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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Challenges of Employee Loyalty in Corporate America

Business and Economics Journal, Vol. 2012: BEJ-55

Business and Economics Journal, Vol. 2012: BEJ-55

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Challenges of Employee Loyalty in Corporate America
*SK Aityan, TKP Gupta Department of Business and Economics, Lincoln University, Oakland, CA, USA.
*Correspondence to: Sergey K Aityan, aityan@lincolnuca.edu
Accepted: November 19, 2011; Published: March 31, 2012
Abstract This paper discusses the results of a survey on employee loyalty conducted in Oakland, California. The survey revealed a serious disconnect between the opinions of managers, including executives, and non-management employees on issues of employee loyalty, trust of management, mutual respect between management and non-management employees and other related questions. The survey showed that the majority of employees do not feel loyalty from their employer, do not believe that companies take their interests into account, and do not trust or respect their managers, while most managers positively assessed the situation. This disparity needs to be thoroughly addressed by companies in order to improve employee loyalty. Keywords: Employee loyalty; trust; survey; business performance; organizational behaviour; perception mismatch.

1. Introduction 1.1. The loyalty concept In today’s business environment, corporations depend on their employees more than at any other time in the past. This is particularly true in hi-tech, biotech, finance, and other market segments where employee contribution does not directly depend on the nominal time spent at work. Employee dedication and employee care of corporate interests are part of employee loyalty. Formally defining employee loyalty in a constructive way is not an easy task. According to Powers [1], “employee loyalty (unfortunately) is whatever the employee and employer agrees that it is” (page 9). Hart and Thompson [2] make the point that although employee loyalty has been widely discussed in literature, the concept of loyalty remains loosely defined. They suggested a three-tiered, psychologically-based definition of loyalty that included “the variety of obligation types that loyalty can imply, and anticipates the potential for asymmetrical loyalty configurations between employers and employees” (page 297). Loyalty cannot be expected without reciprocity. To expect a high level of loyalty from its employees, a company is expected to show a similar, or even higher, level of loyalty to them. Most of the time, however, this is not happening in the U.S. corporate environment. Despite being dependent on employee loyalty, U.S. corporations show little or practically no loyalty to their employees. It is typical for a company to lay off employees without warning, taking them by surprise. Most employees in corporate America realize that they can be let go at any time and that management would do their best to hide layoff plans. Even the expectation of losing one’s job so suddenly, and in quite an intimidating manner, may be enough to destroy employee loyalty. This is just one example of how corporate America is shooting itself in the foot. There are many other examples of corporations showing very little loyalty toward their employees. 1.2. Importance and trends of employee loyalty Companies with loyal employees have a significant competitive advantage and a higher rate of survival compared to companies with less loyal employees: “The long term success of any company depends heavily upon the quality and loyalty of its people” [3]. Loyal employees are assets to a company, and their retention is key to its success; for one, they bring in loyal customers. Given their importance, employers need to be able to identify and retain loyal employees. The fact that an employee has been working for a company for 20 years doesn’t automatically guarantee his or her loyalty. For example, an employee might have difficulty finding a better job opportunity due to a lack of marketable skills [4]. An analysis of retail stores in the U.K. showed that a loyal workplace generates significant benefits for the company. The study found that “employee loyalty in this industry is multi-faceted and can be understood in relation to commitment to the retailing industry, the retailer and the store.” Yee with colleagues [5] developed a research model to analyze the influence of employee loyalty on company performance. Their results, based on service shops in Hong Kong, indicated that

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employee loyalty robustly affects company “profitability through service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.” Foster with colleagues [6] and Reichheld [7] indicated that companies with greater loyalty among employees, customers and shareholders generate greater profits. In his research on employee loyalty, Michlitsch concluded that companies could best implement their strategies if they developed and retained their high-performing employees, including the following key factors: “clear mission and strategy, selection and training, corporate culture, communications and information, and rewards” [8]. Cascio conducted a relative study of Sam’s Club and Costco and found out that Costco’s employee-related costs were higher than Sam’s Club, but that Sam’s Club annual employee costs were three times higher than Costco’s due to high turnover [9]. Loyalty was higher at Costco due to higher pay and benefits. In the past, most employees would work for one company their entire life. Altman noticed that, in the past, having a job meant a commitment for life. People would get hired by one company and retire from the same company [10]. The employers were also more loyal to their employees. There was strong sense of trust between these two parties that would bond them for a long time. Levin concluded that in the past employees looked for job security in exchange for their loyalty and hard work; the same situation does not remain in the present context [11]. Now, employees look for a more independent, mobile workforce. Loyal employees help in the growth and sustainability of a company. Employee loyalty reduces a company’s financial strain, saving on investment in the recruiting process of new staff. Providing proper training to employees also brings new customers to the company. Gaining employee loyalty is not a one-time task, but requires constant care. It comes from mutual relationship building and it is not recession proof [12]. The article “The Death of Corporate Loyalty” [13] posed a question whether companies that are cutting thousands of jobs will be able to generate loyalty and commitment among their remaining employees. In the past, long-term job tenure was much higher; however, such expectations are fading quicklywith voluminous job cuts. Managers empowered in this way are likely to flex their muscles at every opportunity. Told to act like risk-taking entrepreneurs, they will expect entrepreneurial rewards as well. 1.3. Strategies to improve employee loyalty Companies have developed a certain understanding of how increased employee loyalty is beneficial to the company, and thus often take actions for its improvement. Malinchak [14] believes that education of all categories of employees, including executives, helps improve employee loyalty “which decreases turnover and ultimately helps carry the business through uncertain times.”Based on the analysis of Raytheon Co. talent retention efforts, Helpert concluded that rewards and recognition are critical for having loyal employees [15]. Eskildsen and Nussler [16] conducted a 52-question survey in Denmark which showed that companies could improve employee loyalty and corporate performance by introducing “a culture of personal growth and development in order to enhance the learning capability of the organization”; additionally, they found that financial rewards also positively impacted employee satisfaction and loyalty. Many factors impact employee loyalty and one of them is workspace conditions. Rheem [17] pointed out that although economic factors are important in creating loyalty, identification with the organization’s goals often carries greater weight. Green [4] suggested that each employee has a unique character and thus one single approach is not effective for everyone. Federman [18] discussed engagement foundations and applications. By employee engagement he means pace, anxiety, schedule, technology, turnover, productivity, revenue and profitability. Employee engagement is defined as “The degree to which a person commits to an organization and the impact that commitment has on how profoundly they perform and their length of tenure” (page 242). Champy [19] pointed out that “it is important to give employees the feeling that they own the company by instituting profit sharing and option plans to improve loyalty. It allows employees to convert a taxable profit sharing bonus into company shares”. Davis-Blake et al. [20] examined how a blended workforce consisting of "standard" and "nonstandard" workers in the same jobs impacts employee loyalty. They found that, typically, “workforce blending decreased standard employees' loyalty, and increased their interest both in leaving their organizations and in exercising voice through unionization.” The President of Jim Harris Group stated five principles embraced by the world’s best run companies that help revitalize employee’s loyalty and commitment [21]. They are: (1) Capture the heart; (2) Open communication; (3) Create partnerships; (4) Drive learning; and (5) Emancipate action. Tatum [22] describes employee incentives to encourage employee loyalty as a combination of respect, communication, acknowledgement, rewards, and benefits.

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In their book “Human Sigma: Managing the Employee-Customer Encounter,” Fleming and Asplund discussed a vital role which managers play in motivating employees and meeting their emotional requirements [23]. By recognizing and appreciating employees’ contributions, organizations energize them to accomplish their duties with a greater degree of effort and dedication. “The right recognition reinforces authentic successes by cementing the memory of what the employee did right and encoding that memory with positive emotions that make it more powerful and meaningful” [23]. Negative responses turn employees defensive and fearful. Employee engagement improves when managers address the most basic human needs, including workplace environment, psychological needs and aspirations. Sutton [24] creates a framework for managers on how to be a good boss in difficult situations, and his emphasis is on employees’ needs. According to Sutton, during difficult times a manager should provide more care, predictability, understanding and control. If employers were able to do so, they would enjoy an employee’s loyalty for years. Studies conducted by Dewhurst, Guthridge, and Mohr [25] indicated that strategies such as praise, individual attention and providing employees with opportunities to take leadership roles in projects positively influenced employee loyalty. In their survey with 127 respondents, including employees and owner-managers in 31 small, independent bakeries, Reda and Dyer [26] came to the conclusion that an employer’s openness affected the choice in hiring loyal employees. The authors also concluded that use of formal recruitment techniques predicted positive employee perceptions, and that employees' perceptions of owners' commitment predicted their loyalty to the firm. However, it is not clear that such a conclusion can be extended to white-collar jobs, where psychological factors of employee loyalty discussed by Hart and Thompson [2] may play a more important role. 1.4. Morality and mutual loyalty, trust, and respect Employee loyalty depends on the mutual loyalty of employee and employer. In other words, while loyalty must come from employees, it is only generated by companies that show loyalty to its employees. Darci noted that “Employers can expect their employees remain loyal-but employers must be loyal to them” [27]. In his article “How to Resolve Employee Conflict”, Maughan points out [28] that employers often look for the success and profitability of the firm, whereas employees look for a stable and productive workplace with fairness, respect and equality. Both parties need to come to a point of agreement on these differences and identify goals that motivate the other. If a company shows respect to its employees and acknowledges their achievements and contributions to the company’s success, it definitely builds employee loyalty. As noted by Weber in his analysis of the health care system [29], respect shown to employees made them very loyal. For instance, he pointed out that in the last six years not a single doctor among the 32 who staff the emergency rooms of Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley Hospital & Health Network left for another job. At Austin Medical Center in Minnesota, despite the fact that the nationwide nursing vacancy rate reached 16 percent, there were no job openings for registered nurses and the hospital even had a waiting list of 125 registered nurses wanting to join the hospital. In the analysis of the attitudes influencing loyalty, Ineson and Berechet [30] examined 127 hotel managers, supervisors, and operatives and found that “reasons for employee loyalty were mainly intangible, linked to workmates, bosses, and customers. Gender, age, job level, and tenure had only limited influence on loyalty” (page 129). Schrag [31] discussed the moral significance of employee loyalty, arguing that “employees have a natural inclination to extend loyalty to the organization and that organizations consequently have an obligation to make clear to employees the degree to which the organization will recognize and reward employee loyalty” (page 41). Such mutual moral obligations are beneficial for both employer and employee. Coughlan [32] views employee loyalty as adherence to shared moral values. He suggested a distinction between the concepts of loyalty and commitment. In his analysis, commitment includes compliance, identification and internalization, while loyalty can be tied to an implicit promise voluntarily made by an individual operating in a community of interdependent others, to adhere to moral principles in pursuit of the individual and collective goal. Altman [10] noticed that management often breaks the psychological contract with employees and that unsupportive management hurts employee retention. The results of a survey related to employee loyalty and conducted by Gallup were published in an article entitled “American workers stand by their boss” [33]. The survey found that 93% of employed Americans are

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loyal to their employer. Among them, 74% are very loyal, 19% are fairly loyal, 2% are not too loyal, and 2% are not at all loyal. Although loyalty of employees depends on their salary, more recent studies indicate a greater emphasis on other factors. Matzler and Renzl [34] argued that trust in management and trust in peers “strongly influences employee satisfaction and, as a consequence, employee loyalty”. A statistical analysis of the results showed a strong link between trust, employee satisfaction, and employee loyalty. Federman [35] stated that a lack of trust in senior leadership is the primary reason why employee engagement level is down. He notes that an organization should reengage its employees by providing them with direction and reason to become passionate about their jobs. He suggests actions that would reengage employees, including the opportunity for them to voice their concerns. 1.5. The loyalty chasm Although the growth of hi-tech industries has resulted in a stronger dependence of companies on employee loyalty, the loyalty situation in corporate America is not improving. Analysis conducted in recent years shows this trend of decrease in employee loyalty. A trend is clearly seen through the analysis conducted in the recent years. By analyzing multiple authors in his article entitled “Employee Loyalty in the New Millennium,” Powers [1] concluded that employee loyalty is declining and is continuing to slide. Powers stated that traditional employee loyalty “implies long-term development and trust building. If true, then the more organic, matrixtype, spontaneous organizational arrangements forecasted for the 21st century would not allow enough time for the formation of employee loyalty.” According to Laabs [36], "whereas the promise of being together forever (like marriage) was once our employment pact, we now think of the employment relationship more like dating." What has caused such a negative trend in employee loyalty? Darci [27] suggested that “before we damn this generation of workers, consider this possibility: Maybe, just maybe, employers killed company loyalty.” He supported his point by the following analysis: “How could this happen? Why would they do it? It's suicide. Consider this: When sales slip and profits are in jeopardy, why is head count reduction the first response to quickly right the ship? When health insurance premiums inch up, why is passing the cost onto the employees the best solution? When staffing levels slip, why is getting workers to do more with less the best response?” Thus, employee loyalty is a crucial component of company success. Its declining trend may spell potential problems for companies and affect the ability of the economy to recover from the most severe recessions in history. In order to find ways to improve the situation, we have to first identify major problems that cause the decline of employee loyalty. The goal of this research is to identify serious problems with employee loyalty in corporate America today which have to be addressed in order to improve the situation. In this phase of research, we use a survey as a methodological tool for the research to collect informal and perceptional opinion from employees of all ranks and levels. This paper is mostly focused on identifying problems. As problems are identified they will analyzed and attempted to be solved in the next phases of the research. 2. The Survey 2.1. The sample We conducted a survey on employee loyalty in Oakland, California (the San Francisco Bay Area) by randomly distributing 250 questionnaires along with self-addressed stamped envelopes. No information was asked or tracked about the identity of the respondents or their specific place of work. We kept the survey anonymous in order to prevent any bias on the part of the surveyors or predisposition on the part of the respondents. As respondents had no obligation to answer and return the questionnaire, each acted out of their own free will. We received 151 responses (a 60% response rate); this response rate indicates a high level of respondents’ interest in the survey topic. 2.2. Respondents’ statistic Participants for the survey were selected randomly without any predetermination. They represent a variety of industries, including hi-tech, healthcare, finance, manufacturing, retail, services, and others (Figure 1).

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Respondents by Industry
Other 11% Agriculture 3% Hi-Tech 8% Healthcare 10% Finance 6% Manufacturing 6% Services 34% Retail 22% Hi-Tech Healthcare Finance Manufacturing Retail Services Agriculture Other

Figure 1: Distribution of respondents by industry. Respondent distribution by company size (Figure 2) indicates that the sample represents companies of all sizes.

Respondents by Company Size
35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Very small (0-10) Small (11-100) Midsize (101-1000) Large ( > 1000) 26% 31% 24% 19%

Figure 2: Distribution of respondents by company size. Figure 3 presents the distribution of the respondents by job category including executives, senior managers, managers, regular non-management employees, part-time employees and consultants. The ratio of management and non-management employees in our sample quite accurately matches such a ratio from other independent sources [37-39].

Employee category among respondents
40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Executive Sr. Management Regular Management employee Part-time or consultant 5% 7% 15% 38% 36%

Figure 3: Distribution of respondents by job category.

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In this paper we present opinions of management and non-management employees separately to learn whether these two types of employees view the company-employee relationship similarly, or whether there is a mismatch of their points of view. For this reason, opinions of all executives, senior managers, and other managers are consolidated in the category “Managers” and opinions of all other non-management employees, including regular and part-time employees and consultants, are consolidated in the category “Other Employees” as illustrated in Table 1. Table 1: Consolidated job categories.

Combined job categories Managers       

Job categories Executives Senior managers Managers Regular non-management employees Part-time employees Consultants Other non-management employees

Other employees

2.3. Respondents’ opinions on significance of employee loyalty As evident from the literature review above, employee loyalty is a critical parameter for company success. It is even more important for white collar industries, where employee contribution to the company is not immediately identifiable and the physical presence of an employee at his/her workplace does not necessarily imply contribution to the company. Most respondents to our survey expressed the belief that his/her employer depends on the loyalty of its employees. As seen in Figure 4, management and non-management employees have similar opinions; most of them agree that their company success depends on employee loyalty.

Company dependance on employee loyalty
80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 28% 5% 67% 55% 32% 13% Very much depends Somehow depends Does not depend

Figure 4: Respondents’ opinion on company's dependence on employee loyalty by view of managers and nonmanagement employees. 3. Mismatch between employee and company loyalties

A clear and unbiased understanding of any situation is key to making wise decisions and to proper management. However, our survey has identified a significant mismatch between views of managers and nonmanagement employees. As seen in Figure 5, managers have an overly positive opinion about the degree of loyalty their employees have to the company, while the employees themselves more neutrally assess their own loyalty.

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It is unrealistic to expect loyalty from another party without reciprocating loyalty to that person. Thus it would be fair to say that to expect loyalty from its employees a company should show loyalty to them too. Our survey has identified that managers believe that their companies show loyalty to their employees, while nonmanagement employees feel contrary. The mismatch between management and non-management employee opinions is quite impressive: 82% of managers believe that companies are loyal to their employees while 65% of non-management employees feel quite the opposite (Figure 6).

How employees are loyal to company
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 22% 78% 57% 43% Loyal Not loyal

Figure 5: Respondents’ opinion on how employees are loyal to their company by view of managers and nonmanagement employees.

How company is loyal to employees
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 18% 35% 82% 65% Loyal Not loyal

Figure 6: Respondents’ opinion on how companies are loyal to their employees by view of managers and nonmanagement employees.

It is interesting to note that managers believe that companies are more loyal to their employees than employees are to the companies, as indicated by comparison of 78% and 82% of positive answers by managers in Figure 5 and Figure 6. Contrary to that, non-management employees believe that they are more loyal to the companies than companies are to them, as indicated by comparison of 57% and 35% positive answers by nonmanagement employees in Figure 5 and Figure 6. One important aspect by which one can identify loyalty is how much one party considers the interests of another party in its decisions and actions. In an ideally balanced and stable situation, both parties are equally concerned with the interest of the other. Our survey identified that both managers and non-management employees similarly believe that employees consider company’s interests in their decisions and actions (Figure 7). Loyalty presumes considering the other party’s interests when acting and making decisions. Our survey has identified that both managers and non-management employees tend to consider the company’s interests in their actions and decisions (Figure 7).

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Employees consider company's interests
100% 80% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 30% 70% Yes No

Figure 7: Opinion on how employees consider their company’s interests in their decisions by view of managers and non-management employees. On the other hand, managers and non-management employees have quite different opinions on whether their companies consider employees’ interests. As is evident from Figure 8, 88% of managers believe that their companies consider employees’ interests while only 50% of non-management employees feel the same way.

Company considers employees' interests
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees
Figure 8: Opinion on how companies consider employees’ interests in their decisions by view of managers and non-management employees. 4. Mismatch in trust and respect

88%

50% 50%

Yes No

12%

Trust and respect are significant components of loyalty. A high level of loyalty is typically based on mutual respect and trust. Our survey has identified a dramatic mismatch between the perception of these attributes from managers and non-management employees. According to our survey, 95% of managers believe that employees trust their managers while 52% of non-management employees responded that they do not trust their managers as shown in Figure 9. A perception mismatch also occurs in regard to mutual respect between companies’ managers and their employees. Our study showed that managers and non-managing employees as groups have different perception of the same things as well as they as groups have a significant mismatch of their feelings to each other. As shown in Figure 10, the vast majority of managers, 96%, believe that companies respect their employees while most employees, 56%, do not believe that their companies respect them. A similar mismatch occurs with the question of whether employees respect their managers. As is indicated in Figure 11, the vast majority of managers, 84%, responded that they respect their managers while 53% of the non-management employees said that they do not respect their managers.

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Do you trust your managers?
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 5% 48% 52% Yes No 95%

Figure 9: Opinion on trusting company’s management by view of managers and non-management employees.

Do companies respect their employees?
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 4% 56% 44% Yes No 96%

Figure 10: Opinion on whether companies respect their employees and their contribution by view of managers and non-management employees.

Do you respect your manager?
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 16% 53% 47% Yes No 84%

Figure 11: Respondents’ opinion on whether employees of both categories, managers and other employees, respect their managers (to whom they report) by view of managers and non-management employees.

The evolution of mutual respect between company and employee is presented in Figure 12 and Figure 13. As becomes evident from these figures, the majority of managers, 58% in both figures, believe that the situation has improved since the previous year, while the majority of non-management employees see no change, 61% and 59% in Figure 12 and Figure 13 respectively.

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5. Managers’ unrealistic optimism All data in Figure 5 through Figure 13 suggest that managers have a tendency to overestimate the level of loyalty from both sides compared to the perception of non-management employees. Such an overly optimistic assessment and perception by managers may lead to inadequate actions for improvement of employee loyalty and hence to company performance and stability.

Changes of employee respect to their managers
80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 15% 58% 61% Got better 28% 18% 21% Got worse No changes

Figure 12: Respondents’ opinion on whether employees’ respect of their manager has changed since last year by view of managers and non-management employees.

Changes of company respect to their employees
80% 60% 40% 18% 25% 20% 0% Managers Other Employees 20% 58% 59% Got better 22% Got worse No changes

Figure 13: Respondents’ opinion on whether companies’ respect of their employees has changed since last year by view of managers and non-management employees.

6.

Conclusion

Our anonymous and voluntary survey conducted in Oakland, California resulted in a very high rate of response (60%), indicating a high level of interest and anxiety about loyalty in corporate America. The respondents represented a variety of industries, company sizes, and categories of employees. Responses in all categories of employees, including managers and non-management employees, show the common belief that employee loyalty is important for their companies and that this is a high priority issue. However, the survey showed that employees are more loyal to their companies than companies are to their employees, and that this gap is growing. The survey revealed a significant difference between the opinions of managers and non-management employees in the assessment of the company-employee relationship. Managers assessed the situation positively for the most part, while non-management employees provided either neutral or negative feedback. Most managers believe that companies are loyal to their employees, which they consider employees’ interests

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in their decisions, that employees trust and respect their managers, that companies respect their employees, and that the overall company-employee relationship has improved since last year. In contrast, most nonmanagement employees provided quite negative feedback on these questions. Such a mismatch in opinions indicates a serious disconnect between managers and non-management employees. This disconnect creates a chasm between the actual degree of employee loyalty and a company’s perception of it. To improve the situation, companies need to address this disconnect and generate real loyalty based on mutual respect and trust. Corporate America faces serious challenges in recovery from global recession and overall reduction in American economic power. In order to be competitive in this environment, corporations need to rely on the loyalty of their employees. To develop and foster a genuine and positive relationship with employees, companies must first recognize their reliance on employee loyalty and be prepared to treat them with loyalty first. Crossing this deep employee-employer chasm would help corporate America improve its efficiency and competitive power in the global economy. Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Acknowledgement The authors are very grateful to Nicole Marsh for her valuable help in the preparation of this paper for publication.

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...Lesson Guide The Research Process In writing a research paper, you will use the skills you have already learned, such as summary, analysis, and synthesis. You will go beyond the readings in the text, however, to add breadth and depth to your paper. Depending on your topic, you might use library research for traditional sources, online research for Internet sources, field research, or a combination of the three. Each topic chapter provides a list of Research Activities at the end. These suggestions will guide you to source material outside the textbook and provide ideas for research papers. Additionally, make use of the topic chapter links provided on this Companion Website to find more readings on each subject. What follows is a list of the steps you will take in planning and writing a paper. Remember that writing is a recursive process; you will not necessarily follow these steps in this order, and you may find yourself backtracking and looping. Find a Subject. If a subject is not assigned to you, decide what subject you are going to research and write about. Your text provides you with a wealth of ideas to start with. Use it as a springboard for discovering ideas. Develop a Research Question. Formulate an important question that you would like to answer through your research. This helps you narrow and focus your topic. The answer to the research question will become your thesis statement. Conduct Preliminary Research. To help you narrow your topic further and to find......

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...ReaseachA SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER/THESIS/DISSERTATION ON ASPECTS OF ELEMENTARY LINEARY ALGEBRA by James Smith B.S., Southern Illinois University, 2010 A Research Paper/Thesis/Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree Department of Mathematics in the Graduate School Southern Illinois University Carbondale July, 2006 (Please replace Name and Year with your information and delete all instructions) Copyright by NAME, YEAR All Rights Reserved **(This page is optional)** RESEARCH PAPER/THESIS/DISSERTATION APPROVAL TITLE (in all caps) By (Author) A Thesis/Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of (Degree) in the field of (Major) Approved by: (Name of thesis/dissertation chair), Chair (Name of committee member 1) (Name of committee member 2) (Name of committee member 3) (Name of committee member 4) Graduate School Southern Illinois University Carbondale (Date of Approval) AN ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION OF NAME OF STUDENT, for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in MAJOR FIELD, presented on DATE OF DEFENSE, at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. (Do not use abbreviations.) TITLE: A SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER ON ASPECTS OF ELEMENTARY LINEAR ALGEBRA MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. J. Jones (Begin the abstract here, typewritten and double-spaced. A thesis abstract should consist of 350 words or less including the heading. A page and one-half is approximately 350 words.) ...

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...Research Article: IMPACT OF INTEREST RATE ON INVESTMENT Farhan Nawaz UNIVERSITY OF GUJRAT, PAKISTAN E-mail: 10050920-086@uog.edu.pk Waqas Akram UNIVERSITY OF GUJRAT, PAKISTAN E-mail: 10050920-084@uog.edu.pk Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate “the impact of interest rate on investment” in an economy. For this purpose three main variables are selected which are Interest rate, Income level and Investment. Two variables are independent (Interest rate and Income level) and One variable is dependent (Investment). The hypothesis of this study is that the Investment has a negative association with interest rate and Investment has positive relationship with income. Interest rate has negative effect on investment and investment has a positive relation with the income level. We use questionnaire for finding our results and questionnaire are filled by different students of business studies. We find that there is a Negative relation between the interest rate and investment. If our finding matches with economic theory and others researchers finding than policy makers can make better policies for the economy. Impact of interest rate on Investment Introduction: An interest rate is the rate at which interest is paid by borrowers for the use of money that they borrow from a lender. Interest rate is the cost of borrowing money. When interest rate increases the overall investment is reduces. Most of the businesses invest partially or wholly is......

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...Rockwood School District Research Paper Guide Revised 2008 Table of Contents What is a Research Paper?................................................................................................................2 How to Efficiently, Effectively Conduct Research and Evaluate Sources .......................................3 What Types of Information to Collect ..............................................................................................6 How to Write Source Cards for a Research Paper ............................................................................7 How to Write Note Cards for a Research Paper .............................................................................11 How to Write a Thesis ....................................................................................................................14 How to Write an Outline ................................................................................................................15 How to Structure Writing in a Research Paper ...............................................................................16 How to Integrate Quotes .................................................................................................................17 Internal Documentation ..................................................................................................................18 Works Cited Page ..............................................................................

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...Research paper may refer to: * Academic paper (also called scholarly paper), which is published in academic journals and contains original research results or reviews existing results * Term paper, written by high school or college students * Thesis or dissertation, a document submitted in support of a candidature for a degree or professional qualification, presenting the author's research and findings A thesis or dissertation[1] is a document submitted in support of candidature for anacademic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.[2] In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of abachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in others, the reverse is true.[3] Dissertations and theses may be considered asgrey literature. The word dissertation can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term thesis is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work. ------------------------------------------------- Etymology[edit] The term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", and refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "path". ------------------------------------------------- Structure and presentation style[edit] Structure[edit] A thesis (or dissertation) may be arranged as a thesis by publication or...

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...Care Procedures This paper will critique a qualitative research study about how nurses manage patients who refuse nursing care procedures. These articles also explains how nurses view informed consent as not being essential to nursing care procedures. PROBLEM STATEMENT The clinical problem being examined in the research study is the way in which nurses obtain consent prior to administering nursing care procedures, and the way nurses manage patients who refuse any nursing care procedures. By stating that nurses “do not regard obtaining consent as an absolute requirement” also stating that “consent is preferred but no considered essential” the significance is established and a clinical problem identified (Aveyard, 2004). The author identifies the need for further education of nurses on the need to obtain informed consent for nursing care procedures, and the need for more research of this topic. The role of persuasion in situations of informed consent has been widely commented on. Many commentators argue that the health care provider has a duty not only to give information but also to persuade the recipient of care to accept the course of action considered most appropriate for the patients’ safety. PURPOSE and RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study clearly identifies the aim of the study as “to examine the way in which nurses manage patients who refuse nursing care procedures (Aveyard, 2004).” The study identifies two main purposes for the research study as: To examine......

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...Running head: Research Paper 1 Research Paper: Research of Articles’ Literature, Methods & Findings Running head: Research Paper 2 Research Paper: Research of Articles’ Literature, Methods & Findings My research consisted of the critique of 3 articles. Within my paper, I will summarize, critique, and capture implications of the articles. The first article is Assessing Personality in the DSM-5: The Utility of Bipolar Constructs. The second is Predicting the Behavior of Offenders with Personality Disorder: Issues for Investigative Psychology. The last article is Interactions between Bipolar Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder in Trait Impulsivity and Severity of Illness. All articles have something to do with personality disorders. The article Assessing Personality in the DSM-5: The utility of Bipolar Constructs was written by Douglas B. Samuel. The 8 page article was published by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. This article was about the DSM-5 labeling the personality disorders as categorical constructs. Most of the categorical labels can provide relatively straightforward and rapid communication about a person. These types of categories will lead to more stimulating research and generate specific treatment recommendations. There are some disadvantages to the categorical approach including the excessive diagnostic co occurrence, inadequate coverage, excessive heterogeneity within the categories, lack of meaningful or well-validated......

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...Business Research Ethics Lilia Tenorio RES/351 University of Phoenix May 15, 2014 Albert Smothers Business Research Paper: Synopsis of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System is a software system that supports and automates the business processes by providing timely and accurate enterprise-wide information for decision making (Vemuri & Palvia, 2006). This paper is based on the research article, "Improvement in Operational Efficiency Due to ERP Systems Implementation: Truth or Myth?" by the authors Vijay K. Vemuri and Shailendra C. Palvia, which will discuss the purpose of the ERP system along with explaining some of the problems under investigation, and by identifying the parties involved that conducted the investigation, and describing the methods and variables used in researching the ERP system. Although, a system such as, the ERP system is very much needed within a business, however, is the system efficient enough to be cost effective. By researching the ERP system, the idea will be whether the investment towards the system is worth having. "Good research generates dependable data that are derived by professionally conducted practices and that can be used reliably for decision making" (Cooper & Schindler, 2006, p.22). Define the Business Research and Purpose of ERP Vemuri and Palvia (2006) state, the purpose of researching the ERP system is to evaluate the improvement of operational efficiency due to......

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...most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important. Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally. Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a willingness to learn (and to make mistakes!), and, perhaps most important of all, patience, a student will find that she can achieve great things through her research and writing. This handout will include the following sections related to the process of writing a research paper: Genre- This section will provide an......

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...English 102— Research Paper Requirements and General Guidelines Dr. B. Bryant Office phone—671-6358 Office—Bldg. 1, room 119 E/ office 19 Research Paper due—May 2nd (Fri) 3:00 pm in my office It must contain copies of your research. 1. Your final paper needs to be 5-8 pages (not including “Works Consulted page”) in MLA format. NO PAPER UNDER 5 PAGES WILL BE ACCEPTED!!! 2. In your research folder—a folder that does not allow your research materials to fall out—you must have the following items: • Research Paper—11/25 • Rough Draft • Research proposal/outline due 4/24 for class time • COPIES OF YOUR RESEARCH! • Your paper must be sent to on safe assignment PLEASE NOTE: NO PAPER WILL BE ACCEPTED WITHOUT COPIES OF YOUR RESEACH! The paper will receive an F. 3. Research Materials—Included on your “Works Consulted” page, you must have at least 5 professional journal articles or books. You can have more; the research really depends on your topic. Also the research papers I gave you count as a source and Loot. 4. The journal articles can come from the internet, but make sure the article is a professional article with a thesis/research, not a general informational page. All internet articles must be cited as an internet source. You can use the museum websites and YouTube. 5. For books and articles in books, you must copy the title page, copyright page, table of contents and the......

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...Research Paper about a Research Paper Name place Professor 05/22/11 Research Paper about a Research Paper Research is a way to formulate questions and ideas used to solve a give problem using of all sorts of sources to collect information that would generate a solution. Research in the simplest form could be presented as; my computer keeps rebooting. The research focus could involve looking threw the internet to find web help that addresses the same issue or finding a business that specialize in computer repair by doing a query for computer repair from online in your area or looking threw the phone book. In this instance, someone has prepared both sources with the intention to help find the answer from documented information (Booth, Colomb & Williams, 2008). Over centuries information and been collected in libraries all the information desired. The information age yielding the internet that contains information collected by others for others to answer questions and develop new questions, and find answers. Research papers are also used as a primary form of learning that begins in elementary school and used all threw college and beyond. Carriers have been built for the purpose of conducting research and writing research papers by teachers, scientists, writers, historians, lawyers, engineers – list is goes on. Educators have established the fact that formal research can be a tool used for learning, thinking and understanding......

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...Organizing a Research Paper Introduction A research paper is a combination and ultimate result of an involved procedure that entails source evaluation, critical thinking, planning and composition. No matter its objectives, any research paper must attain some common goals. As such, organizing a research paper requires a systematic approach that will enable the researcher to accomplish the intended objectives of the research. Apart from addressing the needs of the assignment, a research paper should have a clear purpose, thesis and discussing the quantity as well as quality of sources. In order to gain experience in research writing, an individual must be familiar with the whole process involved in organizing a research paper. There are two types of research paper namely; * Argumentative research * Analytical research Although each type has its own specified format, they bear seven similarities when it comes to their organization; a. Collect printed sources and evaluate them Assemble materials such as scholarly articles, state documents and other useful sources with regard to the research question. Skim through them to get hint on their importance. One can also evaluate online materials since most of them have useful although random information. b. Choose a method for keeping notes You should keep notes on different index cards and ensure to indicate the title or author as this will enable you to recheck the information obtained from the source material. c. Use...

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...Writing a Research Paper in Literary Studies1 The most important aspect to bear in mind is that you are writing a research paper and not an essay! This means that you are arguing a thesis with reference to secondary literature – it is essential that you conduct relevant research and that you integrate your findings into your paper. Things to keep in mind: • Your paper should have a well-defined topic and a precisely formulated argument. • Your approach should be recognizably systematic. • Your argument should remain relevant and clear-cut, consistent and coherent throughout. • Your secondary material should be discussed critically and documented accurately. • Writing is a process; you should constantly revisit and revise. DON’T FORGET TO PRINT, SIGN AND ATTACH THE “PLAGIATSHINWEIS”! First steps Many students neglect the preliminary work of the writing process, but if you give it sufficient attention the actual writing of your paper will be faster and more organized than if you just start writing. The most important thing is to be systematic in your approach. 1. Finding a topic Perhaps the most difficult part of any research paper is finding an adequate topic, formulating a title and making a coherent argument. Once you have decided on a topic or a title, which in literary studies will most likely involve a certain text, rephrase it as a question to guide your research. You should also think about the methodology you intend to apply to your analysis. • ...

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...are required to apply IFRS. Ten years have passed, what is the effect of mandatory IFRS adoption on these countries, and how IFRS affect on earning management. In the paper, I will discuss this question based on some previous finding. Next, I will use IFRS 9 as a specific case for my conclusion. Finally, I will give my opinion on the effect of mandatory IFRS adoption on earning management. Key Words: Accounting Standard, earning management, IFRS, Financial Instrument, bank, impairment of asset, IAS39, IFRS 9 I. The effect of mandatory IFRS adoption on earning management 1.1 In 2012, Yi Lin Chua, Chee Seng Cheong. And Graeme Gould publish a article named “The Impact of Mandatory IFRS Adoption on Accounting Quality: Evidence form Australis. This article examines the impact of IFRS on accounting quality by focusing on threes perspectives: (1) earning management, (2) timely loss recognition, and (3) value relevance. In my paper, I will focus on earning management. First, the author talk about the reason he choose Australia. Because Australia is one of the first countries located outside of the EU that has mandated IFRS and is also the first non-EU adopting country that had fully prohibited an early adopting of IFRS prior to the 2005 mandate. After that, the article propose the three research hypotheses: HI: Earnings management has changed following the mandatory adoption of IFRS in Australia. H2: Timely loss recognition has changed following the......

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...Catalfano Writing Mode: Persuasive Research Due: Please upload your essay to turnitin.com by the assigned due date. Late papers will incur the typical 10% per day late grade deduction. Length: Between 700 and 850 words for College Prep students; between 850 and 1000 words for Honors students. Format: Typed, double-spaced, 10-point Times New Roman font. Grading: 60 points, graded according to the standard rubric. (Note: this paper will also require two or three “checkpoints,” each of which is worth 10 points.) Topic Selection: What do you care about? This is a persuasive research paper, which means you are taking a position on a contemporary issue that you care about and setting out to prove that your position is correct with strong, convincing sources. How many sources? * at least four sources for College Prep students * at least six sources for Honors students Of course, you need to set out to support an idea that is capable and worthy of being supported—not something completely obvious. Because one of the major course objectives is to write about what you believe in (as you find your writing voice), you will be allowed to choose your own topic for this persuasive research paper, so long as it is not a topic you have written about already for another class (remember: your intellectual and personal integrity should be important to you, so research something new to you, which is most of the “fun” of research). I must also approve your......

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