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Safeguarding Children

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* CHRONOLOGY * * Second Trimester * * Mother attended her community drug and alcohol team (CDAT) were she was on a methadone programme. Referral was made by her key worker stated concerns that she may be pregnant and concealing it * * Pre - birth conference was held to establish the issues surrounding the mother, her pregnancy and her parenting skills. Mother did not attend. The pre – birth conference attended by the CDAT key worker, safeguarding midwife, health visitor, GP, social worker. The pre – birth conference took place as mum was concealing her pregnancy and that she was heavily * * DAY 1
Jack was born by caesarean section because they were concerns with the Zoe. Zoe was unwell – she had a heart valve problem. Jack was admitted to the intensive care unit, needing ventilation support for six hours
12pm
* Safeguarding midwife aware that Jack been born, states that all people who needed to be aware of baby being born are. Informed us that her current partner and father of baby are not allowed to visit. Security, front desk at the main entrance of unit and nurses made aware * Urine virology/toxicology sent * Morphine started as Jack was Ventilated due to the respiratory distress
15pm
* Out of hours social worker called inquiring about baby and mum
1630pm
* Maternity support worker visited unit, updated on baby’s condition. Mum had her surgery – she will go and update mum
1830pm
* Nurse looking after mum on ITU informed us on mum’s condition. Nurse informed us of name of mum’s current partner who is aware baby is born – nurse said he sounded concerned

DAY 2
15pm
* No signs of withdrawal

DAY 3
14pm
* Duty social worker given us the details of named social worker who is aware baby is born. Asked how long baby is expected to be an inpatient – informed likely 2 – 3 weeks possible longer however should be prepared for him to be discharge soon. Named social worker fax all current documentation relating to the care. Stated social services will apply for an inform care order
18pm
* Withdrawal score 3 -4 * Second toxicology sent

DAY 4
12pm
* Jack started on oral morphine as second toxicology came back positive * Withdrawal score 4 -5
14pm
* Advised that social worker and foster carer would visit baby * Baby social worker visited. Plan is to initiate care proceedings ASAP reasons; history of substance misuse, concealed pregnancy, poor engagement with treatment and services

DAY 8
18pm
* Mum visited for the first time, had a cuddle with Jack

DAY 10
19pm
* Mum visited twice during day, had a cuddle with jack for an hour
22pm
* Midwife rang saying mum on her way to visit, left the ward 10mins ago
2230pm
* Mum phoned saying unable to visit as she planned because she in too much pain

DAY 11
16pm
* Mum visited for 15mins, asked how baby doing, had a cuddle. Mum wasn’t very clean, smelt overwhelmingly of cigarettes. She said she got visitors coming but didn’t say who. Beware of who and who not allowed to visit

DAY 12
Discussed at weekly social meeting, it was discussed how Jack was doing and the parental involvement. Mum was not engaging with the nurses, she showing very little interested in getting involved in Jack’s care. Social worker to get in contact with the named social worker t discuss where they are in the process of taking over care, and weather they found suitable foster care
DAY 15 – 20
Jack was discharge into the care of social services. A suitable foster carer was found, they was interacting and engaging well with Jack and members of the team. Mum was only allowed to have supervised times visits. Jack remained on oral morphine.

In the essay, I am going to discuss and analyse the decisions taken and processes used in relation to an identified child where they were concerns that the child might be ‘in need’ or ‘at risk’. It will include a chronology and proposals to improve the ‘safeguarding’ within the clinical environment. Due to the word limitation, the discussion will focus on the safeguarding the premature baby rather than the other siblings. Relevant issues involved in this particular case domestic violence, and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) will also be discussed.

Throughout the essay confidentiality and anonymity of all aspect of the care provided for the baby will maintained by disclosing the trust, staff and the patient and their family involved. “Nurses and midwives have a duty to protect confidential information. The person who is in the care of a nurse or midwife has a right to believe that information given to them in confidence is only used for the purposes for which it was given and will not be disclosed to others without permission” (NMC 2007) Confidentiality would be addressed in accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery council guidelines. Names of individuals, hospitals and local authorities involved have been changed.

In the United Kingdom, the overall health, safety and well-being of a child takes priority hence the provision of many programmes like the Every Child Matter: Change for Children and the Children’s Plan: Building Brighter Future. Every child matters is a Green Paper which was published by the government in 2003. It outlines the government’s approach to the well-being of children and young people from birth to the age of nineteen. The publication was alongside to the formal responses to the inquiry into the death of Victoria Climbie (Lord Lamming 2003) The Children’s Plan takes care of the collaborative partnerships among other local agencies and provides services and improvements for all children and young people (www.dcsf.gov.uk/everychildmatters). In local trust particularly in the neonatal unit, processes are undertaken to safeguard children under its care. These are governed by the Children’s Act 2004 as cited in Waterman et al (2004) to protect and safeguard all children in the United Kingdom. In the year 2009 they had been reported a total of 538,500 referrals of children identified as ‘at risk’ of maltreatment to social service departments (Thain 2009)
Zoe was a thirty four old who was unemployed lived in hostel accommodation. She was a known drug user who remained chaotic. She was regularly injecting drugs (heroin) into the groin, consuming excessive amounts of alcohol and she had history of criminal activity in the form of shop lifting. Her three older children were taken into care, Zoe was in unstable relationships. They were concerns relating to domestic violence in which the last incident occurred in July 2010, were the partner spent some time in jail. It was unclear of who the father was of her fourth baby. Zoe gave birth to Jack.
A referral was made to the relevant child protection authority from the community drug and alcohol team (CDAT), which Zoe was under because they were concerns that she was highly dependent on drugs while they was the possibility that she was pregnant however it appeared she was concealing the pregnancy. The child protection authority were informed of Zoe’s use of alcohol and drug use as well as Zoe being put onto the methadone programme which is designed to help her with her opioid dependence. Substance abusing woman are at high risk of experiencing multiple problems that may undermine their ability to care for their children. These included depression, increased exposure to parental and partner violence, sexual abuse, psychiatric disorder, violet behaviour and criminal behaviour (Schuler and Nair 2001) Any one or a combination of these factors can increase risk for poor parenting, placing the child at risk of poor development and behavioural and child neglect and/or abuse (Miller and Stermac 2000) It is noted that there is a considerable body of research showing that children who grew up in families where there is domestic violence and/or parental alcohol or drug misuse are at increased risk of significant harm (Kroll 2004) It is generally known that family environments are usually disrupted. It has been estimated that 30% of child abuse cases involved alcoholic parents and 60% of domestic violence cases have occurred when the perpetrator was under the influence of alcohol (Collins and Messerschmidit 1993 cited Dube et al 2001) Parental substance misuse can adversely affect attachment (Flores 2001) family dynamics, relationships and functioning (Cleaver et al 1999 cited Kroll 2004) and significantly increase the risk of violence.
The drug misuse was seemed to cause significant harm to the Zoe unborn infant. “Significant harm is defined as a situation where the child is likely to suffer a degree of physical harm such that it requires a compulsory intervention by child protection agencies” stated from London Child Protection Procedures (LCPP 2007). With the recognition of significant harm it was important to start to initiate the safeguarding referral process as early as possible. In the study done by Forrester (2000), it was found that substance misuse was an issue in 52% of cases and in their analysis of the care plans of 100 children Harwin et al (2003) found it a major factor in care proceedings for 40% of their sample of children subject to care orders.
From the referral being made it was decided that a Pre-birth conference and core assessment was needed. A pre – birth conference is considered an initial child protection conference concerning the unborn child, identifying major risks factors such as mental health illness, learning disabilities, substance misuse and domestic violence and is timed well before the due date of delivery to allow sufficient time for planning (London Safeguarding Children Board 2007) Pre – birth assessment and conference can be easily be subjected to scrutiny because of how comprehensive it is and how well it is designed to each and every single safeguarding case however the assessment is a huge component for the whole safeguarding process. With Zoe current situation as well as her pervious history it was essential to undertake a thorough initial assessment for her unborn baby under The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (Department of Health, 2000) The framework has three integral components; the child’s developmental needs, parenting capacity and family and environment factors. The assessment framework provides a detail tool for the assessment of children and their families. The framework is intended to be used by all practitioners to help and guide them when making decisions about a child and family however the framework is not intended to delay the provision of services if a child or family is recognised to be in need of any form of service provision during the assessment progress, they should be instigated immediately and should not wait until the assessment is complete (DH 1999) ) It was clear at this point that a thorough assessment needs to be undertaken to ensure that Jack would be safe from future maltreatment or neglect.
Street et al (2004) states that children of substance abusing parents are at greater risks of child abuse and neglect where’s Dube et al (2001) stressed that children raised in homes where parents are regularly taking drugs and alcohol are more likely to have problems with brain development and learning difficulties with emotional control, behaviour and social adjustment. Zoe’s social worker reported in the pre – conference that Zoe’s oldest son has serve learning difficulties as well as behavioural problems, finding it difficult to make attachments.
A pre – birth plan was devised following the pre - birth conference. The panel that sat on the child protection conference included Zoe’s drug and alcohol keyworker, social worker, safeguarding midwife, GP and police worker. The planned identify key elements in how to help Zoe and her unborn baby, which Zoe did not engage with, putting her unborn baby at risk.
Following a second meeting, the Child protection investigation case presented that it would be in the best interest of the unborn baby being removed from Zoe care at birth. McBride (2002) states parents who misuse substances may interact poorly with their children, inconsistent and/or emotionally unresponsive and may live a lifestyle of chaos and lack of routine. Zoe was not engaging with the supporting services, she was not attending conference meetings as well as the antenatal checks and classes. Her history in caring for her pervious children and remaining to be chaotic while pregnant was taking into consideration. All which was seemed will be a high risk of significant harm. Harm is defined as the impairment of the child’s health or development. The question of whether the harm is of sufficient degree to be considered ‘significant’ is measured by comparison with ‘that which could reasonably be expected of a similar child’ (Meadow et al 2007) Parents who misuse substances may interact poorly with their children, inconsistent and/or emotionally unresponsive and may live a lifestyle of chaos and lack of routine.
Taking all this into consideration, it was appropriate for every single practitioner at the pre-birth conference to raise their concerns regarding the parental capacity. The input of the social worker, substance misuse nurse, health visitor, safeguarding midwife, the police play an important role in identifying risks as well as needs. It also allows for good inter-professional relations and communications (Hughes, 2009) A well written pre – birth conference summary of assessment and plan, clearly stating the objectives and how they planned to meant disseminated to all relevant practitioners should ensure everyone to keep focus on their aims to keep the child safe and protect the best interest of the child (DH, 1995)
Zoe give birth to a baby boy named Jack. Jack was born prematurely at thirty two weeks, weighing 1.3kg. Jack was admitted to the neonatal unit because of prematurity, low birth weight and respiratory distress which was secondary to Jack being born prematurity and by caesarean section and the possibility of neonatal abstinence syndrome. He was initially treated for respiratory distress requiring ventilation. Hamden (2009) defined neonatal abstinence syndrome as a complex disorder composed of behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms relative to the causative agent. He divided it into two categories: parental or maternal use of substances which results in a withdrawal symptoms in the new-born and postnatal neonatal abstinence syndrome secondary to discontinuation of drugs for example morphine, fentanyl which are used in pain therapy. Jack’s case came under maternal substance misuse. On day four Jack was showing signs of withdrawal. His withdrawal score was three to four, a few typical signs which can persist for two – three weeks after birth and in the sub-acute stage for four – six months (Kouimtsidis and Baldacchiono 2003). Jack began to show signs of irritability, hypertonic, jitteriness, poor feeding and high pitched cry which all linked to signs of neonatal abstinence (Campbell 2003)
Street et al (2004) found that from the 68 participating woman, of the infants born to those woman 67 (99%) went onto display symptoms of signs of abstinence syndrome of which 5 (7%) had fits and 26 (38%) required treatment with morphine in which 20 (29%) of these for more than seven days. Two of the case infants were born with down syndrome (Street et al 2004) The risks of neonatal withdrawal is greatest with narcotic drugs, but has been reported in neonates following exposure to alcohol, cocaine, nicotine and amphetamines. In view of maternal history, consent was obtained to test jack’s urine sample for toxicology. Second urine toxicology was sent was sent on day three. Comprehensive screening of all new-born’s has been suggested but it not currently desirable, given concerns about cost and privacy. So infants are selectively screened for the presence of drug to confirm a diagnosis of NAS when the mother’s history of drug use is confirmed or suspected, to evaluate for the presence of additional drug exposures, or to evaluate unexplained symptoms suggestive of withdrawal. The presence of maternal drugs can be detected in neonatal urine, serum hair and meconium samples. Urine sampling is the most frequent performed study, although its sensitivity is limited (Greene, 2003)
Jack urine toxicology result tested positive to heroin and cocaine which explained Jack’s withdrawal from maternal drug abuse. Johnson et al (2003) stated that the severity and the onset of symptoms is usually dependant on what type of substances a mother takes during their pregnancy. The amount of alcohol and drugs Zoe took while pregnant cannot be identified. Jack was started on oral morphine sulphate; dose prescribed was in accordance with the medicine formulary. Jack’s withdrawal was closely observed and monitored using the withdrawal chart. He was weaned from the oral morphine appropriately. Problems of communication seem to haunt professional practice. Since the 1970’s virtually all reviews of fatal child abuse cases in the United Kingdom report that they was evidence of communication failure between professionals (Lord Lamming, 2003) Sinclair and Bullock (2002) prepared on behalf of the Department of Health a reanalysis of 40 randomly selected child abuse case reviews in the UK (now to be called ‘Serious Case’ Reviews instead of ‘Part 8’ Reviews). Among the communication problems they identified were inadequate sharing of knowledge because practitioners lacked an understanding about issues of confidentiality, consent and referral processes. An uncertain knowledge-based therefore impacted on inter-professional communication.
In line with unit policy unit policy, the neonatal nurse in charge on the day that Jack was born, made the neonatal unit’s child protection link nurse and the safeguarding midwife aware of Jack born, updated on the babies condition and progress as well enquire on how we can facilitate the safeguarding process following his birth. As the nurse in charge was communicating with the different people involved in the safeguarding process I started filling out the safeguarding children pro-forma and identified the key people involved in Zoe and Jack’s care with regards to safeguarding. The pro-forma is used trust wide to identify the vulnerability of Jack as a child. The form is attached to the medical notes. A social form was created to write any contact or interactions we had with Zoe, and other members of the multidisciplinary team involve in caring for Jack. Documentation of parental involvement was strongly emphasized because there is a possibility of neglectful behaviour on the most substance abusing parents as identified by Kroll (2004)
As Jack’s nurse, my role was to liase with the safeguarding midwife the hospital trust and the midwife caring for Zoe. This was to identify what were the potential risks factor’s involved in the care of Jack especially in relation to drug withdrawal. Communicating with the safeguarding midwife and the midwife in charge of Jack was extremely helpful in identifying potential risks involved and the available resources that can be utilized to best support Zoe.
During the discussion with the safeguarding midwife it was brought to the attention that Zoe has been a victim of domestic violence. Zoe was not communicating and engaging with the services so it was difficult to clarify certain things as well as discussing particular things. It was agreed at the pre – birth conference plan that because they was history of domestic violence and the uncertainty of who was Jack dad that no male visitors were allowed. It is difficult to determine the precise incidence of domestic violence because most cases were not reported. In the United Kingdom, they were an estimated 6.6 million reported cases of domestic violence in 1995 (Mirrless-Black 1999) In the United States, approximately 5.3 million cases of intimate partner violence occur every year among woman over 18 years of age. 324,000 of which were during pregnancy (Kramer 2007) Every woman of any socio-economic stats and educational background are vulnerable to abuse by their partners during pregnancy. Woman with unintended or mistimed pregnancy reported 2.5 times the abuse of intended pregnancies (Schoffner 2008) It was mentioned in the shift hand, informed the receptionist at the front desk and security over how Jack was not allowed no visitors. If they was no receptionist covering the front desk then it would be covered by a member of security
Even so social services were starting legal proceedings into taking over care of Jack they allowed Zoe to have supervised visits which was overseen by the nurses caring for jack. Zoe did not visit Jack until day eight of him being born, she did have a major heart operation following the caesarean which was taken into consideration. On her first visit to see Jack, Zoe was not interacting and engaging with me well. She just wanted to do her own thing, responding to my questions with just one word answers. I found it difficult to interact or build a relationship with Zoe. Zoe was treated like any mother who needed parenting support and not to focus on her drug/alcohol misuses. Good professional support during the post-partum period enables the mothers to adjust and cope with their new life that their infant will bring them and eventually make them good parents (Wiegers, 2006) Child abuse can take many forms which emphasises the need and necessitates accurate and timely communication between all members of the multi-professionaling services at all stages of work with children and families is needed.
Social services agencies both in the USA and the UK both prefer and are mandated to look to the extended family as a first part of call where children are taken out of the parental care (Kelly 1993 cited Barnard 2003) Grandparents and other relatives have long been stepping into breach were parents have difficulties in providing the full care of their children. The informal support offered by the extended family can be crucial in keeping families intact and in keeping children safe and well through hard times. In families were parents have drug problems however the evidence suggests that the hard times may last indefinitely (Kroll and Taylor 2002) with substantial numbers of relatives taking on the long term and often sole care of the children (Barnard 2003) From the information that social services had, they only had the name of Zoe sister as she was her next of kin. They only her name which meant that they were unable to trace. Zoe oldest son is currently in care however when he was first removed from Zoe’s care he was being looked after by an uncle. The oldest son soon developed learning and behavioural problems which the uncle found difficult to manage hence why he went back into the care of the local authorites.
The true extent of drug use in the United Kingdom population is difficult to determine. The recent inquiry by the Advisory Council on the misuse of drug estimates that there are between 25,000 and 350,000 children of problem drug users in the UK (inquiry by advisory council on the misuse of drugs, 2003) They state that reducing the harm to children from parental problem drug use should become a main objective of policy and practice. However drug use does not necessarily
Parenting can be difficult and demanding, and there is no signs, right way to bring up a child however in some instances children are not being cared for or brought up adequately (DH 1999). It is important to remember that we live in a multicultural society and difficulties can arise when considering the influence of culture on parenting skills and styles. The DH (1999) states that irrespective of culture, that children should have the opportunity to achieve their fully potential.
As nurses working in acute setting, everyone who comes into contact with children of families during their everyday work has a responsibility to protect and promote the wellbeing of children. If any practitioners has concerns about a child’s welfare, detailed advice is given about these concerns should be raised, with whom they should be discussed and further action that should be taken it necessary (DH 2003) This involves ensuring that we safeguard and ensure a child’s; physical , mental and emotional wellbeing, educational opportunities, living arrangements, accommodation, ability or care for themselves and cope with everyday life and sense of identifying including cultural and racial identify
Chudleigh (2005) recognises that safeguarding issues are complex to deal with. As nurses working in the neonatal intensive care setting we are often faced with this challenge. The unit advocates the philosophy of family centred care where all members of staff, medical and nursing staff always encourage parental involvement in the infant care giving and an open communication with parents. Griffin (2006) wrote the design of the neonatal intensive care unit – should not interfere with its implementation of family centred care approach to benefit not only the families and the patients but also the staff. As nurse’s we should know who is our link nurse, midwife and consultant within the trust. As part of mandatory training we should continue to have sessions on child protection so we are kept up to date on new cases, recent changes and publications/policies.
REFERENCE LIST
Barnard M (2002) Between a Rock and a Hard Place.: The role of relatives in protecting children from the effects of parental drug problems. Child and Family Social Work. 8: 291 – 299
Campbell S (2003) Prenatal cocaine exposure and neonatal/infant outcomes. Neonatal Network. 22 (1): 19 -21
Chudleigh J (2005) Safeguarding Children. Primary Healthcare. 15 (4): 43 – 49
Department of Health (1995) Child Protection: Clarification of Arrangements Between the NHS and other agencies. London: Department of Health
Department of Health (1999) Working Together to Safeguard Children: a guide to inter agency working together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Department of health: London
Department of Health (2000) Framework for the Assessment of Children in need and their families. London: Stationery Office
Dube S, Anda R, Feliti V, Croft J, Edwards V, Giles W (2001) Growing up with parental drug abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. Child Abuse & Neglect. 25: 1627 – 1640
Flores PJ (2001) Addictions as an attachment disorder: implications for group theraphy. International Journal of Group Psychotheraphy. 51: 63 – 81
Forrester D (2000) Parental substance misuse and child protection in British sample: a survey of children on the Child Protection Register in a Inner London District Office. Child Abuse Review. 9: 235 - 246
Hamdan A. (2009) Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome http://www.emedicince.medspace.com assessed accessed 22nd December 2010
Harwin J, Forrester D (2002) Parental Substance Misuse and Child Welfare: A study of social work with families in which Parents misuse drugs of alcholol. First stage report to Nuffield Foundation
Hughes L (2009) Good Practice in safeguarding Children: Working effectively in child protection. London: Jessica Kingsley Publications Ltd.
Inquiry by Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (2003) Hidden Harm: Responding to the needs of children of problem drug users. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs
Johnson K, Gerada C, Greenough A (2003) Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Archives of Diseases in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 88: F2 – F5
Klee H and Lewis S. (2002). Preparing for Motherhood. Drug Misuse and Motherhood. 4, 47-62. Routhledge London
Kouimtsidis C and Baldcchino A. (2003) Pregnancy, Substance Misuse and the Health of the Infant – A Biological Perspective, Perspective Across Europe. Denmark: European Collaborating Centres in Addiction Studies
Kramer A. (2007) Stages of change: surviving Intimate partner Violence During Pregnancy. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing. 21 (4), 285-295
Kroll B. (2004) Living with an elephant: growing up with parental substance misuse. Child & Family Social Work. 9, 129 -140
Kroll B, Taylor A (2002) Parental Substance Misuse and Child Welfare. Jessica Kingsley. London
London Safeguarding Children Board (2007) London Child Protection Procedures (3rd edition). London: LCPC * Lord Laming (2003). The Victoria Climbie Inquiry. The Stationery Office: London * * McBride A (2002) Working with Substance Misusers. Hoboke: Routledge * * Miller GM, Stermac L (2000) Substance abuse and childhood treatment maltreatment: Conceptualizing the recovery process. Journal of Substance Misuse Treatment. 19: 175 – 182 * * Mirrless-Black C (1999) Domestic violence: Findings from a new British Crime Survey self – completion questionnaire. Home Office Research study 191. London
Nursing and Midwifery Council: Code of Conduct (2007)
Schuler ME, Nair P (2001) Witnessing violence among inner-city children of substance abusing and non substance abusing woman. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 155: 342 - 346
Sinclair R, Bullock R. (2002) Learning from the Past Experience: A Review of Serious Case Reviews. Department of Health: London
Shoffner D. (2008) We don’t like to about it. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Journal of perinatal and Neonatal Nursing. 22 (1), 39 -48.
Street K, Harrington J, Chiang W, Cairns P, Ellis M. (2004) How Great is the Risk of Abuse in Infants Born to Drug-using Mothers? Child: Care, Health and Development. 30, 325-330
Tanner K & Turney D. (2003) What do we know about child neglect? A Critical review of the literature and its application to social work practice. Child and family social work. 8, 25 - 34
Thain J. (2009) Recognising signs of abuse. Pediatric Nursing 21 (7), 6-7
Waterman C and Fowler J. (2004). Plain Guide to the children’s Act 2004 National Foundation
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...Task 1 Criteria: P1 – Outline why children and young people may need to be looked after away from their families (Unit 10) In the year ending 31 March 2013, a total of 68,110 children were looked after by local authorities in England, a rate of 60 per 10,000 children under 18 years.(13/09/15; Rachael Harker and Sarah Heath)In our community, the local authority has a duty of care which is to ensure the safety/ well – being of others. However, there are times when a child’s best interests have to be taken into account and these interests may be that being cared for away from their family home is best. There are many different reasons as to why children and young people may need to be ‘looked after’ away from their families. The term ‘looked after’ has a specific legal meaning based on the Children Act. More often than not, the reason behind the child being looked after is because the child’s parent or the person who have parental responsibilities and rights to look after the child are unable to care for him/her. (@ Citizens Advice; 13/09/15) These could be either family or child related reasons behind the removal of the child. One of the family related reasons could be through a court order. There are a number of orders that can be issued to ensure the protection and supervision of children. However the main orders that can be made are a child protection order, a child assessment order, an exclusion order, a permanence order and a parenting order. (@citizens......

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...Rachel Dag. NVQ in Health and Social Care level 2. (A/601/8574) Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care 1.1 Define the following types of abuse: 1.2 Identify the signs and /or symptoms associated with each type of abuse: .Physical abuse: The intended use of physical force that may results in bodily injury, pain or impairment. This includes the application of techniques or treatments, involuntary isolation or confinement, misuse of medication and feelings of intimidation. It can also include smashing of the residents furniture and belongings, pushing or shoving, holding against the persons will, slapped, bitten, kicked, pinched, punched, threats of becoming violent. Those are many signs and symptoms due to the physical abuse: some bruising can appear in wellhidden places, broken bones, sprains and dislocations, burns(friction/scalds), pressure sores, flinching when approached, weight loss, feeling depressed and in a low mood, angry. .Sexual abuse: this is when sexual contact is made without the consent of the person or when the person has been tricked or force into taking part in sexual activities. This can happen to males and females. This can include sexual penetration with any object, fingers or penis. Being exposed to pornographic elements, touching someone up or kissing is also a way of sexual abuse. Those are many signs and symptoms due to the sexual abuse: you can find some bruising around the person’s genitals and breast,......

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Safeguarding in Health and Social Care

...Unit 10: Safeguarding in Health and Social Care Student Name: Student I.D: Submission date: 09/12/2015 CONTENTS PAGE Task | Page number | Task 1: Induction Pack on Abuse factors and contexts (1.1, 1.2, 1.3) | 4-12 | Task 2: Essay on the law in contexts (2.1, 2.2) | 12-19 | Task 3: Power point presentation on working practices and strategies (3.1, 3.2, 3.3) | 20-28 | References | 29-30 | TASK 1: Abuse (factors and contexts) Introduction Abuse of vulnerable people in most parts of the world needs to be stopped because it falls under the protection of human rights as It is fundamental right for all people to living a life that is free from harm, abuse and discrimination. This right is protected by Human Right Act 1998. Abuse is the violation of an individual’s human and civil rights by any other persons which results in significant harm. During the course of this induction guide I'll explore various types of abuse in health and social care sector that include; emotional/ psychological abuse, sexual, physical abuse, financial abuse, and neglect. there are other abuse like domestic violence, discrimination. I"ll also identify the sign and indicators of abuse and also explore social and cultural factors which are responsible for abuse. Safeguarding Adults A person over age of 18 years is vulnerable adult if by reason of old age, infirmity, injury, illness,......

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...Safeguarding Assignment 2 Legislation, policies and workplace procedures which reduce the risk of abuse Hand In Deadline: 19th November 2014 Task 1: You must write a report that covers: * Legislation * Recruitment practices * Sector Guidance * Strategies and * Procedures that are used to safeguard vulnerable adults. In addition you must say how these can be used to help reduce 2 different types of abuse. This report will be looking at how legislation, policies and workplace procedures reduce the risk of abuse. Legislations are put in place to reduce the risk of abuse in certain environments and workplaces that are targeted by abusers. The definition for legislation is the act or process of making or enacting laws. In this report I will be covering the six legislations that are most known to us these are; The Sexual Offences act, The Care Standards Act, The Mental health Act, The Equality Act, The Human Rights and The Data Protection Act. The first one I will be covering is The Sexual Offences Act 2003. This Act lists the different types of sex offences. How sex offenders are monitored, how the police have to be informed if the sex offender has changed address or been away from home for more than seven days and it also covers sexual abuse of vulnerable people with mental disorder. This can help spot abuse within different environments, prevent abuse from occurring and stops sex offenders from abusing again within a matter of weeks. The...

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Safeguarding Children

...Safeguarding children and young people and young vulnerable adults policy |Ofsted aims to assure the safe and secure provision for children, young people and learners across all remits through effective | |inspection and regulation. Therefore, safeguarding the welfare of children, young people and some vulnerable adult learners is part of | |our core business and all staff must be aware of their responsibilities in this regard. | Age group: 0-18+ Published: February 2015 Reference no: 150004 Contents Purpose 4 The definition of safeguarding – children and young people 5 Aims and objectives 6 Ofsted’s responsibilities 7 Safeguarding vulnerable adults 9 Ofsted’s responsibilities 10 Ofsted Safeguarding Group 10 Annex A: Assessment of risk in settings, where children attend, because individuals reside on the premises or have access to children and young people 12 Purpose 1. This document outlines Ofsted’s policy on identifying and responding to concerns regarding the safeguarding and protection of children and young people, with a specific section on protection of vulnerable adults. This policy, with the associated procedures, provides guidance for all staff who may come across concerns of this nature within the context of their work for Ofsted. These include: ■ all members of Ofsted’s workforce, both inspectors and office-based staff ■ additional inspectors ......

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...What is safeguarding? Safeguarding is protecting vulnerable adults or children from abuse or neglect. It means making sure people are supported to get good access to health care and stay well. It is wrong if vulnerable people are not treated by professionals with the same respect as other patients. It is making sure that people are supported to have full and happy lives. It is making sure that people get safe and empowering care. Safeguarding should make sure that people get the support they need to make the most of their lives and get their full equal rights. Employers must still make sure they do not employ bad staff or volunteers to care for vulnerable adults and children. They should make sure that staff and volunteers have a Police Check before they are left to work alone with vulnerable adults and children. If an organisation has sacked or planned to sack a member of staff or volunteer who has left because they have harmed a child or vulnerable adult, they must tell the Independent Safeguarding Authority. A person who is or may be unable to take care of him or herself. A person who is unable to protect him or herself against serious harm or being taken advantage of. All organizations that work with or come into contact with children should have safeguarding policies and procedures to ensure that every child, regardless of their age, gender, religion or ethnicity, can be protected from harm. Setting up and following good safeguarding policies and procedures......

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...69 – Understand safeguarding of children and young people for those working in the adult sector (Level 5) Explain the policies, procedures and practices for safe working with children and young people. Policies and procedures are set in place to not only protect children and young people but also adults who work with them. It is vital that all professionals follow safe working practices to ensure that not only children are protected but also themselves. I have chosen to talk about in a childcare setting for this unit. An example is, if a disclosure is made by a child to a member of staff, it is vital that it is always taken seriously even if it is proven to be untrue or inaccurate. The child or young person should be listened to in a calm supportive manner which will allow them to talk freely and openly, it is also imperative that they are reassured about telling someone and how hard it must have been for them. Once the disclosure has been made and the child is calmed and secure, the employee or adult should inform the designated safeguarding officer, relevant notes should be written down in the child’s own words, including names that were mentioned, time and place of disclosure and place and background of the disclosure. In every setting there should be on display or on view a policy and procedure folder. This is there for everybody to look at and to show support of safe working. The policies and procedures are put in place to benefit staff, children,......

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...elementary school. This paper presents disruptive behavior in young behaviors in young children which includes Attention Deficit Disorder that consist of being hyper all day whether they in school or they are at home. The new method that they find out if a child has a behavior problem is to distinct between normative behavior and a typical behavior during their growth years. During their growth years while they are in preschool years they act out their developmental period that they starting to develop autonomy. A big deal of different behavior changes that fall under the Rubric outgoing behavior. Some children have Attention Deficit Disorder and don’t even know it until they are tested by their Physician. Most children in preschool mock other children and they pick up everything that other children are doing and also what they have learned to speak. Parents always asked themselves can you teach a young child or children to manage to manage their own behavior. According to (McDavis,2007) you can teach them self-management to pay attention to the oneself behavior and also to complete activities using effective appropriate behavior. You basically have to ask yourself like I did when I had preschoolers and elementary school age children. Is the child able to make different accurate self –assessments to her or his behavior then you need to ask yourself is the child’s current level of self-managing. Most children who are treated for acting out for having behavior problems are......

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Safeguarding

...Relation to Children Suffering Neglect The purpose of this assignment is to critically evaluate the role of the Specialist Community Public Health Nurse (SCPHN) in recognition of children suffering neglect. To begin a definition of safeguarding will be explored from a range of sources. This will be followed with the importance of policy and its impact on our direct practice as SCPHN’s. Finally key terms will be addressed as follows “children, neglect” Safeguarding is not a new concept though definition remains contrived (Fraser & Nolan, 2004) There is no mutually agreed definition, this makes the subject emotive and difficult to encompass, rather Powell (2007) perceives “safeguarding” as a umbrella term that encapsulates key themes including child protection, safe conduct, duty of care to act and collaborative working. This definition differs greatly from the Oxford Dictionary (2009 p324) definition “to protect (someone or something) from harm or destruction” This definition is rather vague, unclear and subjective, this presents further queries who has the final say on harm, is it the parent, the child or the Health Professional. Public policy with reference to safeguarding children is rapidly having been brought in to sharp focus with recent well publicised cases including Baby P and Victoria Climbie demanding a blame culture (Corby,2006) Said culture has propelled Health Professionals into acting and this is represented in the increase specialist safeguarding teams......

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...are crucially important in safeguarding children (HM Government, 2010). In the past decade there has been significant change in nursing and healthcare that has led to a much wider remit for those involved in working with children and subsequently child protection (Hall and Elliman, 2006; Department of Health, 2004); indeed Health Visitors are responding to a national drive to further enhance their contribution to public health (Department of Health, 2009). It is against this backdrop that the critical need to develop the leadership role of the Specialist Community Public Health nurse within the process of recognising and referring child maltreatment emerges. This requires Team Managers to support staff to safeguard children, which highlights the need for effective clinical supervision, improved interagency working, and a change in organisational culture. Using a Case Study presented in Appendix One, consideration will be given to the significance of the role of the Specialist Community Public Health nurse in the recognition and referral of a child in need of protection. Consideration will also be given to the complexities of the recognition of abuse, and the barriers which may hinder the safeguarding process. For the purposes of this assignment the terms Specialist Community Public Health Nurse and Health Visitor will be used interchangeably. Elizabeth is clearly a ‘child in need’ as defined by Section 17(10) of the Children Act 1989, as without the......

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