Free Essay

Safety Climate Analysis at Power Plant

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Basilmarhoon
Words 3767
Pages 16
Safety Climate Analysis at Power Station
Basel Marhoon - University of Bahrain 2016
Safety is the main important issue for all worker in the industrial sector. Safety contain many subjects, safety culture and safety climate are one of those subjects and they are concepts that today considered as one of the main concern across the industrial sector. As simple definition, the safety culture is “Making sure people are not harmed is how we do things here”.
This work evaluate the safety climate as it is reflection for the safety culture and easier to evaluate. The evaluation done for private power companies located in Bahrain. First plant (plant A) is for power generation, second plant (plant B) is for power generation and water production. Both plants are belong to the same mother company. The evaluation done through questionnaire including all the staff (around 200). The questionnaire designed by the help of the health and safety department of the mother company. Also, by interviews that used to support the questionnaire. Analysis has been done by different statistical methods using Microsoft excel software.
The results of safety climate evaluation showed that the overall level of safety for is above average (3.72 of 5). In addition, the safety level for plant A (3.93) is higher than plant B (3.49). By studying the safety level for different departments, four groups were identified, which are: 1) Plant A daytime workers, 2) Plant A shift workers, 3) Plant B daytime workers, and 4) Plant B shift workers. The level of safety for daytime workers were higher than shift workers. Also, the study reveal some factors that affect the safety climate level, such as, the nature of the work, the experience and the number of attended workshops.

1. Introduction
Part of human nature is the need to safety, so the issue of safety is a human concern by nature. In the industrial sector, where there will be significant hazards occurring, the need for safety requires the utmost attention. It is important to feel safe while working and to have a safety system in place, which has reflective indicator in order to improve it. It is a crucial matter to everyone.
In the recent years there has been movement away from safety measures based on retrospective data which called ‘lagging indicators’ such as fatalities and time lost in accidents, towards what is called ‘leading indicators’ such as safety audits or measurements of safety climate. The leading indicators can enhance the process of weakness finding without risking the failure of the system (Flin, Mearns, O'Connor & Bryden, 2000).
So studying the safety culture can be strong method to detect the weaknesses in the safety system in order to prevent any occurrence of unsafe events in the future.
Identifying the level of safety culture is difficult and takes a long time, so more common is to evaluate the safety climate which is considered as reflection or snap shot of the safety culture so safety climate can be considered as an alternative safety indicator, (Schein, 2010; Guldenmund, 2010).
The improvement process for the safety culture include: a) determining the current level of safety climate b) deciding the wanted level of safety climate c) creating action plan in order to improve the safety climate level.
This study included a safety climate survey in power generation and water production industry in Bahrain, involving two plants, plant A for power generation, and plant B for power generation and water production. Both plants belong to same mother company.
The safety climate was studied using safety climate questionnaire and interviews.
The aim of this study is to 1- To evaluate the safety climate level. 2- To find out the factors effecting the safety level. 3- To detect sub-climate existence between departments. 4- To find out the weaknesses in the safety system. 5- To decide on the wanted target for the safety climate level according to the management. 6- To give recommendations for improving the existing safety level. 7- To derive new definition for safety culture based on the employees understanding.

2. Method
The general steps of this work starts with performing a literature review to get an idea about the targeted company, safety culture, safety climate and the methods to evaluate safety climate. Next a meeting arranged with the general manager and head of health, safety and environment (HSE) department. Then, the measuring tool design process has been done through multi stages. The final step was conducting questionnaire to evaluate the safety climate level and performing interviews to get better understanding of the questionnaire results. 3.1. Questionnaire
The main measuring tool to evaluate the safety climate is the questionnaire, (Cooper, 2000; Guldenmund, 2010; CANSO, 2008). So prior to starting the evaluation, a meeting had been done with the company safety department representatives and managers of other departments. The meeting done to compare different questionnaires. One questionnaire had been chosen as the main structure to formulate a questionnaire fit to the power plant.
Then many modifications has been done by comparison with other questionnaires and by seeking feedback of HSE department.
The validation process had been done through two steps. First step, seeking feedback of HSE department as expert in the field. Second step, by performing pilot study to improve the questionnaire.
A pilot study had been conducted in order to identify any mysterious questions, spot the weaknesses, insure easy wording and estimate the time required for questionnaire completion. The pilot study included 20 participant. According to Connelly (2008), 10% of the total population is ideal to be used for pilot study. The pilot study repeated two times; every time, notes were taken to modify the questionnaire, then the final version had been achieved. The average time required to finish the questionnaire were calculated. The time was 10.6 minutes.
In this work, to check the questionnaire stability, test-retest has been done. The number of participants were taken similar to pilot test and chosen randomly, which is 20 participants. For the time between the two trials, there were no evidence for the correct time (Parsian & Dunning, 2009), so it’s better to not make it long time or very short time. In this work, the time has been set to ten days. The Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) has been used in order to determine the stability of the questionnaire which reflect its reliability. In addition to the stability test, Cronbach alpha coefficient had been calculated also to measure the internal consistency which also reflect the reliability of the questionnaire.
The questionnaire consists of seven dimension and fifty items, all items are five points Likert scale and it consists of positive and negative questions. The positive questions scored from 1 to 5, with 1 for strongly disagree and 5 for strongly agree. The negative questions scored inversely from 5 to 1, with 5 for strongly disagree and 1 for strongly agree. A mean score over 3 is considered positive result since it is the mean value between the highest and lowest scores (NOSACQ-50, 2015; Kink, 2010; Bergh, 2011; Cooper, 2001).
The seven dimensions are: management ‘safety priority and ability’ (9 items), ‘Management safety empowerment’ (7 items), ‘Management safety judgment’ (6 items), ‘Workers’ safety commitment’ (6 items), ‘Workers’ safety priority and risk non-acceptance’ (7 items), ‘peer safety communication, learning, and trust in safety ability’ (8 items) and ‘trust in the efficacy of safety systems’ (7 items).
In addition to the fifty questions, the questionnaire contains background questions to use it in determining the factors that affect the safety climate level.
The sample size around 210 employee which is all the population in order to increase the accuracy of the results. 3.2. Interviews
The secondary tool to evaluate the safety climate are interviews, (CANSO, 2008; Bergh, 2011). Same as the questionnaire, the interview questions were choose by the help of HSE department
The interview questions are based on the questions of the questionnaire. The interview questions were used to seek more explanation to some items in the questionnaire
In this work, the interviews are structured, single, and it consist of open ended questions. It is structured in order to limit the time required for the interview. Also, it is single which increase the level of confidentiality and let the interviewee talk freely. Finally, it consist of open ended questions to seek the opinions of the interviewee. 3.3. The procedure
After designing the questionnaire, it were handed to every employee in both plants personally. Every one received the questionnaire was informed about the aim of the questionnaire and the benefit of this work. The participants had been told to not write their names. Also, they had been told, the material is confidential that nobody can see the individual results. The questionnaire returned back personally as handed.
Around 210 questionnaires were distributed among all the employees. The return rate was 72.3%.
For the interviews, 30 employee were selected using stratified sampling method. Then, they were asked through emails if they like to participate. The rate of responses for the interviews was 33.33% of the chosen employees. The chosen employees were presenting good mixture from the two plants. 3.4. Data analysis
The data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed by Microsoft office Excel software. The raw data were used to calculate the mean value for each dimension for every submission, than the overall and groups mean score were calculated based on the individual results for each dimension (Prasad & Reghunath, 2010, Cooper, 2001). The mean score for all dimensions had been viewed as radar chart.
Every two groups examined for significant difference using T-test with 95% level of confidence and P-value (probability value) less than 0.05 to consider the test is significant.
The internal consistency of each dimension tested using Cronbach alpha coefficient, which called coefficient of reliability, the value of coefficient greater than 0.7 is considered to be ideal and reliable (Pallant, 2007; George & Mallery, 2003, Gliem & Gliem, 2003). Besides using the internal consistency, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) used to determine the stability of the questionnaire.

3. Results
The overall mean score for both plant is 3.72 on scale of (1 to 5), (Table 1). The mean score for plant A is greater than plant B, where in plant A the mean score is 3.93 and in plant B is 3.49. The lowest mean score obtained in dimension 4 for plant B (2.86).
The result of the T-test analysis shows that there is significant difference in three dimensions, dimension 1 (Management safety priority and ability), dimension 4 (Workers’ safety commitment) and dimension 6 (Peer safety communication learning and trust in safety ability). (Table 2)
Table (1) The mean scores and standard deviations of the mother company | DIM1 | DIM2 | DIM3 | DIM4 | DIM5 | DIM6 | DIM7 | Overall | Mean value | 3.68 | 3.82 | 3.84 | 3.45 | 3.68 | 3.56 | 4.02 | 3.72 | Mean value % | 67% | 70.5% | 71% | 61.25% | 67% | 64% | 75.5% | 68% | Standard Deviation | 0.41 | 0.52 | 0.4 | 0.67 | 0.43 | 0.54 | 0.42 | 0.35 |
DIM=Dimension
Table (2) The variation in the level of safety climate between plant A and plant B Site | n | DIM1 | DIM2 | DIM3 | DIM4 | DIM5 | DIM6 | DIM7 | Plant A | 40% | 3.81 | 3.93 | 3.94 | 4.01 | 3.73 | 3.97 | 4.14 | | | 70.25% | 73.25% | 73.5% | 75.25% | 68.25% | 74.25% | 78.5% | Plant B | 60% | 3.53 | 3.71 | 3.73 | 2.86 | 3.62 | 3.13 | 3.88 | | | 63.25% | 67.75% | 68.25% | 46.5% | 65.5% | 53.25% | 72% | P-value | | 0.035 | NS | NS | 2.14E-10 | NS | 1.57E-8 | NS |
DIM= Dimension, NS= Non-Significant, n= percentage of participants, P-value= result of the T-Test

For the comparison between the workers (3.72) and managers/supervisors (4.13) at both plants, significance difference has been found in three dimensions, dimension 1 (Management safety priority and ability), dimension 2 (Management safety empowerment) and dimension 5 (Workers’ safety priority and risk non-acceptance). (Table 3)
Table (3) The variation in the level of safety climate between the workers and the managers/supervisors at both plants. | n | DIM1 | DIM2 | DIM3 | DIM4 | DIM5 | DIM6 | DIM7 | Overall | Workers | 83% | 3.68 | 3.82 | 3.84 | 3.45 | 3.68 | 3.56 | 4.02 | 3.72 | | | 67% | 70.5% | 71% | 61.25% | 67% | 64% | 75.5% | 68% | Managers/ Supervisors | 17% | 4.32 | 4.27 | 3.92 | 4.13 | 4.26 | 3.88 | 4.16 | 4.13 | | | 83% | 81.75% | 73% | 78.25% | 81.5% | 72% | 79% | 78.25% | P-value | | 0.0002 | 0.048 | NS | NS | 0.002 | NS | NS | |
DIM= Dimension, NS= Non-Significant, n= percentage of participants, P-value= result of the T-Test
By dividing the workers into two main categorize (daytime and shift workers) among the two sites, four groups can be identified. Plant A daytime workers, plant A shift workers, plant B daytime workers, and plant B shift workers. The comparison between shift and daytime showed that daytime workers has higher level of safety climate in both plants. Table 4 showed the results of safety climate analysis for each group.
Table (4) The level of safety climate within plant A and B, for shift workers and daytime workers. Group | DIM1 | DIM2 | DIM3 | DIM4 | DIM5 | DIM6 | DIM7 | Overall | Plant A Day time workers | 4.06 | 4.23 | 4.06 | 4.04 | 3.89 | 3.98 | 4.29 | 4.07 | | 76.5% | 80.75% | 76.5% | 76% | 72.25% | 74.5% | 82.25% | 76.75% | Plant A Shift workers | 3.64 | 3.71 | 3.85 | 3.98 | 3.61 | 3.95 | 4.04 | 3.82 | | 66% | 67.75% | 71.25% | 74.5% | 65.25% | 73.75% | 76% | 70.5% | Plant B Day time workers | 3.84 | 3.91 | 3.81 | 2.83 | 3.75 | 3.39 | 4 | 3.64 | | 71% | 72.75% | 70.25% | 45.75% | 68.75% | 59.75% | 75% | 66% | Plant B Shift workers | 3.28 | 3.54 | 3.67 | 2.89 | 3.51 | 2.92 | 3.79 | 3.37 | | 57% | 63.5% | 66.75% | 47.25% | 62.75% | 48% | 69.75% | 59.25% |
DIM= Dimension

For the factors affecting the safety climate level, four factors had been revealed clearly. 1) As the experience increased, the safety climate level increase; 2) The workers with more workplaces scored higher safety climate level; 3) As the number of safety workshops increased it will result in higher safety climate level; 4) Also the workers with more experience in the plant itself scored higher level of safety climate.

4. Discussion 5.5. Method
The evaluation of internal consistency of the questionnaire’s seven dimensions showed positive results as the alpha coefficient values were between 0.55 and 0.81 with average of 0.73. This result considered accepted, (Pallant, 2007; George & Mallery, 2003, Gliem & Gliem, 2003). Also the stability test showed positive results as it has been found between 0.495 and 0.751 which indicate acceptable stability for the questionnaire, (Kines et al., 2011)
The minimum response rate for a survey to be acceptable, depend on the size of the population, (Basarb, 2011). In this work, 72.3% response rate had been achieved for sample size around 210. According to Basarb (2011), the minimum acceptable response rate for 200 sample size, is 66%. The response rate for the interviews was 33.3% (10 out of 30). 5.6. Results
As overall safety climate level for Al Ezzel o&M, it is considered as above average. The overall mean score of all results is 3.72 on scale of (1 to 5). The mean score for most of the dimensions were higher than 3 which considered positive result, (Prasad and Reghunath, 2010; Bergh, 2011)
By investigating the two sites separately, a significant difference has been found in dimension 1 (Management safety priority and ability), dimension 4 (Workers’ safety commitment) and dimension 6 (Peer safety communication learning and trust in safety ability). That indicate a gap in the safety climate level between the two sites. The answers of the interviews can clarify some reasons behind this gap. The answers state that a difference may exists because the safety enhancement process started in plant A before plant B, alongside with applying of standardized safety rules in plant A before plant B. Other reason, the locating of management in plant A, gave it preference in adapting the safety rules and enhancing the safety communication and reporting. Also, according to Reason (1997), the level of safety climate can be affected by experiencing more accidents. By comparing the findings of Reason 1997 and the finding of this work, the same conclusion can be achieved. Referring to the mother company documents (2015), 65% of the near-misses were occurred in plant B, while plant A has 35%. According to present work results, plant B scored less safety climate level.
By comparing the safety climate between daytime workers and shift workers, daytime workers have more safety climate level than shift workers. The previous studies have showed that working near the production line (in present work, shift workers) will affect the level of safety climate to be lower than the safety climate level of the other workers who work not near to the production (in the present work, daytime workers), (Collins &Gadd, 2002; Milczarek & Najmiec, 2004, Wu et al., 2007; Bergh et al., 2013). This can be seen similar to the present work results. The shift workers are working closer to the production which in this case: gas turbines, steam turbines, energized equipment and fuel gas filled systems etc. Day time workers are working most of the time far of production line, such as workshops and store.
By comparing the safety climate level between the workers and managers, the managers have higher level of safety climate than the workers. One possible reason is that the safety issues discussed between the management and safety department are not communicated effectively to the workers. This analysis is supported by the results of the interviews answers.

5. Conclusion
The results of studying the safety climate of both plants showed that the level of safety for the mother company is above average (3.72 out of 5). The safety level of plant A (3.92) is higher than plant B (3.49). So plant B needs more attention in any safety improvement process.
Two sub climates were detected within the company, daytime workers and shift workers. The sub climate appears obviously more at plant B where the shift workers record less safety climate level.
The weaknesses are few. For the day time workers of plant B, only one dimension showed weakness which is dimension 4 (Workers’ safety commitment). And for the shift workers of plant B, two dimensions showed weaknesses which are dimension 4 (Workers’ safety commitment) and dimension 6 (Peer safety communication learning and trust in safety ability).

6. Recommendation
First, the management should communicate the safety culture definition. It can use the formulated definition in the present work. By communicating the definition, shared understanding to safety culture concept can be created.
The second recommendation is to decide the wanted goal of safety climate level and create a plan for safety culture improvement based on the outcome of the analysis of the questionnaire and the interviews. Also, all employees should be involved in some way in putting the action plan of improvement of safety culture to create shared goal among the employees.
Finally, the improvement has to be followed up by re-evaluating the safety climate level every two or three years using the same questionnaire in order to be able to compare the results.

References
Basarb, D. (2013). Minimum Size for Conducting Training Evaluation Studies. Retrieved from Dave Basarb Consulting: http://www.davebasarab.com/blog/evaluation- survey/minimum-size-for-conducting-training-evaluation-studies/ Bergh, M. (2011). An evaluation of the safety climate at AkzoNobel Site Stenungsund .
Master of Science Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Bergh, M., Shahriari, M., & Kines, P. (2013). Occupational Safety Climate and Shift
Work. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 31, 403-408.

CANSO Safety Standing Committee (2008). Safety Culture Definition & Enhancement
Process Model. The Civil Air Navigation Services Organization, Netherlands.

Collins, A. M., & Gadd, S. (2002). Safety culture: a review of the literature. Sheffield:
Health and Safety Laboratory, Human Factors Group.

Connelly, L. M. (2008). Pilot studies. Medsurg Nursing, 17(6), 411-2.

Cooper, M. D. (2000). Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science, 36, 111-136.

Cooper, M. D. (2001). Improving safety culture: A practical guide. London: Hull.

Flin, R., Mearns, K., O'Connor, P. and Bryden, R. (2000). Measuring safety climate: identifying the common features. Safety Science, 34, 177-192.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Gliem, J. A., & Gliem R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s
Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales. Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Guldenmund, F. W. (2010). Understanding and Exploring Safety Culture.Oisterwijk:
Uitgeverij BOXPress.

Kines, P., Lappalainen, J., Mikkelsen, K. L., Olsen, E., Pousette, A., Tharaldsen, J.,
Tómasson, K., & Törner, M. (2011). Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire
(NOSACQ-50): A new tool for diagnosing occupational safety climate. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 41, 634-646.

Kinik, Y. (2010). Improving Safety Culture: A study performed at KLM Engineering &
Maintenance.

Milczarek, M., & Najmiec, A. (2004). The Relationship between Workers' Safety Culture and Accidents, Near Accidents and Health Problems. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 25-33.

NOSACQ-50. (2015). Interpreting the Nordic Occupational Safety Climate
Questionnaire NOSACQ-50 resultshttp://www.arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk
/da/publikationer/spoergeskemaer/nosacq-50/how-to-use-nosacq-50/interpreting-nosacq-50-results

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual. Berkshire: McGraw Hill.

Parsian, N., & Dunning, D. (2009). Developing and Validating a Questionnaire to
Measure Spirituality: A Psychometric Process. Global Journal of Health Science, 1(1), 2-11.

Prasad, S. V., & Reghunath, K. P. (2010). Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety
Climate – A Study. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(6), 1699-1707.

Reason, J. (1997). Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Aldershot: Ashgate
Publishing Limited.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-
Bass.

Wu, T. C., Liu, C. W., & Lu, M. C. (2007). Safety climate in university and college laboratories: Impact of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Safety Research, 91–102.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

An Analysis of a Thermal Power Plant Working on a Rankine Cycle: a Theoretical Investigation

...An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation R K Kapooria S Kumar Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM College of Engineering & Technology, Bahal (Haryana) and National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, India K S Kasana Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India Abstract Today, most of the electricity produced throughout the world is from steam power plants. However, electricity is being produced by some other power generation sources such as hydropower, gas power, bio-gas power, solar cells, etc. One newly developed method of electricity generation is the Magneto hydro dynamic power plant. This paper deals with steam cycles used in power plants. Thermodynamic analysis of the Rankine cycle has been undertaken to enhance the efficiency and reliability of steam power plants. The thermodynamic deviations resulting in non-ideal or irreversible functioning of various steam power plant components have been identified. A comparative study between the Carnot cycle and Rankine cycle efficiency has been analyzed resulting in the introduction of regeneration in the Rankine cycle. Factors affecting efficiency of the Rankine cycle have been identified and analyzed for improved working of thermal power plants. Keywords: Rankine cycle, steam-turbine, efficiency, Feed Water Heater (FWH),......

Words: 4337 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

The Power of Food Safety

...There are many sites based around Food Safety. A large portion of them are either government regulated or overseen, but there also exist a few that are completely independent. The Center for Food Safety (CFFS) is an organization I found when searching for food safety websites. This site is a non-profit organization that was founded in 1997 to raise awareness of pressing food safety issues and create relationships with food companies of all levels, whether at a grassroots co-op market level or a large-scale international superstore level. Even more in -depth on the website and organization's purpose, they are very active in communities. The CFFS makes multiple appearances of rallies, conferences and speaking engagements to educate the public about issues that affect them nationally such as genetically modified organisms, sweet corn, and meat antibiotics and how these issues should be important to everyone. They also write articles about these issues and distribute them to co-ops throughout the country. One article I looked at on their site named "What's in a Label?" by Lisa J. Bunin, Ph.D., explained the differences between certified organic foods and natural foods. I learned that natural foods are unregulated and aren't tested. Many company make claims that all of their foods were natural. I took some time to look through my cupboards and found a box of tea and read the label. It claimed to be 100% natural, yet in the ingredients it listed "artificial flavor". This was......

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Coal Power Plant

...Power Shortage in Mindanao: A Call for New Power Plants It is swirling in the news that Mindanao suffers from power shortage. According to the news aired on March 27, 2012 over GMA News' Saksi, The Energy Department had said that projected peak demand in Mindanao is 1,300 MW although the available capacity is only at 1,100 MW, excluding the required reserve margin to maintain the "integrity" of the Mindanao Grid which is pegged at 250 MW. The same television report said the power shortage was reportedly caused by the lack of electricity being produced by the hydro electrical power plants in Mindanao due to heat brought by the dry season. "Considering the future lower rainfall forecast in Mindanao, we cannot rely solely on hydropower plants. Non-hydro base-load is immediately needed and this will only happen if everyone cooperates,” Energy Secretary Jose Rene Almendras said. According to the DOE's Mindanao Field Office curtailment schedule obtained by GMA News Online on March 28, 2012, some parts of Region IX, X, XI, XII, and XIII have recently been experiencing rotational brownouts. Among these areas are: Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur (4 hrs/day), Zamboanga City (4 hrs/day), Maramag, Bukidnon (1 hr/day), Iligan City, Lanao del Norte (2.5 hrs/day), Marawi City, Lanao del Sur (3.5 hrs/day), Tubod, Lanao del Norte (3 hrs/day), Ozamis City, Misamis Occidental (3 hrs/day), Calamba, Misamis Occidental (5 hrs/day), Digos City, Davao del Sur (3 hrs/day), Tagum City, Davao Norte...

Words: 2511 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Mercury Power Plant

...A technical paper presentation On NANO Mercury Power Plant (Non Conventional /Renewable) ABSTRACT: power plant is used to production of electricity by so many methods like hydro power plant,nuclear power plant ,gas turbinre plant combined cycle power plant, solar power plant, wind power plant, tidal power plant, diesel generator, petrol generator, this all are power plant run by fuel and generate electricity. i am introducing new type and technology power plant MERCURY: It's the only common metal which is liquid at ordinary temperatures. Mercury is sometimes called quicksilver. It is a heavy, silvery-white liquid metal. It is a rather poor conductor of heat if compared with other metals but it is a fair conductor of electricity. It alloys easily with many metals, such as gold, silver, and tin. These alloys are called amalgams. The most important mercury salts are mercuric chloride HgCl2 (corrosive sublimate - a violent poison), mercuric chloride Hg2Cl2 (calomel, still used in medicine occasionally), mercury......

Words: 4680 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Coal Fired Power Plant

...using coal, fairly cheaply. • A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it. Most coal fired power stations have dedicated rail links to supply the coal. Sounds good, huh! Think again! The important issue as of now is whether there are more advantages than disadvantages of using coal to generate electricity! How about these… Some disadvantages of using coal to generate electricity: • It is Nonrenewable and fast depleting; • High coal transportation costs, especially for countries with no coal resources and hence will require special harbours for coal import and storage. • Coal storage cost is high especially if required to have enough stock for few years to assure power production availability. • Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, a powerful greenhouse gas, that had been stored in the earth for millions of years, contributing to global warming. • It leaves behind harmful byproducts upon combustion, thereby causing a lot of pollution. • Mining of coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment. • Mining and burning of coal pollutes the environment, causes acid rain and ruins all living creature’s lungs. • It will eventually run out. • It cannot be recycled. • Prices for all fossil fuels are rising, especially if the real cost of their carbon is included. • An average of 170 pounds of mercury is made by one coal plant every year. When 1/70 of a teaspoon of......

Words: 638 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Health and Safety in Power Sector

...HEALTH AND SAFETY CONCERNS IN POWER SECTOR The power sector is prone to many accidents and mishaps due to the nature of the working conditions of the power generation plant. The following are the major health and safety concerns in the power sector: * Exposure of workers and public to radioactive material * Uncontrolled release of radioactive material leading to contamination and exposure off site. * Conventional construction hazards and working near live equipment. * Health problems such as respiratory disorders, skin disorders from emitted hazardous substances like lead, asbestos, coal dust, fly ash, silica and toxic gases However negligence towards these safety concerns leads to occurrence of accidents and some of these accidents can be on a large scale causing great loss to life and endangering the safety of employees as well as the general public. The following stated are the major accidents that have occurred in the recent past in the power sector: Accidents in Nuclear Power Generation Plants: * April 2011  Fire in the control room of the Kaiga Generating Station in Karnataka * November 2009  Fifty-five employees consume radioactive material after tritiated water finds its way into the drinking water cooler in Kaiga Generating Station. * January 2003  Failure of a valve in the Kalpakkam Atomic Reprocessing Plant in Tamil Nadu results in the release of high-level waste, exposing six workers to high doses of radiation. The leaking area of...

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Rampal Power Plant

...Rampal Coal-Fired Power Plant Who gains, who loses? Moshahida Sultana Ritu WHO does not know that Bangladesh needs more electricity for its economy to grow? Who does not know that every economic opportunity comes with an environmental cost, be it high or low, visible or less visible? But does this knowledge really leave us with no choice when Bangladesh signs three agreements with India to establish a 1320 megawatt coal- fired power plant in Rampal? No. Without answering the question “who pays the cost of environmental degradation and who are the ultimate beneficiaries from building the power plant?” we cannot justify building Rampal power plant. First, setting up Rampal power plant is not going to ensure our energy security; rather it may aggravate our existing problems. The newly formed joint venture company named Bangladesh India Friendship Power Company (BIFPC), with equal ownership of Bangladesh’s BPDB and India’s NTPC, will be a full-fledged commercial venture. A commercial venture with an objective of cost recovery and profit maximization is not a problem that may lead to project failure. Rather, the problem will be visible elsewhere. The source of finance and ownership will matter the most in this type of project’s sustainability. Initially Bangladesh and India will equally share up to 30 percent equity of this mega project. The remaining equity, which may be equivalent to $ 1.2 billion, will be taken as bank loan with help from the NTPC. Repaying the......

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Rampal Power Plant Project

...signed between Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) and India's state-owned company National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The project situated in Rampal, Bangladesh was designated to be completed by 2016. Bangladesh and India shared the implementation cost on a 50:50 equity basis. The remainder cost of 1.5 billion US dollars will be taken as loans from the banks by the Indian based company. Therefore, India is the majority share holder of the power station and India is entitles to receive a major benefit of power supply. Though, the plant has been situated in Bangladesh, India is said to be a part owner of the power station. The proposed project, on an area of over 1834 acres of land, is situated 14 kilometres north of the world's largest mangrove forest Sundarbans which is a UNESCO world heritage site. A coal based power plant creates an alarming environmental pollution. The emission of toxic sulphur gases and nitrogen gases reduces the air quality in surrounding areas. It destroys the vegetation up to 50 kms from the place of the plant. Thus emission of hazardous gases will increase the local temperature. The result of the operation of the coal plant will give to a huge deposit of ash consisting of residue from heavy metals. Surely, the toxic heavy metals contained in this dumped ash will mixed with rain water and leached in to the ground and contaminated both ground and surface water the impact of which will not be limited to the plant site, rather, spreads......

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Impact of Nuclear Power Plant in Kudankulam

...NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN KUDANKULAM What is Nuclear Power?  Nuclear power, or Nuclear energy, is the use of exothermic nuclear processes, to generate useful heat & electricity. The term includes the following heat producing processes – nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion. Uses 1.   Nuclear power is a low carbon method of producing electricity & in 2011 nuclear power provided 10% of the world's electricity. 2.   Many military and some civilian (such as some icebreaker) ships use nuclear marine propulsion, a form of nuclear propulsion. 3.   A few space vehicles have been launched using full-fledged nuclear reactors: the Soviet RORSAT series and the American SNAP -10 A. 4.   Both Fission and fusion appear promising for space propulsion applications, generating higher mission velocities with less reaction mass. (Due to the much higher energy density of nuclear reactions: some 7 orders of magnitude (10,000,000 times) more energetic than the chemical reactions which power the current generation of rockets). 5.   International research is continuing into the use of nuclear fusion, and additional uses of process heat such as hydrogen production (in support of a hydrogen economy), desalinizing sea water, and for use in district heating systems. What is Nuclear Reactor? A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power......

Words: 4508 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Power Plant

...Project Charter Cambridge Bay, NWT Power Generating Station Replacement Submitted by: Student # MSTM4040 – Assignment #1 Feb 10, 2013 Table of Contents Section 1. Charter Introduction 3 1.1 Document change control 3 1.2 Executive summary 3 1.3 Authorization 4 Section 2. Project Overview 5 2.1 Project summary 5 2.2 Project goals, business outcomes, and objectives 6 2.3 Project scope 6 2.3.1 Boundaries ………………………………………………………………………7 2.4 Milestones 8 2.5 Deliverables 8 2.6 Project cost estimate and sources of funding 9 2.6.1 Project cost Estimate …………………………………………………………….9 2.6.2 Sources of Funding ……………………………………………………………...9 2.7 Project risks, assumptions, and constraints 10 Section 3. Project Organization 11 3.1 Project governance 11 3.2 Roles and responsibilities 11 3.3 Project facilities and resources 11 Section 1. Charter Introduction 1.1 Document change control Revision Number | Date of Issue | Author(s) | Brief Description of Change | 1.0 | 2013-02-03 | Frank Downey | Creation of the document. | | | | | | | | | 1.2 Executive summary The Hamlet of Cambridge Bay, NWT has shown significant growth in population and infrastructure over the past 10 years and is predicted to grow considerable in the years to come. The 44 year old power plant that is supplying electricity to the town is stressed to the point of failure due to increased demand that has been put in it. A new power generating station is......

Words: 2196 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Hydroelectric Power Plants

...Hydroelectric Power Plants When we walk into our living rooms and flip on the light switch, we get electricity. It’s something we do multiple times a day without giving it much thought. It’s only when the power goes out during a storm that we realize how much we take electricity for granted. How do we get electricity? How are our neighborhoods powered? While Maysville, KY residents and businesses obtain electricity from coal powered power plants, many other areas obtain power from hydroelectric power plants. In the United States, hydropower generates nearly nine percent of the total electricity supply. Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source (NREL.gov, 2012). On September 30, 1882, the world's first hydroelectric power plant began operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin. The plant, later named the Appleton Edison Light Company, was initiated by Appleton paper manufacturer H.J. Rogers, who had been inspired by Thomas Edison's plans for an electricity-producing station in New York (americanlibrary.gov, 2013). Thomas Edison’s plant in New......

Words: 1762 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Nuclear Power Plants

...Colton Caraway ID# 8940730499 Henry DRE 098 9/30/2015 Nuclear Power Plants As human beings we need to find a safe, reliable, long term solution to our energy needs. Researchers need to find and provide information to encourage the building of nuclear power plants. Researchers should present information that leads to building more nuclear power plants in order to provide a long term, a reliable, safer energy solution. The first reason why researchers should present information is to offer a long term energy solution. Nuclear power plants can last for years when taken care of properly. Indian point in upstate New York is a key example of a properly used power plant. According to Rudolph W. Giuliani, “ Nuclear power has proven to be an essential component of our region’s overall electric supply.” (Giuliani). With that it shows how it has been viewed very helpful first hand by the former mayor of New York City. A long term energy solution such as nuclear power will make it easier for people to have a more reliable energy source. The second reason why researchers should present information is to provide a reliable energy source. The nuclear power plants will produce a mass amount of reliable energy. Indian point has provided a reliable source of energy for the state of New York through two hurricanes and has not stopped. Security is a big factor in making our nuclear power plants reliable. According to James Mahaffey, “Anticipating problems, the Generation III reactor......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ash Utilization in Private Power Plants

...Private power plants Ash utilization MoEF Notification (3rd Nov 2009) on Fly Ash Utilisation has instructed Operating Coal/Lignite based Power Plants to Achieve the Target for 100% Coal Ash Utilisation S. No. Percentage Utilisation of Coal Ash Generation Target Date from the Date of issue of this Notification 1. At least 50% One Year 2. At least 60% Two Years 3. At least 75% Three Years 4. At least 90% Four Years 5. 100% Five Years A. TATA POWER Trombay, Jojobera and Maithon thermal power plants achieved 100% fly ash utilization whereas CGPL achieved 25% in its first year of full operation, which is in line with regulatory requirements. Innovations 1. Ultra-Thin White Topping technology: CTTL, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Power, in association with BASF, has developed a concrete mix which can help replacing 40% of cement with Fly Ash. The polyheed admixture developed for Trombay Thermal Station Fly Ash has been used in a demonstration project. A demonstration road stretch of 3.5 m x 100 m has been laid. This road has lower absorption of solar energy (higher reflectivity) and is expected to have a longer service life. 2. Bottom ash based brick making: Bottom ash based bricks were manufactured successfully. A patent on the same has been filed. Technologies Being Reviewed / Adopted Fly ash based plaster sand: Additives are added into fly ash and mixture is processed to manufacture ceramic sand through an already patented process. This sand is......

Words: 1615 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Thermal Power Plant Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network

...NUiCONE-2012, 06-08DECEMBER, 2012 1 Thermal Power Plant Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network Purva Deshpande1, Nilima Warke2, Prakash Khandare3, Vijay Deshpande4 VESIT, Chembur, purva.deshpande@yahoo.co.in, nilimavwarke@gmail.com 3,4 Mahagenco, Mumbai. khandarepk@gmail.com, vijay.deshpande.gmit@gmail.com 1,2 Abstract--Coal-based thermal power stations are the leaders in electricity generation in India and are highly complex nonlinear systems. The thermal performance data obtained from MAHAGENCO KORADI UNIT 5 thermal power plant shows that heat rate and boiler efficiency is changing constantly and the plant is probably losing some Megawatts of electric power, and more fuel usage thus resulting in much higher carbon footprints. It is very difficult to analyse the raw data recorded weekly during the full power operation of the plant because a thermal power plant is a very complex system with thousands of parameters. Thus there is a need for nonlinear modeling for the power plant performance analysis in order to meet the growing demands of economic and operational requirements. The intention of this paper is to give an overview of using artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in power systems. Here Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN) are used for comparative purposes to model the thermodynamic process of a coal-fired power plant, based on actual plant data and this works as the internal model......

Words: 3399 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Safety Climate

...What are the relevant safety climate or safety culture surveys available? Using one as an example, evaluate A1 from a high level perspective. Organizational support is vital to the success of any training program…….The effectiveness of any health and safety efforts “will be a function of the organization’s overall commitment to providing a safe work environment and the employee’s perception and recognition of that commitment.” (p. 226-227) A safety climate survey developed by the New South Wales government (attached) was given to all staff – supervisors and employees - to assess organizational support. The survey elicited their thoughts on the following six areas: training and supervision, safe work procedures, consultation, reporting safety, management commitment, injury management and return to work. The survey revealed that: * Training is not consistent amongst employees, employees are not always made aware of safety issues, and no one monitors work safety * A1 has sporadic work safety procedures for task based procedures and these are not updated and reviewed regularly. Risk Assessment is not completed when a process is changed. * There is no system in place at A1 to communicate to managers on Health and Safety. The representatives are sometimes involved in safety measures, but management does not take into account what they say, and there is usually little feedback on safety issues. * Employees don’t always use the safety reporting......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2