membuktikan kitab itu sememangnya diturunkan Allah SWT dan menafikan dakwaan ia ciptaan manusia.

Kebenaran fakta al-Quran semakin meyakinkan dan pelbagai rahsia kitab suci itu terus digali sehingga kegemilangan sains terus disingkap dalam tamadun Islam menerusi perkembangan ilmu dan penciptaan teknologi.
Muncullah nama-nama besar ilmuwan dan saintis Islam seperti Ibnu Haitham (sains optik), Ibnu Yunus (penciptaan jam) dan Ibnu Nafis (sistem lengkap peredaran darah), Ibnu Sina (sains perubatan), al-Biruni (astronomi) dan al-Khawarizmi (matematik) dan Ibnu Rusyd (falsafah).

Malah, ramai tidak mengetahui ilmuwan Islam mendahului saintis Barat dalam penemuan pelbagai teori, seperti penerokaan awal Ibnu Haitham mengenai hakikat graviti jauh lebih awal sebelum ia dijadikan teori oleh Isaac Newton.

Hal sama ditemui menerusi konsep penerbangan seperti diperjelaskan Ibnu Firnas dan kemudian diadaptasi Wilbur Wright dan Oliver Wright. Abbas ibn Firnas saja sudah meneroka kajian cakerawala kira-kira 600 tahun sebelum Leonardo da Vinci melakukannya.

Perkembangan ilmu menzahirkan pelbagai ciptaan teknologi dan inovasi. Cendekiawan Islam menghasilkan serbuk salpetre sebagai ubat bedil, penggunaan angka sifar dalam matematik dan proses penyulingan untuk memisahkan bendasing dalam campuran cecair.

Balai cerap untuk mengkaji bintang, peta, glob, kincir air dan angin, bangunan pengisar bijiran termasuk kereta perisai turut dihasilkan saintis Islam ketika itu.

Malangnya, pengembangan ilmu dan kegemilangan Tamadun Islam itu tidak dapat diteruskan, seolah-olah usaha itu seumpama api yang kehabisan minyak, semakin lama semakin malap bermula ketika berakhirnya Kerajaan Abbasiyah. Pelbagai maklumat dan penemuan penting juga dikatakan hilang ketika berlakunya Perang Salib.

Masyarakat Barat yang suatu ketika dulu turut menggali ilmu hasil cernaan cendekiawan Islam sebaliknya mula mengambil alih peranan mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan.

Malah, seolah-olah cuba menafikan kegemilangan cendekiawan Islam, Barat menukarkan nama saintis Muslim dengan pelbagai nama antaranya Ibnu Sina kepada Avicenna, Al-Biruni (Alberuni), Al-Battani (Albetagnius), Ibnu Haitham (Alhazen), Al-Kindi (Alkindus) dan Ibnu Rushd (Averroes). Sehingga kini, tidak dapat dinafikan kajian dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan tidak lagi didominasi umat Islam. Kegemilangan ilmu pada tamadun Islam kini sekadar mampu dikenang, ia sekadar mampu dibanggakan pencapaiannya.

Dengan pengaruh besar dan strategi yang tidak dinafikan berkesan, manusia termasuk umat Islam kini lebih mengenali ilmuwan Barat dalam pelbagai bidang; Issac Newton lebih dikenali daripada Ibnu Haitam dan Wright bersaudara lebih dikenali daripada Ibnu Firnas.

Bagaimanapun, kegemilangan Islam menguasai ilmu ingin terus diabadikan. Saintis Islam, Dr Fuat Sezgin menjejak, mengumpul dan mengembalikan khazanah ilmu hasil Tamadun Islam yang ‘hilang’ menerusi penubuhan Institut Sejarah Sains Islam-Arab di Frankfurt di Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universiti, Frankfurt, Jerman pada 1982.

Sebahagian khazanah sains Islam yang dikumpul penyelidik itu akan dipamerkan menerusi ‘Pameran Sains Islam Mendahului Zaman’ anjuran Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Inovasi di Pusat Konvensyen Kuala Lumpur (KLCC) mulai esok hingga 14 Januari ini.

Sebanyak 150 artifak dan hasil penemuan sains serta penerokaan umat Islam dalam bidang matematik, kesenian dan seni bina; penciptaan dan penemuan perubatan astronomi, pengembaraan dan geografi serta teknologi akan dipamerkan selama seminggu di KLCC dan dua bulan setengah di Pusat Sains Negara untuk dihayati bersama generasi hari ini.

Pameran julung kali bermatlamat mencetuskan kembali kesedaran pentingnya mengkaji dan menerokai sains dan teknologi seterusnya membangkitkan semangat generasi muda meneruskan kesinambungan ilmuwan Islam terdahulu.

Ia juga bertujuan menyedarkan semua pihak bahawa ilmu agama dan ilmu pengetahuan perlu diseimbangkan seperti diamalkan ilmuwan Islam terdahulu yang bukan sekadar mendalami agama, sains dan kesusasteraan, malah mencipta peralatan dengan fungsi melangkaui zaman.
Lebih penting, pencernaan ilmu pengetahuan akan mengembalikan kesedaran manusia kepada hakikat ciptaan alam seperti difirmankan Allah SWT: “(Iaitu) orang-orang yang mengingat Allah sambil berdiri atau duduk atau dalam keadaan berbaring dan mereka memikirkan mengenai penciptaan langit dan bumi (seraya berkata): ‘Ya Tuhan kami, tiadalah Engkau menciptakan ini dengan sia-sia. Maha Suci Engkau, maka peliharalah kami dari siksa neraka’," (Ali Imran: 191).

KEBAIKAN DAN KEBURUKAN SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI DALAM TAMADUN ISLAM

Kewajipan umat Islam dalam membuat penyelidikan, pemerhatian dan mempelajari tentang alam semesta banyak dinyatakan di dalam Al-Quran. Tujuan kita untuk melakukan penyelidikan dan pemerhatian adalah untuk mengenal pencipta alam semesta ini iaitu Allah s.w.t dan mengenal secara mendalam mengenai hukum alam dan mengambil faedah darinya dengan menggunakan sebaik-baiknya sebagai khalifah Allah di muka bumi ini. Ia telah dinyatakan dalam Al-Quran iaitu “Kami akan perlihatkan kepada mereka tanda-tanda kekuasaan Kami di mana-mana tempat dalam alam yang terbentang luas ini dan pada diri mereka sendiri, sehingga ternyata jelas kepada mereka bahawa al Quran adalah benar”.Surah Fussilat (41) : 53. Menerusi ayat ini, Allah menyuruh kita melihat tanda-tanda kekuasaanNYA meliputi seluruh alam semesta ini dan tanda-tanda ini adalah kebenaran bahawa kewujudan Allah s.w.t. Sebagai seorang muslim, kita hendaklah menggunakan segala nikmat yang telah tersedia untuk tujuan kebaikan iaitu memperluaskan ilmu pengetahuan bagi pembangunan manusia di bumi ini. Selain itu, seruan dan arahan pernyataan Allah ini telah menjadi titik tolak kepada ilmuan Islam mengkaji mengenai alam dan fenomenanya. Melaluinya melahirkan saintis dan teknologi Islam dalam pelbagai disiplin ilmu sains dan teknologi.

Pencapaian umat Islam dalam sains dan teknologi banyak diperlekehkan oleh sarjana-sarjana barat dengan anggapan bahawa kedudukan umat Islam dan ilmuan sainsnya hanya sekadar memindahkan dan pencapaian sains Yunani dan lain tamadun sebelum Islam. Mereka juga menafikan sebarang sumbangan umat Islam dalam sains dan teknologi. Anggapan negatif ini tidak benar kerana aspek ilmu-ilmu berkaitan kebendaan seperti aspek sains, teknologi dan seumpamanya bersifat dimiliki secara bersama dan manusia dalam sejarah peradaban manusia berperanan memperkembang, menyempurna dan saling pinjam-memimjam antara satu sama lain. Mereka yang menafikan peranan umat Islam dalam sainsbererti penafian hukum sains tunduk kepada hukum sains sebagai tertakluk kepada pengembangan di samping penafian realiti umat Islam dalam sejarah tamadun manusia. Di samping itu, pencapaian umat Islam dalam sains dan teknologi dapat dilihat sejak zaman Umayyah dan Abbasiyah lagi dan para khalifah turut sama terlibat dalam pembinaan sains teknologi Islam. Antaranya, Abu Ja'far al- Mansur, Khalifah al-Ma'mun yang mendirikan Bait al-Hikmah dan melahirkan ramai tokoh-tokoh ilmuan Islam seperti Hunayn bin Ishak, al Kindi al-Fazari, Ibn Musa, Ibn al Haitham, al Khawarizm dan lain-lain.

KESIMPULAN

Kedatangan sains dan teknologi dalam kehidupan manusia serba sedikit membawa natijah dan kebaikan yang membawa manfaat kepada manusia dalam dari segi politik, ekonomi, pentadbiran dan pendidikan. Dengan sains manusia boleh mereka cipta pelbagai benda-benda yang menguntungkan manusia, boleh meningkatkan taraf kemajuan dalam sesebuah Negara. Namun begitu, jangan kerana manusia terlalu bergantung dan manja dengan sains dan teknologi manusia jadi malas dalam melakukan pekerjaan harian yang tidak memerlukan mesin atau benda yang canggih. Jadi, dalam sesuatu kajian sains hendaklah mengimami wahyu agar tidak mudah terpesong dari landasan Islam dan hendaklah dalam sesuatu kajian itu berdasarkan al-Quran dan Hadis.…...

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Islam

...Islam discussion Sunni and Shi'a are the two main Islam denominations. Sunni is the larger of the two and represents about eighty percent of the Muslim population. They both believe in the sacred text from the Qur'an. Both of them have only one God. Men may marry up to four women. Denied Jesus died on a cross but He did go to Heaven. Both believe in the second coming of Jesus. For both the Sunni and Shi’a; Christianity and Judaism are people from the Book. Their differences originate from leadership. Sunnis’ elected the first caliph; Abu Bakr to lead “the people of Sunnah”. The Shi’a believe the rightful successor to the Prophet Muhammad was ‘Ali. For the Sunni Ali was considered “The lion of God” the first male converted to Islam and the warrior champion of the faith. On the other side; for the Shi’a people God refer to Ali as “Ali is from me and I am from him, and he is the protector of every true believer after Muhammad”. It is important to know that despite these differences in opinion and practice; Shi’a and Sunni Muslims share the main group of Islamic belief and are considered by most to be brethren in faith. Even most Muslims do not distinguish themselves by claiming membership in any particular group. They prefer to call themselves simply, "Muslims." Women are currently often considered second class citizens. They do not have rights or those few rights they are given can be taken away by their husband or religious leaders. Usually women are not allowed to......

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