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...Michael Byrd GE 253 Physics Albert Einstein’s Contribution to Quantum Mechanics Albert Einstein was one of the greatest minds in world history. Einstein is known as a brilliant physicist who contributed more to the scientific world than any other person. His theories on relativity paved the way for how science currently views time, space, energy, and gravity. Einstein was so advanced in his thinking that his studies and work set the standards for the control of scientific energy and space explorations currently being studied in the field of astrophysics. Albert Einstein's most noted contribution to the world is his theory of relativity. By 1902, Einstein was working on combining time and space, matter and energy. In 1905 when he was only 26 years old, he published a paper on relativity. This paper showed mathematically that the speed of light is constant and not relative to its source or to the viewer. Einstein had actually written an essay when he was only 16 years old on relativity, which became the basis for his published paper. The greatest result of relativistic physics was Einstein's famous relation, E=mc2. In this, he was able to prove that any increase in the energy, E, of a body must lead to a corresponding increase in its mass, m, these increases being related by a factor c2 , where c represents the velocity of...

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...Quantum mechanics is an area of physics dealing with phenomena where the action is of the order of the Planck constant. The Planck constant is a very tiny amount and so this domain of physics is typically on the distance and momentum scale of atoms and elementary particles in general. Action is a general physical concept related to dynamics and is most easily recognized in the form of angular momentum. The most tangible way of expressing the essence of quantum mechanics is that we live in a universe of quantized angular momentum and the Planck constant is the quantum. A tangible result of the quantization of angular momentum is the existence of discrete electron orbitals, each with a principal quantum number and each orbital with an associated angular momentum that is an integer multiple of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics has many implications on the microscopic scale, some of which are obscure and even counter intuitive. Classical physics explains matter and energy at the macroscopic level of the scale familiar to human experience, including the behavior of astronomical bodies. It remains the key to measurement for much of modern science and technology. On the other hand, at the end of the 19th century scientists discovered phenomena in both the large (macro) and the small (micro) worlds that classical physics could not explain. Coming to terms with these limitations led to the development of quantum mechanics, a major revolution in physics. This article describes......

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...Quantum Quandaries by Heath Miller December 8th 2012 What if you could transfer a file faster than the speed of light on a connection with air-tight security? You could connect to a computer anywhere around the world in the blink of an eye and never have to worry about malicious activity. It seems impossible, right? Not necessarily. It could actually be done by using a quantum network. A true quantum network would be much faster than any connection we could implement with our current telecommunications hardware. In fact, a signal transferred over a true quantum connection wouldn’t take time to transfer whatsoever. It would literally arrive instantly, and would be sent using physical properties that dictate the mechanics of the entire universe. The implications of harnessing these phenomena are astounding. In a 2011 article written in by Lydia Leavitt it states that, “Researchers at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute have discovered what might be the key to completely secure data transfer, keeping particles ‘entangled’ for up to an hour. Until now, the link between two entangled systems could only be maintained for a fraction of a second. This development could enable a direct link between two systems of communication” (engadget.com, N.P.). This could mean incredible things for our communication systems. Don’t think that speed and convenience aren’t the only benefits we would reap either. There would be countless new tools and abilities that......

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...QUANTUM COMPUTER BY QUANTUM MATHEMATICS Research Assistant: Quantum Mathematics Research and Development Private Limited. HaritaBhargava haritabhargava@ymail.com Abstract-. India gives its greatest contribution toward Intellectual property in form of SANHKYA YOGA. We know very new name of INDIA by BHARAT IT gives us necessary clue. BHA = LIGHT + KNOWLEDGERATA = DEVOTED So BHARAT means DEVOTED to LIGHT & KNOWLEDGE. The model for which modern science search is already available in SANKHYA YOGA. Sankhya yoga like INTELLECTUALPROPERTY is unparallel in the world. Sankhya is a philosophical doctrine which counts the categories which constitute this world. Computer science gives it the name “DIGITAL DECADE”. Cosmology presents it in name of “UNCERTANITY PRINCIPLE” IT is being researched in the form of Quantum (wave & particle) in physics department. In future, it will be known as Medical compiler. [R4] Terms and condition : INNOVATION – RESPECT IT Under the WTO provision of TRIPS I. INTRODUCTION Article 8.1 - That agreement is to be put into effect by member countries through implementing laws. The provision of the agreement is addressed to member countries. It does not directly modify the legal sanction of private parties, who cannot claim rights based on the agreement until they are translated into national law. Article 9.2 - The concept of fair use seeks to balance granting authors sufficient incentives to create new works against the interest of the public and......

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...QUANTUM COMPUTER BY QUANTUM MATHEMATICS Research Assistant: Quantum Mathematics Research and Development Private Limited. HaritaBhargava haritabhargava@ymail.com Abstract-. India gives its greatest contribution toward Intellectual property in form of SANHKYA YOGA. We know very new name of INDIA by BHARAT IT gives us necessary clue. BHA = LIGHT + KNOWLEDGERATA = DEVOTED So BHARAT means DEVOTED to LIGHT & KNOWLEDGE. The model for which modern science search is already available in SANKHYA YOGA. Sankhya yoga like INTELLECTUALPROPERTY is unparallel in the world. Sankhya is a philosophical doctrine which counts the categories which constitute this world. Computer science gives it the name “DIGITAL DECADE”. Cosmology presents it in name of “UNCERTANITY PRINCIPLE” IT is being researched in the form of Quantum (wave & particle) in physics department. In future, it will be known as Medical compiler. [R4] Terms and condition : INNOVATION – RESPECT IT Under the WTO provision of TRIPS I. INTRODUCTION Article 8.1 - That agreement is to be put into effect by member countries through implementing laws. The provision of the agreement is addressed to member countries. It does not directly modify the legal sanction of private parties, who cannot claim rights based on the agreement until they are translated into national law. Article 9.2 - The concept of fair use seeks to balance granting authors sufficient incentives to create new works against the interest of the public and......

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...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN |Centre |: Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS) |Unit Code |: FHSC1014 | |Course |: Foundation in Science |Unit Title |: Mechanics | |Year/ Trimester |: Year 1 / Trimester 1 | | | |Session |: 201401 | | | Tutorial 4: Application of Newton’s Laws. 1. The distance between two telephone poles is 50.0 m. When a 1.00 kg bird lands on the telephone wire midway between the poles, the wire sags 0.200 m. Draw a free-body diagram of the bird. How much tension does the bird produce in the wire? Ignore the weight of the wire. [614 N] 2. A 40 kg crate rests on a horizontal floor, and a 75 kg person is standing on the crate. Determine the magnitude of the normal force that (a) the floor exerts on the crate and (b) the crate exerts on the person. [(a) 1.13 x 103 N, (b) 735 N] 3. A worker stands still on a roof sloped at an angle of 45° above the horizontal. He is prevented from slipping by a static frictional force of 450 N. Find the mass of the worker. [85 kg] 4. A 4.0-kg bucket of water is raised from a well by a rope. If the upward acceleration of the......

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...ELEC 9705 Quantum Devices Session 1, 2014 Assignment 1 Student ID:3402048 Name:Weitao Tang Part 1 – Controlling the spins of a hydrogen atom 1.1 4-dimentional Hilbert space: plus_plus = plus_minus = 0 1 0 0 minus_plus = 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 minus_minus = 0 0 0 1 Spin operator of electron: Ix = 0 0.5000 0 0 0.5000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5000 0 0 0.5000 0 Iy = 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i Iz = 0.5000 0 0 -0.5000 0 0 0 0 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0 0 0 0 Spin operators of proton: Sx = 0 0 0.5000 0 0 -0.5000 0.5000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5000 0.5000 0 0 0.5000 0 0 Sy = 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.5000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.5000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i Sz = 0.5000 0 0 0 0 0.5000 0 0 0 0 -0.5000 0 0 0 0 -0.5000 1.2 The values of eigenvectors: phi_1 = phi_2 = 0 1 0.7071 0 -0.7071 0 0 0 phi_3 = phi_4 = 0 0.7071 0.7071 0 0 0 0 1 The values of eigenvalues: E_1 = E_2......

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...QUANTUM PHYSICS, SYNCHRONICITY, AND THE TAROT Just about anyone who has ever done a tarot reading and marveled at its accuracy has wondered, "How does it work?" The answer to this question depends greatly on our personal beliefs about spirituality, philosophy, and the way the world works, and there are many possible theories. On one end of the spectrum, many tarotists believe their readings are guided by a conscious force, whether that be God/dess, an angel or spiritual guide, or one's higher self. At the other end of the spectrum are tarotists of the psychological school, who believe that tarot cards can only reflect projections of what is in the mind of the client (and the reader), and who use a more interactive style of reading similar to counseling. Then there are the in between possibilities, which form the subject of this article – those who may not believe that a conscious force is guiding each reading, but who nevertheless believe there is more going on than simple psychological projection. I confess to falling in this middle ground. Since most of my readings are conducted via email, without the client even seeing the cards until after the reading is completed, there is little possibility that her projections are influencing my reading, nor that I am reading subtle bodylanguage clues that help me interpret the cards. Yet, I receive so much positive feedback for my readings, even for those that are very detailed and specific, that I cannot believe...

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...QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS What is quantum electrodynamics? Sociology Anna C Jean – Guillaume Martin LCSW March 7, 2015 Professor Dr. Beverly Jackson Quantum electrodynamics (QED): Is the e area of physics devoted to the study of the interaction of matter (quantum particles) and light. It generally concerns itself with the wave (or field) aspects of nature. At the level of the quantum realm, QED demonstrates that everything is connected. The world is a vast web of relationships, with everything affecting everything else. The brain, blood, and bone of the body give way to invisible forces, fields, and particles whose interactions underlie not only the human body but all of matter. Molecules give way to atoms that dissolve into subatomic particles, so that our bodies are governed not only by the laws of everyday chemistry but also by the paradoxical principles of the physical body. History shows that most truly fundamental leaps forward in scientific understanding are shunned at first. Truly new insights are sometimes too radical an overturning of accepted theory or too threatening to business or academic interests to be evaluated impartially. You have only to think of germ theory, tectonic plate theory, quantum electrodynamics, and string theory to know that even ideas that are accepted widely in our day were dismissed as crackpot ideas by a previous generation of scientists. Over the years, as physicists’ explored wave-particle duality, the study of quantum......

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...Seminar Synopsis Topic Introduction to Quantum Computer Abstract Overview: A classical computer has a memory made up of bits, where each bit is represented by either a one or a zero. A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. What is qubits A single qubit can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states; a pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three qubits in any superposition of 8 states. In general, a quantum computer with n qubits can be in an arbitrary superposition of up to 2^n different states simultaneously (this compares to a normal computer that can only be in one of these 2^n states at any one time). A quantum computer operates by setting the qubits in a controlled initial state that represents the problem at hand and by manipulating those qubits with a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates. The sequence of gates to be applied is called a quantum algorithm. The calculation ends with a measurement, collapsing the system of qubits into one of the 2^n pure states, where each qubit is zero or one, decomposing into a classical state. The outcome can therefore be at most n classical bits of information. Quantum algorithms are often non-deterministic, in that they provide the correct solution only with a certain known probability. Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computers) that make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and......

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...The word "quantum" comes from the Latin "quantus", meaning "how much". "Quanta", short for "quanta of electricity" (electrons) was used in a 1902 article on the photoelectric effect by Philipp Lenard, who credited Hermann von Helmholtz for using the word in the area of electricity. However, the word quantum in general was well known before 1900.[2] It was often used by physicians, such as in the term quantum satis. Both Helmholtz and Julius von Mayer were physicians as well as physicists. Helmholtz used "quantum" with reference to heat in his article[3] on Mayer's work, and indeed, the word "quantum" can be found in the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics by Mayer in his letter[4] dated July 24, 1841. Max Planck used "quanta" to mean "quanta of matter and electricity",[5] gas, and heat.[6] In 1905, in response to Planck's work and the experimental work of Lenard (who explained his results by using the term "quanta of electricity"), Albert Einstein suggested that radiation existed in spatially localized packets which he called "quanta of light" ("Lichtquanta").[7] The concept of quantization of radiation was discovered in 1900 by Max Planck, who had been trying to understand the emission of radiation from heated objects, known as black-body radiation. By assuming that energy can only be absorbed or released in tiny, differential, discrete packets he called "bundles" or "energy elements",[8] Planck accounted for the fact that certain objects change colour when......

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...Quantum mechanics Rohan Agarwal It is common knowledge that matter is comprised of particles. Or is it? We all think that light consists of waves. How true are these claims? Although it may seem counterintuitive on the surface, various experiments and supporting theories have proved that the line between what is particulate and what is wavelike is finer than we imagine. At a fundamental, sub-atomic level, matter and light are both wavelike and particulate; it is only on the macroscopic scale that the divisions become better defined. The study of the physical laws that govern the realm of the very small, such as atoms, protons, and the like; developed from Planck’s quantum principle and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle are termed as quantum mechanics. The principles of quantum mechanics revolve around two major theories- the wave-particle duality, and, in extension to this, the theory that it is possible for absolutely small particles to be in two different states at the same time. Theoretical physicists have arrived at these conclusions after powerful observations of experiments, and these will be discussed in due course. Before doing so, it is imperative to understand that this quantum strangeness does not transfer to the macroscopic world, and so some claims in this article will seem absurd. In order to demonstrate this, Erwin Schrodinger published a paper in 1935, containing a thought experiment, now popularly known as Schrodinger’s cat. A cat is put in a steel......

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...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN CentreCourseYear/ Trimester | : Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS): Foundation in Science: Year 1 / Trimester 1 | Session Course CodeCourse Title | : 201605: FHSC1014: Mechanics | Tutorial 1: Introduction 1. What are the dimensions for the physical quantity expressed as , where m, g, d, T and l are the mass, acceleration due to gravity, distance, period and length respectively. A MT2 B ML2 C MLT2 D MLT–2 [Answer: B] 2. Suppose A = BC, where A has the dimension LM–1 and C has the dimension LT–1. What is the dimension of B? A TM–1 B L2T–1M–1 C TML–2 D L2TM–1 [Answer: A] 3. (a) State the dimension for (i) velocity (ii) force (b) Suppose an equation related with force F, viscosity ƞ, speed v, radius r is given by this formula , where k is a dimensionless constant; x, y, and z are the power to which ƞ, v and r. Given that the dimensions of viscosity ƞ is ML–1T–1. Use dimensional analysis to determine the value of x, y and z. [Answer: (a) (i) LT–1, (ii) MLT–2; (b) 1, 1, 1] 4. (a) Discuss briefly whether in general the method of dimensional checking can positively confirm that an equation is correct. (b) Newton’s law of universal gravitation is represented by where F is the gravitational force, M and m are masses, and r is a length. Given that the dimensions of force is MLT–2. What are the dimensions and SI unit of the proportionality...

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...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN |Centre |: Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS) |Unit Code |: FHSC1014 | |Course |: Foundation in Science |Unit Title |: Mechanics | |Year/ Trimester |: Year 1 / Trimester 1 |Lecturer | | |Session |: 201605 | | | Additional Tutorial 2: Vector and translational kinematics. 1. Find the x and y-components of: (a) a displacement of 200 km, at 30.0o. (b) a velocity of 40.0 km/h, at 120o; and (c) a force of 50.0 N at 330o. [(a) 173 km, 100 km, (b) -20.0 km/h, +34.6 km/h, (c) 43.3 N, -25.0 N] 2. Three forces are applied to an object, as indicated in the drawing. Force [pic] has a magnitude of 21.0 Newton (21.0 N) and is directed 30.0° to the left of the + y axis. Force [pic] has a magnitude of 15.0 N and points along the + x axis. What must be the magnitude and direction (specified by the angle ( in the drawing) of the third force [pic] such that the vector sum of the three forces is 0 N? [18.7 N, 76o] 3. A 200 N block rests on a 30o inclined plane as shown in figure below. If the weight of the block acts vertically downward, what are the components of......

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...Quantum mechanics (QM – also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. QM provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic and only emerge at extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures. The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts (Latin quanta), and not in a continuous (cf. analog) way. For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized.[1] In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. A mathematical function called the wavefunction provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve the bra-ket notation, which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. The......

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