Free Essay

Review of Fellini's 81/2

In: Film and Music

Submitted By B29x11
Words 1012
Pages 5

Produced by Angelo Rizzoli. Directed by Federico Fellini. Screenplay by Federico Fellini, Tullio Pinelli, Ennio Flaiano, Brunello Rondi.

Viewers expecting to sit back, relax and switch off for a couple of hours - this film is not for you. A barrage of dream sequences interrupted by brief encounters with endless characters; this is a piece of shamelessly self indulgent psychoanalysis on Fellini's part. Of course, this is exactly what he intended. The main character is that of Guido (played by Fellini himself) a director unable to complete his latest film and loosely based on the identity of his own creator (Fellini). Fellini has been able to achieve the effect of mise en abyme not only through the dream sequences but also with this being an autobiographical piece. Viewers are intentionally lulled into the false belief that they are watching a film about Fellini, not the character Guido. Throughout, obvious references to the films chaos and irregularities are made by characters through their criticism of the unfinished, fictional film. When giving Guido notes on his film, one character calls it 'a chain of gratuitous episodes' which pretty much describes Fellini's 8½ to perfection. In another scene Guido is criticised for his obsession with depicting 'Italy's Catholic conscience' which is also a reoccurring motif of Fellini's. He plays this game with the viewer by highlighting the inadequacies of his own film through the criticism of the fictional one.

An endless array of different female characters appear throughout the film as viewers are forced to analyse the protagonists relationships with women starting from his childhood. It is a psychoanalysts dream as almost every stereotype of woman is depicted; from virgins and whores to doting mother figures – they all appear. Albeit confusing and chaotic, there are more than a few moments of cinematic genius, the most memorable being the culmination of all the female characters in the Harem dream sequence. Guido's many actresses, dancers, women from his childhood, his wife, his mistress all speak directly to the camera in a montage of absurd flattery of Fellini's character. It is Freudian overkill as we watch the misogynist being bathed, carried like a child and looked after by female characters that had previously represented sexuality. These kinds of female characters are juxtaposed by nuns and members of the clergy which appear throughout the film as a constant commentary on 'Italy's Catholic conscience'. Another unforgettable scene is that of Saraghina (Eddra Gale). In a childhood memory of Guido's, a huge, muscular woman, covered in make-up and clothed in rags dances for him and is his first representation of sexual desire – which is quickly followed by a punishment from his teachers who are all members of the clergy, his mother who doesn't want to see him, and a confession in church. Fellini is in constant analysis of Guido's relationships with women especially through this depiction of sex, punishment and the church, however, this scene of Saraghina dancing is quite delightful and gives us a little break from the dream sequences and episodes of self analysis.

Having criticised the initial chaotic nature of the film, it must be said that the lack of linearity and constant changing of scenes becomes rather effortless as Fellini's method behind his madness becomes clearer for the viewer. Recognisable central characters start to form and, however confusing the content of the dreams, they begin to flow with ease. Although the content is the main appeal of the film and what essentially gives it such individuality as a piece, the cinematography and novel camera work make it an aesthetic joy. Fellini's use of space is very modern and quite before it's time. With the large amount of actors and hubbub in most of the scenes the main event could very easily be lost or have it's attention stolen by something in the background; Fellini never allows this to happen.

What should be noted is a sense of interest in Guido develops with the viewer as he becomes likeable, despite the cruel and self-absorbed nature of his character. This could be put down to Fellini's impeccable acting within this role. In fact, all of the actors are superb, especially Sandra Milo who plays the mistress, Carla. There is another montage scene of actresses auditioning for her part in Guido's film, each one dressed as her being directed how to speak and act. This is just another of Fellini's mise en abyme moments where we can't help but imagine the audition process that Milo had to go through for her part. There are scenes like this one of 'reality' which actually carry the storyline, however, they are few and far between – distinguishing reality from fantasy is the main difficulty. It would be advisable to accept the structure (or lack there of) that Fellini has intentionally and masterfully created, as opposed to trying to make sense of it all.

8½'s labyrinth of psychoanalysis and fantasy sequences is never ending. Even brief episodes and characters that only appear once are the little details that make the film so memorable and interesting to watch. These are the things that keep you watching. Just to emphasise the Freudian theme we see a very brief scene with Guido's parents where he lowers his own father into a grave. Subtleties hint throughout at Fellini's own fears of ageing or no longer being able to create good work. It is an honest film with few inhibitions. Although Fellini has created a brilliantly clever, memorable and thought provoking film, I cant help but feel like a silent observer to his own personal therapy session.


Lodge, D. (1997) The Practice of Writing: Essays, lectures, reviews and a diary. London: Penguin


Bradshaw, P. (2013) La Grande Bellezza (The Great Beauty) – review. The Guardian. [online].
Available from: [Accessed 1 January 2014]

Young, D. (2006) Review: 'The Caiman'. Variety. [online]. Available from: [Accessed 12 December 2013]

Fellini, F. (1963) 8½. [DVD] Nouveaux Pictures.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Concert Review 2

...Concert Review # 2 The second concert I attended conducted by Sidney Harth on February 21st was at the Carnegie Music Hall in Oakland and was actually my first time at the music hall because the first concert was cancelled and I am from the Buffalo, NY area. I can definitely say that it is one of the most beautiful buildings that I have ever seen in my life. As you walk up the stairs and begin through the large chambered doors you get the feeling an old castle were kings, queens and the royal family came to be entertained. The inside was just as fascinating as the outside it embodied a place in which no expense was spared and even gives you the subconscious feeling that you are too royalty. Furthermore on the concerts, I felt this particular concert represented music that I was not accustomed to and therefore was annoyed with at first. Yet as I began to open my mind a bit and realize that with every different note it reflected a different emotion that the original conductor was feeling, it made me curious of what else was about to come. Aaron Copland’s “Quiet City” was without a doubt my favorite piece played at this concert. It began with a quiet and slow noises of violins that made me envision a dark night when one is looking into the clearing. A dark tonight then transitions into an early morning battle or conflict as the trumpets begin to blare all throughout. Not just the title itself, but the style of the music makes me think of New York City and how......

Words: 390 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Bio Test #2 Review

...fBIOL 3350 Exam 2 Review 1. What is the function of the seminal vesicles? Adds fluid to the ejaculate to propel the sperm forward. The fructose secreted by the seminal vesicles provides the energy for sperm motility. 2. What role does nitric oxide play in erections? It involves increased inflow of blood into the corpora cavernosa due to relaxation of the trabecular smooth muscle that surrounds the sinusoidal spaces and compression of the veins controlling outflow of blood from the venous plexus. 3. What nervous system controls erection? Parasympathetic nervous system 4. What are the major sources of estrogen in premenopausal and menopausal women? Ovaries and adipose tissue 5. What hormones would be used to treat exceptionally tall children by effecting early epiphyseal closure? Estrogen and testosterone 6. What describes herniation of the bladder into the vagina? Cystocele 7. What is testicular torsion and what is it a common consequence of? A Twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testis. It is a consequence of cryptorchidism along with infertility and malignancy. 8. What is the most common cause of cancer in males between the ages of 15-35? Testicular cancer 9. What cancer is the most common nonskin cancer in the US affecting men 65 years of age and older? Prostate cancer 10. What condition is characterized by heavy bleeding during and between menstrual cycles? Menometrorrhagia 11. What role does oxytocin and......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Review Exam 2 Ins300

...Review List (Exam 2) 10/27/2010 This review list covers important topics for Exam 2 (Annuities, Health Insurance, Chapter 19 to 24, and Special Topic 2). This list should be used only as a reference for exam preparation. All materials that are covered in the lectures and in the related sections of the textbook are testable unless explicitly excluded. Annuities (Chapter 14) 1. What is “annuity”? Why do we need it? An annuity provides periodic payments to an annuitant, which continue for either a fixed period or for the duration of a designated life or lives. The fundamental purpose of a life annuity is to provide lifetime income that cannot be outlived. 2. Understand how annuities work. 3. What are common types of annuities? Understand how fixed annuity and variable annuity work and their differences. Fixed annuity pays periodic income payments that are guaranteed and fixed in amount. It can be purchased so that the income payments start immediately, or the payments can be deferred to some later date. Deferred annuities typically provide for flexible premiums. Variable annuity pays a lifetime income, but the income payments vary depending on investment experience of the subaccount in which the premiums are invested. The purpose of this type of annuity is to provide an inflation hedge by maintaining the purchasing power of the periodic payments. Equity indexed annuity offers the guarantees of a fixed annuity and limited participation in stock market gains. ......

Words: 1691 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Marketing Exam 2 Review

...4 major areas * role influ (manager) * expectations associated with position * reference group influ (some professional org) * categories of people you see yourself belonging to * social class influ (upper class) * group with similar values, interests, lifestyles * cultural influ (Asian, Hispanic) * group with common language, environment, also subcultures Buying motives * an aroused need, drive, or desire that stimulates behavior to satisfy the aroused need * helpful to discover the dominant buying motive * 4 basic motives types * emotional * acts due to passion or sentiment * emotional appeals common * if 2 products are identical, the salesP who connects has adv * rational * acts on reason or judgment * relatively free of emotion * salesP gather, interpret, and disseminate customer-specific info * patronage * buy from a particular firm * past exp positive * relevant elements * superior service * product selection * competent sales staff * product * buyer believes one product is superior to others * preferences for * specific brands, quality, price, design/engineering Chap 9 Developing and Qualifying a Prospect base What will be a good example......

Words: 2845 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Chapter 2 Review Question

...chapter 2 1. Why is information security a management problem? What can management do that Technology cannot? Management is an information problem due to the fact that policymaking and training of securing systems from users fall into the responsibility of their role. These responsibilities can include limiting access as well as disabling certain functions that are not related to the organizations’ function. Management can set policies that may arise due to improper uses or manipulations of systems and asses the threats that are unknown due to the introduction of new hardware and software. 2. Why is data the most important asset an organization possesses? What other assets in the organization require protection? The integrity of the data is most important because it relates to the overall company operations. Securing the data from people not authorized to see or change it ensures that the correct information about the company is being generated without interference or manipulations of data. Other important assets that requires protection are the computer terminals, networking infrastructure, which need to be protected from misuse from internal and external threats whether intentional or not. 3. Which management groups are responsible for implementing information security to protect the organization’s ability to function? The responsibility relies on several management groups such as CIO, who is responsible for the overall protection of system, but the......

Words: 1762 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Chapter 2 Review

...Assignment 2 1.C 2.B 3.B, D 4.C, D 5.A 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.A,C,D 10. C, D 11.A 12.C,D 13.B 14.C 15.A,D 16.D 17.D 18.D 19.A 20.B Computer networking- the process of the stuff working together Computer network- the stuff that works together Application- software that performs some useful function for a user Email- one of the oldest applications that uses networking, acts like sending letters through the postal service Voice call- emphasizing the fact that the traffic that flows between the endpoints is voice Video frame- a grid of pixel locations of a chosen width by height that contains the lights/colors to be shown in a video at a single point in time Web server- refers to both the software and the hardware on which it executes Web browser- software that allows a user to get and display a copy of a web page from a web server Web address- identifies the specific web page that the user wants to display Web page- Identified by the name after the/ in the URL Protocol- set of rules HTTP- defines the rules by which a web browser can ask for a web page from a web server. and the rules a web serves uses to send the web page back to the web browser Enterprise network- a network owned and operated by a company, with that company being somewhat larger then typical, generally with more than 1000 employees Link-any cable between two devices Node- any device Internet/the Internet- the global network formed by interconnecting most of the networks on......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Project 2 Literature Review

...CCJS 461 6980 Bryan McAllister Project 2: Literature Review October 20, 2014 “Poverty refers to a situation which the basic resources to maintain an average standard of living within a specific geographic region are lacking.” (Bartol & Bartol, 2014, p. 31) It is known that there is a definite connection between poverty and criminal activity. The connection leaves little doubt that poverty is a legitimate risk factor and those who are forced to survive in impoverished conditions are more likely to engage in criminal activity. “There is little doubt that poverty has a strong connection to persistent, violent offending, as measured by official, victimization and self-report data on both adult and juvenile offenders.” (Bartol & Bartol, 2014, p. 32) Treatment of those who reside in impoverished areas by law enforcement is much different than individuals who reside in more affluent neighborhoods. “In many communities, children from the lower socioeconomic class are targeted by law enforcement practices more than are children of the middle and upper classes” (Bartol & Bartol, 2014, p. 33) Impoverished environments also connect the individuals who reside in them to other issues which make the risk factor of poverty even more complex. According to the text (Bartol & Bartol, 2014) attending inadequate schools, not completing school, being unemployed, carrying a firearm, being victimized, along with being a witness to violent crimes are more likely to......

Words: 2705 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Midterm 2 Review

...alternative & implement - Growth Patterns: Growth, Decline, Cyclical, Stable - Math – Calculate Annual Capacity, Total Processing Time needed/ Annual Capacity Break Even Analysis - P=TR-TC=Q*r-(FC+Q*v) - Q = (P+FC)/(R-v) – BEP is when P=0 Choosing Between Two Systems - Q(BEP) = [FC(1)-FC(2)] / [v(2)-v(1)], less = 1, greater = 2 Management of Quality Quality – the ability of a good or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations Quality Control – Monitoring, testing, and correcting quality problems after they occur Quality Assurance – Providing confidence that a product’s quality will be good by preventing defects before they occur Continuous improvement – never-ending improvements to key processes as part of total quality management Dimensions of Quality of Goods- performance, aesthetics, special features, safety, reliability, durability, perceived quality, service after sale, and latent Dimensions of Quality of Service – Tangibles, Convenience, Reliability, Responsiveness, Time, Assurance, Courtesy Determinants of Quality (1) Product Design (2) Process design (3) Production Costs of Quality (1) Internal Failure Cost – Failures discovered during production (2) External Failure Cost – Failures discovered after delivery to the customer (3) Appraisal (detection) Cost – costs of inspecting and testing (4) Prevention Costs – Costs of preventing defects from occurring ISO 9001 - The international standard for a quality management system,......

Words: 1466 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

202 Test 2 Review

...the demand for hula hoops is inelastic. * d. 0.2 and the demand for hula hoops is inelastic. 210. “Because of the unseasonably cold weather, Florida orange growers expect (1) fewer bushels of oranges to be harvested, (2) a higher market price for oranges, and (3) larger total revenues from this year’s crop.” This statement would most likely be correct if the a. demand for Florida oranges was elastic. b. demand for Florida oranges was unitary elastic. * c. demand for Florida oranges was inelastic. d. income elasticity of Florida oranges was negative. 211. Which of the following statements is true regarding the price elasticity of supply? a. The price elasticity of supply is always negative. * b. The price elasticity of supply is always positive. c. The price elasticity of supply will be greater when suppliers have a shorter time to respond to a price change. d. None of the above statements are true. 212. Use the diagram below to answer this question. [pic] For this demand curve, the price elasticity of demand is * a. more elastic at $3 than at $2. b. more elastic at $2 than at $3. c. identical at $2 to that at $3. d. equal to 1.0 over the range from $3 to $2. 213. A car wash currently sells 30 car washes a day at a price of $5. Total daily revenue is now $150. If they lower their price to $3, a. total revenue will fall if the number of washes sold only rises to......

Words: 4439 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Worksheet #2 Module Review SID#: Worksheet #2: Pollution Control (Aka Study Guide for Exam 2) Approximate Exam format: 25 multiple choice (60% of grade) & 4 short answer (40% of grade) Instructions: * Add notes to each of the study questions or prompts below. Limit your responses to a total of eight (8) typewritten pages [Encouraging you to write more in-depth answers]. Make sure your name and SID# is on every page and staple the pages together. * You may discuss answers with your team-members; however, each student must submit an individual assignment. Plagiarism or submitting the same answers is not permitted. * This worksheet is due at the end of the period on Thurs, October 30, 2014. * Late worksheets will not be accepted. 1. Explain the relationship (and differences) between emissions, ambient concentration, and exposure. Emissions refer to the quantity of a pollutant directly released into the environment, while ambient concentration refers to the concentration of those pollutants in the atmosphere. Exposure is the number of people exposed to these pollutants. 2. Explain the difference between primary and secondary pollutants Primary pollutants are pollutants released directly from a source, while secondary pollutants form in the atmosphere or environment through chemical reactions with primary pollutants. 3. Explain the difference between point source and non-point pollution. Give an example of each. What makes one more difficult...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Chapter 2 Review Question

...Applications in Info Security Chapter 4 Review Questions: 1)It might depend on the risk, although all risks should be addressed. The conditions that an organization might have is if they don't have a risk management plan or if they don't have the money to identify and mitigate the risk 2) 3)Alignment is important because it can align organizational goals with ICT works. The benefits to an organization as a whole is that it can align security processes with business goals. 4)Evaluation is important because it can determine if your team is achieving the objectives and this is usually done through gathering data and then analyzing it. Organizations benefit by collecting quantitative data because it can be used to evaluate the options and implications of a decision. 5)A contract is an agreement between a customer and a supplier, while the RFP is technically a bid solicitation. 6)Typically a subcontractor role is to perform specific tasks given by a general contractor. They can be controlled by the supplier to follow the right procedures that are given in the contract. 7)The problem resolution is important because it involves two parties in agreeing that all problems are identified, analyzed, managed, and controlled to resolution. 8)There are two types of reviews: Formal Reviews Informal Reviews In a formal review, the ICT is presented to a team or to an individual before the actual review. In the other hand the informal review allows the producer to......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Test 2 Review

...Test 2 Review References and Works Cited Pages • References and works cited pages are both bibliographies, are both listed in alphabetical order, and are each used in a style guide for a different discipline (APA used references; Turabian uses works cited). • If you only cite 1 source in your paper, be sure to label your bibliography page accordingly (i.e., reference or work cited instead of references or works cited). • You must only include the sources that you actually cited in your references or works cited page. If you read other materials while writing your paper, but you did not actually cite them, you may want to include them on a separate page; since they are not actually cited, they must not appear on the works cited or reference page. • You must list all sources that you cited in your paper, including dictionary and encyclopedia entries. • Attention to detail in a works cited or references page is important because it can help you to avoid plagiarism, it demonstrates academic integrity, and it helps your reader to find and use the same sources that you did. • Regardless of whether you use a references or works cited page, your entries must be listed in alphabetical order based on the first word of the entry (usually the author’s last name, but sometimes a piece may not have an author, so you will have to use a different piece of information. Check the Prentice Hall Reference Guide for more information. Summaries,......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Mmpi-2 Review

...History of the MMPI According to Roger L. Greene (2011), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), MMPI-2, and MMPI-2RF are the most widely used self-report measures of psychopathology. The history of the MMPI dates back to the early history of self-report personality inventories. Personality assessments had its first major stimulus during World War I when assessment procedures were needed to screen a large population. Woodworth and Poffenberger responded by developing the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, which was designed to detect mental instability. This inventory, however, had no theoretical perspective or a systematic method for the selection the questions. Even so, the inventory did identify WWI recruits that would need to be further interviewed for sufficient mental stability to enlist for the army. Another early, well-known personality inventory similar to the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet is the Bernreuter Personality Inventory (Greene, 2011). This inventory started a trend to measure multiple dimensions of personality. Although heading in the right direction, the scale was critiqued and shown to be an invalid measure of personality. Most early personality inventories were generally unsuccessful due to the lack of empirical data and lack of validation. In the 1930s, Starke Hathaway and J. C. McKinley sought to develop a multifaceted inventory, now known as the MMPI, which would improve on the shortcomings of previous tests (Greene, 2011). Hathaway......

Words: 2410 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Chapter 2 Review Questions

...Chapter 2 Review Questions 1. Why is information security a management problem? What can management do that technology cannot? Managing information security has more to do with policy and enforcement rather than technology. Management must address information security in terms of business impact and the cost. 2. Why is data the most important asset an organization possesses? What other assets in the organization require protect? Data in an organization represents its transaction records and its ability to deliver to its customer. Without this the organization would not be able to carry out day to day work. 3. Which management groups are responsible for implementing information security to protect the organization’s ability to function? Both management and IT management are responsible for implementing security to protect an organizations ability to function. 4. Has the implementation of networking technology created more or less risk for businesses that use information technology? Why? Networking is usually considered to have created more risk for businesses that use information security. The reason is that potential attackers have reader access to the information system. 5. What is information extortion? Describe how such an attack can cause losses, using an example not found in the text Information extortion is the act of an attacker or trusted insider who steals information from a computer system and demand compensation for its return or for an......

Words: 1152 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Chapter 2 Review Questions

...Chapter 1 PLD Review questions Multiple choice 1. A program is a set of instructions that a computer follows to perform a task. 2. The physical devices that a computer is made of are referred to as Hardware. 3. The part of a computer that runs programs is called the CPU. 4. Today, CPUS are small chips known as Microprocessors. 5. The computer stores a program while the program is running, as well as the data that the program is working with, in Main memory. 6. This is a volatile type of memory that is used only for temporary storage while a program is running. A. RAM 7. A type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time—even when there is no power to the computer—is called Secondary storage. 8. A component that collects data from people or other devices and sends it to the computer is called an input device. 9. A video display is a(n)output device. 10. A byte is enough memory to store a letter of the alphabet or a small number. 11. A byte is made up of eight bits. 12. In a binary numbering system, all numeric values are written as sequences of 0s and 1s. 13. A bit that is turned off represents the following value: 0 14. A set of 128 numeric codes that represent the English letters, various punctuation marks, and other characters is ASCII. 15. An extensive encoding scheme that can represent the characters of many of the languages in the world is Unicode. 16. Negative......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3