Premium Essay

Regenerative Brayton Cycle Analysis

In: Science

Submitted By sunamisurfer2001
Words 7206
Pages 29
MAE 336
(Power Plant Design)

Design Project 1:
Regenerative Brayton Cycle

Date Submitted: 4/02/2012

Garrett Kinsel
ID#: 003800821

Mon/Wed 9:00am-11:15am

Instructor: Dr. Torabzadeh, Ph.D.

-------------------------------------------------
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this design project was to investigate the effect of various design and operating parameters on the thermal efficiency, net work output per unit mass, and back work ratio of a regenerative Brayton cycle. Specifically, these parameters include the pressure ratio, TminTmax ratio, regenerator effectiveness, and compressor and turbine efficiencies, assuming the working fluid to be air at 100kPa and 300K at the compressor inlet. Model calculations are presented for all combinations of the following parameters:

Pressure Ratio: 5, 10, 15, 20
Maximum cycle temperature: 1500 K, 2000 K, 2500 K, 3000 K * TminTmax ratio = 0.2 (@1500K), 0.15 (@2000K), 0.12 (@2500K), 0.1 (@3000K)
Compressor adiabatic efficiency: 75%, 85%, 100%
Turbine adiabatic efficiency: 75%, 85%, 100%
Regenerator effectiveness: 75%, 85%, 100%

These results are utilized to construct graphical representations for comparison in pursuit of determining the best process for a given set of design constraints. The net work output and thermal efficiency are found to be increasing with regenerative effectiveness, and the compressor and turbine efficiencies. The cycle efficiency generally decreased with an increasing pressure ratio.

-------------------------------------------------
BACKGROUND THEORY

The man who created the Brayton cycle to be used in reciprocating oil-burning engines was George Brayton. The Brayton cycle is used today for gas turbines in which both the compression and the expansion processes take place in the rotating machinery. The first successful gas turbine was introduced around the 1930’s…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

An Analysis of a Thermal Power Plant Working on a Rankine Cycle: a Theoretical Investigation

...An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A theoretical investigation R K Kapooria S Kumar Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM College of Engineering & Technology, Bahal (Haryana) and National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, India K S Kasana Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India Abstract Today, most of the electricity produced throughout the world is from steam power plants. However, electricity is being produced by some other power generation sources such as hydropower, gas power, bio-gas power, solar cells, etc. One newly developed method of electricity generation is the Magneto hydro dynamic power plant. This paper deals with steam cycles used in power plants. Thermodynamic analysis of the Rankine cycle has been undertaken to enhance the efficiency and reliability of steam power plants. The thermodynamic deviations resulting in non-ideal or irreversible functioning of various steam power plant components have been identified. A comparative study between the Carnot cycle and Rankine cycle efficiency has been analyzed resulting in the introduction of regeneration in the Rankine cycle. Factors affecting efficiency of the Rankine cycle have been identified and analyzed for improved working of thermal power plants. Keywords: Rankine cycle, steam-turbine, efficiency, Feed Water Heater (FWH),......

Words: 4337 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Life Cycle Analysis

...Life Cycle Analysis: 100% Acrylic Latex Paint | Jessica Johanson – Geography 101 (Environmental Geography) | This report focuses on the life cycle of acrylic latex paint, taking the reader through the various stages of production through to disposal. | | Contents Introduction 2 Objectives & Structure 2 Product 2 Paint 3 Raw Material Stage 3 Titanium Dioxide 4 Chloride Process 5 Sulfate Process 5 Water 5 Plastic Acrylic Resin 6 Manufacturing Stage 6 Final Use 7 Disposal Stage 7 Product Care Association 7 Landfill Disposal 8 Conclusion 8 Bibliography 9 CIL Naturaliving Paint 11 Introduction Objectives & Structure This life cycle analysis report is going to acknowledge the environmental and health benefits of using CIL’s naturaliving VOC-free paint, while also shedding light on the effects that its production and distribution have had on the environment. Following the introduction will be a brief overview and history of latex paint. The remainder of the report will be comprised of the life cycle of latex paint, which will walk the reader through the stages of: raw material extraction, manufacturing/production, distribution, final use, and disposal. Product The product chosen for this report is 100% acrylic latex paint, specifically, CIL’s naturaliving, VOC-free paint (for product ad, see Appendix: A). There are two main types of paint currently in production, oil-based (alkyd) and water-based......

Words: 3627 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Brayton Cycle

...Brayton Cycle Reading 9-8 → 9-10 Problems 9-78, 9-84, 9-108 Open Cycle Gas Turbine Engines • after compression, air enters a combustion chamber into which fuel is injected • the resulting products of combustion expand and drive the turbine • combustion products are discharged to the atmosphere • compressor power requirements vary from 40-80% of the power output of the turbine (remainder is net power output), i.e. back work ratio = 0.4 → 0.8 • high power requirement is typical when gas is compressed because of the large specific volume of gases in comparison to that of liquids Idealized Air Standard Brayton Cycle • closed loop • constant pressure heat addition and rejection • ideal gas with constant specific heats 1 Brayton Cycle Efficiency The Brayton cycle efficiency can be written as η = 1 − (rp )(1−k)/k where we define the pressure ratio as: P2 P1 P3 P4 rp = = 2 Maximum Pressure Ratio Given that the maximum and minimum temperature can be prescribed for the Brayton cycle, a change in the pressure ratio can result in a change in the work output from the cycle. The maximum temperature in the cycle (T3 ) is limited by metallurgical conditions because the turbine blades cannot sustain temperatures above 1300 K. Higher temperatures (up to 1600 K can be obtained with ceramic turbine blades). The minimum temperature is set by the air temperature at the inlet to the engine. 3 Brayton Cycle with Reheat • T3 is limited due to metallurgical......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Life Cycle Management Analysis

...strategies is differentiated the market for their products are characterized in gender, age, and the desire for image. The Apple iPod is targeted at teenagers and young adults. Music is the essential part of everyone’s life and that is why Apple iPod came out with the MP3 player that is available in attractive colors and accessories. With such a high demand for this product, Apple was able to produce the product as well as other products such as the memory sizes, iPod shuffle, and iPod mini. These iPod items were manufactured into the iPod family that in return Apples customers were able to purchase their needs. Needless to say, this products life cycle has not ended yet, but other companies have followed what has made this product successful for their own products. The Apple Inc. company has managed each stage of the life cycle for this product well, and will continue to do so. The introduction phase of the Apple iPod was the iPod Classic. The iPod Classic was a hard drive based iPod that was first launched in October of 2001. This product was marketed towards the young adults and teenagers. Apple mainly focused on the interface and the ways to capture people’s attention. The iPod interface was sleek and customizable. The product is easy to use for example transferring media and music files through iTunes, which became very popular through Apple, and other media player software. The growth stage of Apple iPod is still in its early stages. Where more and more......

Words: 895 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Business Cycle Analysis

...Chapter 10 Classical Business Cycle Analysis: Market-Clearing Macroeconomics Goals of Chapter 10 A) Use the IS-LM model with rapidly adjusting wages and prices to present the classical model B) Examine the relationship between money and the business cycle I.   Business Cycles in the Classical Model (Sec. 10.1) A) The real business cycle theory 1. Two key questions about business cycles a. What are the underlying economic causes? b. What should government policymakers do about them? 2. Any business cycle theory has two components a. A description of the types of shocks believed to affect the economy the most b. A model that describes how key macroeconomic variables respond to economic shocks 3. Real business cycle (RBC) theory (Kydland and Prescott) a. Real shocks to the economy are the primary cause of business cycles (1)        Examples: a.   Shocks to the production function, b.   the size of the labor force, c.   the real quantity of government purchases, d.   the spending and saving decisions of consumers (affecting the IS curve or the FE line) (2) Nominal shocks are shocks to money supply or demand (affecting the LM curve) b. The largest role is played by shocks to the production function, which the text has called supply shocks, and RBC theorists call productivity shocks (1)        Examples: a.   Development of new products or production techniques, b.   introduction of new management techniques, c.   changes in the...

Words: 3546 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Analysis of a Business Cycle

...Assignment 4: Analysis of the Business Cycle April Hammer Strayer University Online Assignment 4: Analysis of the Business Cycle Introduction 1. The Current Economic Conditions Microeconomics is a social science that deals with the behaviors of individual consumers, firms and industries. It is an analysis of certain firms, individuals and households’ decision making processes as well as behaviors that affect how resources are allocated (EconGuru Economics Guide, 2006). Where macroeconomics deals with the economy as a whole, microeconomics deals with individual firms and how consumers make decisions as well as how companies decide what to sell and at what price to sell it at. The economy today has been in a big uproar with major downfalls and setbacks that have come about. We are in a current recession. One would hope that the economy will be able to repair after this downfall. Today’s economy in the United States is becoming a major disaster in more areas then one. One major issue is that the United States does not make enough products that we need to sustain ourselves. We import far more then we export. This has put the United States in debt to other countries. This debt continues to grow and become unreachable. Some of our major companies are being bought out by other countries. There are many data tools that can be evaluated to determine how well a current economy is doing. GDP growth is a measurement of the total value of goods produced is......

Words: 1089 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Life Cycle Analysis of Milk

...INTRODUCTION: Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of foods. However, in today’s world milk is consumed by adults for food, as an antidote, and for skin care therefore, making it an essential commodity to every society. Milk contains essential vitamins and nutrients that cater to the well being of both adults and children; this includes calcium, vitamins A, B & D. The history of milk began in the Neolithic age (the new stone age), a time when humans started the transition from hunting and gathering to a more settled way of life. Life Cycle of Milk Supply Chain: Environmental and societal impact of Milk; The dairy industry poses a number of challenges to the health of the environment- * Methane emission- this is release from cows’ during the digestion process either by belching or flatulence. Statistics vary on how much methane an average dairy cow expels on a daily basis. Some experts say 100 liters to 200 liters, while others say it's up to 500 liters a day. This amount of methane is comparable to pollution expelled by a vehicle * Carbon emission- according to studies carried out by the U.S dairy carbon footprint study, it showed that carbon footprint of a gallon of milk is approximately 17.6 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalents. This will usually occur during milk freight and distribution. * Water pollution-Disposal......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Analysis of the Business Cycle

...Analysis of the Business Cycle Tamika Williams Professor Amiel Managerial Economics & Globalization March 15, 2011 Strayer University ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to take an economical and statistical look of where the economy is headed for the next coming years. Review the outcome of the economy over the past three years and what direction it’s going. Based on this review, it will show the current state of the economy and the impact to the Oligopolist in terms of prospects for higher sales and labor costs will be highlighted. The economy has continued to remain small despite some economic growth over the past two years. It has been said the economy will continue to grow because of the positive turn around in 2009 but in my opinion I do not think so. Due to multiple factors that the US has experience over the recent years such as unemployment which is causing a financial burden on the economy, I cannot see the US making substantial come back. The loss of countless jobs has put a financial strain on the country; while ours who are still employed struggle to maintain their jobs and contribute to the unemployment rate which has continue to climb. As shown in Figure 1) a steady rise in the unemployment rate from 7.75 % in early 2009 to over 10% in 2009 and 2010. The unemployment rate continues to grow due to corporations expecting for the economy to continually to fail; Shareholders cut cost by cutting jobs. Even with the government making efforts to hire...

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Regenerative Medicine

...The discovery of stem cells has opened up opportunity for the treatment of different diseases. Cell therapy has evolved to the new cutting edge modern regenerative medicine. One of the main types of cells used are embryonic. These type of cells are characterized by their capacity to remain proliferative in an undifferentiated state for a prolonged period in culture and to differentiate into several different somatic cell types. The cells are extracted from the body and cultured outside for their specific function. This type of regenerative medicine is mostly offered outside the US. The FDA has classified STEM cell transplant as a drug. The FDA concludes that STEM cell transplant is a type of enhancement. For example, this therapy would considered doping in the sports world. I think people believe that STEM cell transplants enhances different body parts and makes them better. Many scientist have said that regenerative medicine will produce extended healthy longevity. There are many aspects to take into consideration when it comes to deciding if this therapy is for the good. Well I believe that it depends on the perspective of the individual. In the case of athletes, I agree this is an enhancing drug for them. However, my perspective towards people with serious diseases is more sympathetic. People should have the benefit, it science allows it, to live longer. I know my mother’s time will come one day, but I want that day to be far in the future. If there’s a......

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Life Cycle Managment Analysis

...Life Cycle Management Analysis Samantha Puckett Axia College of University of Phoenix Solid marketing strategies are the essential key for many successful businesses. Organizations must organize a marketing department that is responsible for developing the best marketing plan that will advertise their new products in order to inform consumers of their product in the initial introductory phase of selling the product. After consumers are aware of the product, positive word-of-mouth marketing can make boost the product sales. Apple, Inc. designed and marketed today’s most popular portable media player known as an iPod. These MP3 players are devices that allow consumers to shop on a jukebox type website created for iPod users known as iTunes that enables consumers to purchase, download, listen, and watch as they play music, games, videos, and store pictures on their devices. In today’s society, when mentioning MP3 players during a conversation, the first thing that would come to most people’s mind would be an iPod. The introduction stage of promoting the iPod; however, was evidently proven to be unsuccessful. Apple Computer, which is currently known as Apple, Inc., initially set out to revolutionize digital music with the iPod. The company focused on developing a device that was fashionable for all ages as well as men, women, boys, and girls. They did not consider the price of the product, but rather they focused on the quality with better options to their devices as......

Words: 909 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Analysis of the Business Cycle and Its Impact on Economic Indicators

...Analysis of the Business Cycle and its Impact on Economic Indicators Olufunmilayo Ogutuga Economics For Managers ECON 550 Professor Saad Khalil December 10, 2011 | | Abstract It is no surprise that the economy of The United States of America is going through a cyclical peak. During the various business cycles, economic indicators revealed how the economy is doing based on gross domestic product, employment, inflation, retails sales etc. This paper would critically examine the business cycle and its implications in terms of higher sales, consumer demands and labor cost. It will also analyze how economic indicators such as Real GDP, Unemployment and Inflation have been impacted by the current and unfortunate economic situation faced in the United States today. Introduction The United States, like many other countries, is experiencing a major change in its economic system; and it is currently coming out of a recessionary business cycle which saw the production of goods and services decline, and unemployment on the rise; but the economy is moving at a snail's pace, easing into a peak. The paper will focus on how to interpret the business cycle and explain the current business cycle in the United States through an in-depth and critical look at the economic indicators. These Economic indicators will reveal the current economic......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Life Cycle Management Analysis of Apple's Ipod

...Life Cycle Management Analysis for Apple’s iPod MKT / 230 September 6, 2009 Life Cycle Management – Page 2 The Apple iPod allows consumers to download music, videos, and various other entertainment items. The iPod can be seen everywhere from the gym to the local coffee shops. Even automakers have started to install iPod outlets in newer vehicles to draw a new kind of consumers to their autos. This report will provide some insight into Apple’s product objectives, marketing strategies, introduction phase, product growth, maturity stage, and decline of product in the market place. Product life cycle typically consists of five main aspects: (1) product development; (2) introduction; (3) growth; (4) maturity; and (5) decline. Various marketing objectives that will help the company achieve the overall product goal are as follows:  Be the leading supplier of MP3 players in all markets in which Apple competes.  Increase product sales.  Increase company revenue.  Increase brand awareness.  Expand distribution to department stores.  Develop a campaign to encourage current users to increase current use of product. Life Cycle Management – Page 3 During the introduction stage, Apple made careful choices with their marketing strategies by paying close attention to pricing, promotional and placement decisions. The introduction of the iPod transformed Apple into an entertainment giant. Apple’s approach to introducing the iPod to consumers was geared more......

Words: 914 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Analysis of the Business Cycle

...fast food chains (Reuters, 2011). Verizon through its subsidiaries is a provider of communications services. The Company has two segments: Domestic Wireless and Wireline. Its domestic wireless communication products and services include wireless voice and data services and equipment sales, which are provided to consumer, business and government customers across the US. Wireless communications products and services include voice, Internet access, broadband video and data, Internet protocol network services, network access, long distance and other services (Reuters, 2011). 2. Analysis McDonald’s Corporation and Verizon provide services which appeal to a particular segment of their respective markets. As such both corporations have reacted necessary to changes in the current macroeconomic conditions. This analysis will detail how macroeconomic condition has affected both companies. The analysis will also explain both companies’ actions with regard to the future and their continued profitability. 2a. Stock Performance McDonald’s shares are currently trading at $95.70; this is almost at their high of $96.47. Recently McDonald’s Corporation reported a higher-than expected 3rd quarter profit as new menu items and renovations lifted sales during a summer of extreme volatility and its shares rose nearly 3%. Sales at established restaurants rose 6.6% in September. The company forecasted a 4-5% increase in sales in October. 3rd quarter net income rose to $1.51 billion...

Words: 1498 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Analysis of the Business Cycle

...Analysis of the Business Cycle Professor Amiel Managerial Economics & Globalization March 15, 2011 Strayer University ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to take an economical and statistical look of where the economy is headed for the next coming years. Review the outcome of the economy over the past three years and what direction it’s going. Based on this review, it will show the current state of the economy and the impact to the Oligopolist in terms of prospects for higher sales and labor costs will be highlighted. The economy has continued to remain small despite some economic growth over the past two years. It has been said the economy will continue to grow because of the positive turn around in 2009 but in my opinion I do not think so. Due to multiple factors that the US has experience over the recent years such as unemployment which is causing a financial burden on the economy, I cannot see the US making substantial come back. The loss of countless jobs has put a financial strain on the country; while ours who are still employed struggle to maintain their jobs and contribute to the unemployment rate which has continue to climb. As shown in Figure 1) a steady rise in the unemployment rate from 7.75 % in early 2009 to over 10% in 2009 and 2010. The unemployment rate continues to grow due to corporations expecting for the economy to continually to fail; Shareholders cut cost by cutting jobs. Even with the government making efforts to hire back people the......

Words: 1181 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Design and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Solar Pv Systems

...Design and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Off-Grid Photovoltaic Power Systems Mounir Bouzguenda, Abdelkader Tami, Azzeddine Ferrah, and Jihad Al-Khalaf Faculty of Engineering, Sohar University PO Box 44 PC 311 Sohar-Oman Tel: +968-820-101 ext 233 Email:m.bouzguenda@soharuni.edu.om Abstract--The interest in off-grid photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems in villages and remote areas is increasing. This interest stems from several factors such as improvement in living standards, reduced capital cost, stricter environmental constraints, and national programs that encourage renewable energy systems. To promote the usefulness of such renewable energy systems, a simple design and cost analysis method was developed. Its purpose is system sizing and life cycle cost analysis. Key parameters such as energy consumption, storage requirements, solar resources and financing options are entered into the program. Results such as system size and project cost are computed. For the financial analysis, Internal Rate of Return and Payback Period are used as project evaluation techniques. The method was tested for four PV systems with different geographical conditions and energy consumption profiles. Results show that the PV systems can be attractive on economic basis if governments provide sufficient funding and incentives. 1. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaics offer consumers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet and reliable way. Because the source of energy is...

Words: 2473 - Pages: 10