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Personal Development on Motivation

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|Home |Part 2 |In Real Life |
| |
|Personal/Professional Development Essays & Real Life Application of Adult Motivation Principles |
|Interacting with Colleagues and Parents |
|Part 1: The Effective use of Conflict in Small Group Discussion |
|Scroll down to: Prevention; Detection; Action; Communicate Effectively; |
|Researchers have found that conflict, in small discussion groups, can lead to the discovery of new ideas and |
|opinions. Through efforts to maintain group norms, effective group members can reduce the negative effects of |
|conflict by Prevention, Detection and Action. |
|New ideas and opinions help discussion groups ready for productive and effective outcomes. In their book on |
|organisation behaviour, Hersey & Blanchard noted: As the group gains experience, knows each other better, and |
|attains some expertise, it will progress to a higher stage of readiness. (1988) i To advance to a higher state |
|of readiness, all group members should have an opportunity express their ideas and opinions without fear of |
|censure. According to Wood: Failure to express disagreement and avoiding discussion of conflict producing issues|
|leads to ineffective problem solving and poor decision making. (1989) ii |
|[pic] |Conflict occurs when opinions differ about new ideas. Brilhart & |
| |Galanes note: In small groups, conflict is an integral part of |
| |problem solving and decision making . To which Glickman |
| |adds: Resolving conflict can be a positive, constructive process |
| |when handled correctly. The process of resolving conflict |
| |generates a greater pool of information and this, when drawn |
| |from, can lead to effective decision making. It is helpful to |
| |know that when a disagreement focuses on ideas, it can prevent |
| |the conflict from becoming adversarial. (1990).iii |
|Myths and Advice |In Interpersonal Conflict (Hocker & Wilmot, 1991) iv, the authors|
|Brandon Toropov vi writes there are three |stated: Conflict is an expressed struggle between two |
|myths about difficult people: |inter-dependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce |
|that difficult people are always opportunistic|resources, and interference from the other party in achieving |
|that difficult people can’t change and |their goals. In this definition, Interdependent is the key word. |
|that you can always just give difficult people|If the parties have no interest in each other, there is no |
|the cold shoulder |conflict. Though two interdependent parties may perceive a |
|Effective group members understand that |conflict, the perception need not be negative or detrimental to |
|difficult people |the groups' decision making capabilities. |
|may be looking-out for the group, not just |Prevention |
|themselves |Effective group members can prevent inappropriate or untimely |
|that they are able to change, if their needs |conflict by taking an active interest in other group members. |
|are met and |Conflict, used wisely, can explore the boundaries of what groups |
|that ignoring difficult people is ultimately |can achieve. Inappropriate, untimely conflicts interfere with the|
|ineffective for the group |groups decision-making ability and group goals.Inappropriate, |
| |untimely conflicts can be prevented by setting, and |
| |enforcing, group norms. |
| |Group norms are a set of informal governing behaviours agreed |
| |upon, or emulated by, group members.Either by list, or by |
| |example, setting group norms advises group members when, and how,|
| |potentially conflicting discussions are welcome. Discussions can |
| |get out of hand when group members do not heed group norms, or |
| |when the group norms are inappropriate or inadequate. Taking time|
| |to research, set and review group norms will prevent many |
| |inappropriate, untimely conflicts. |
|Detection |
|Group members who take an active interest in group dynamics and accept the eventuality of conflict, also become |
|aware of their responsibility to detect conflict, and present it beneficially to the group. Raymond |
|Birdwhistell, an early pioneer in the study of body movement signals, estimated that approximately 35% of |
|meanings given to messages are verbal and the remaining 65% are non-verbal. An effective group member recognises|
|changes in other members usual style, tone and body language. Changes in body language are indicators of |
|conflict. Steinmetz & Todd state, ' Effective communicators recognise that each individual has a unique way of |
|interpreting the content and intent of messages.' |
|Effective group members can recognise changes, in group members only if time has been invested to learn the |
|normal behaviour of other members. Socialising experiences like cocktails, ice-breakers, sharing a meal, evening|
|or weekend together, serve to stabilise the group by allowing the formation of useful insights about each others|
|normal behaviour. With the knowledge of each others usual non-verbal style, tone and body language, conflict can|
|be recognised early and funnelled into useful dialogue. |
|[pic] |Style, tone and body language cannot be isolated or defined as |
|Socialising experiences allows the formation |single attributes. It is their combination that weaves the fabric|
|of useful insights |of our non-verbal communication characteristics. People wear |
| |their characteristics like clothing. A person may hang their |
| |jacket on the back of the chair, share a joke and get to business|
| |after a little socialising or, being strictly business, keep the |
| |suit jacket on, sit with erect closed posture and an insist on |
| |using Roberts Rules of Order. |
| |Effective group members learn the usual forms of non-verbal |
| |communication for all the members in their group. They watch for |
| |changes and potential sources of conflict, and take the |
| |appropriate action to steer conflict into useful, productive |
| |group discovery. |
|Action |
|Active group members pursue the use of conflict for the good of the group. Recognising some conflicts cannot be |
|prevented, and are in fact helpful, effective members use a variety of verbal, non-verbal and physical |
|techniques to ensure conflict is used in the best way possible. |
|Paraphrasing can be used effectively to establish if conflict exists. When effective group members sense |
|confusion or potential conflict, they rephrase statements to clarify an issue and convey, back to the comments |
|originator, the perception of what was said. |
|For example, Bob may say, 'Yeah like what is the big deal with paperclips anyway!' When Alice becomes visibly |
|upset that Bob thinks all paperclips are adequate, Dwayne paraphrases saying, ‘ Bob, would you clarify, are you |
|saying all paperclips are the same?’ |
|Effective group members may choose to augment statements, with social knowledge, to clarify or diffuse |
|conflicts. Unlike paraphrasing, the intent is to fill in the gaps of another group members statement and focus |
|on the content, of the statement, not the person. A discussion member may say, ' Well Bob, I wouldn't expect you|
|to understand.' An effective member may augment saying. ' I believe Sandra is saying, since you don't work in |
|accounting, you may not understand how difficult it is to keep papers together with small paperclips.' |
|[pic] |Occasionally, when tempers flare, discussions must be halted. |
|Call a Time Out!!! |Before discussion becomes uncontrollable or damaging, effective |
| |group members should call a time-out for the good of the group. |
| |More abstract, and only effective in cohesive groups, non-verbal |
| |techniques may be employed to regulate discussion. Hand signals, |
| |such as the time-out signal used in sports, can be used to halt |
| |discussion when the group goes off course. Other hand signals may|
| |be agreed upon when setting or reviewing group norms. Changes in |
| |style, tone and body language may also be used to send a message |
| |to other group members. |
|Verbal and non-verbal communication may sometimes be inadequate to restore group norms. Occasionally, physical |
|action may be required. |
|Physical actions, which interrupt discussions, need not be seen as a last resort. Effective group members often |
|suggest physical buffers to restore group norms. Either by leaving the room, going for a walk or separating |
|conflicting group members, physical buffers can give group members the time and space they need to re-evaluate |
|the discussion. |
|Through prevention of unnecessary or inappropriate conflict, and by early detection of useful forms of conflict,|
|action can be taken to ensure a positive outcome when small groups eventually encounter conflict in their |
|discussions. |
|Effective group members reduce the negative effects of conflict, and maintain group norms by preventing |
|inappropriate conflict, by learning the style, tone and body language of other group members and by making an |
|effort to detect conflict. When conflict is detected, effective group members actively use a variety of verbal, |
|non-verbal and physical techniques to restore group norms and reduce the negative effects of conflict. |
|Communicate Effectively |Bibliography |
|Steinmetz & Todd offer this advice to improve |Brilhart, J. K. & Galanes, G. J. (1998) Effective Group |
|communication effectiveness: |Discussions (9th ed.) Boston, MA: McGraw Hill. |
|Be existential, accept people as they are now |Steinmetz, L. L. & Todd, H. R. Jr., (1992) Supervision: First |
|keep your cool, good communicators control |Line Management (5th ed.) Homewood, IL: Irwin |
|their emotions |Notes |
|listen totally, to words and body language |i Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K. H. (1988) Management of |
|avoid defensiveness, try to understand the |organizational behavior (5th ed.) Engleword Cliffs, NJ: |
|other person's perspective |Prentice-Hall. |
|avoid bias (stereotypes) about others. Try to |ii Wood, C. J. (1989) Challenging the Assumptions Underlying the |
|regard ethnicity, religion, previous |Use of Participatory Decision-Making Strategies: A Longitudinal |
|employment, birthplace, education and |Case Study. Small Group Behavior 20. |
|neighbourhood where they live |iii Glickman, C. (1990). Supervision of instruction: A |
| |development approach (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Allyn and Bacon. |
| |iv Hocker, J. L. & Wilmot, W. W. (1991) Interpersonal Conflict |
| |(3rd ed.) Dubuque, IA: Wm.C.Brown Pub. |
| |v Birdwhistell, R. (1972) lecture at the Nebraska Psychiatric |
| |Institute, Omaha, NE. |
| |vi Toropov, B. (1997) The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Getting Along|
| |with Difficult People, Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. |
| |Author |
| |Among other things, Bruce Mol has been the night school |
| |Calligraphy instructor in School District #43 for 15 years and |
| |has lead bicycle skills courses on the West Coast. His main |
| |interests are in Adult Education and Instructor Development. |
| |Bruce received his Diploma in Adult Education from VCC; trained |
| |at BCIT in electronics and Inventory Control. He is an incessant |
| |columnist for the Cycling BC Newsletter, has made numerous guest |
| |speaker appearances, live and on CBC radio and has the potential |
| |of entering your living room via TV reruns of Knowledge Network |
| |‘Roadworthy’ and CBC ‘Cycle.’ |

|Home |Part 1 |In Real Life |

| |
|Personal/Professional Development & Real Life Application of Adult Motivation Principles |
|Interacting with learners |
|Part 2: Teacher and learner responsibilities for the formation of long term memory |
|Scroll down to: A Quick look at Memory Types |
|Brain based teaching and learning is an appreciation and reaction to how we learn; what our strengths are and, |
|consequently, our weaknesses. It is not just neuroscience or brain physiology; it is also psychology and an |
|appreciation of emotion. Brain based teaching and learning has been approached from many angles but the outcome |
|is consistent no matter what view is taken. The teacher and learner must work together to create long term |
|memory. |
|[pic] |My first encounter with the concept of brain based learning |
|Suspend Belief, draw the chair upside down. |occurred over ten years ago when I was given Betty Edwards',Drawing|
| |From the Right Hand Side of the Brain. I recall the amazement of |
| |the introductory chapters and the amusement trying the initial |
| |exercises. I was trying to teach myself to draw. |
| |The exercises are fascinating. In one exercise Edwards creates |
| |awareness of two ways of thinking, logical and artistic, by drawing|
| |a wooden chair. For a non-drawer the challenge is to draw the chair|
| |as it is seen, not as it logically exists with equal length legs |
| |etc. |
|In the second half of the exercise, the chair is purposely overturned and drawn once again. It is a peculiar |
|exercise that requires a willingness to try something new. Miraculously, when the finished drawing is rotated |
|right side up, it looks much more like a chair than the results of the first half of the exercise. |
|Whether appealing to the left or right brain, when leading a class, or self-teaching, a willingness to suspend |
|beliefs allows for new perspectives. Instructor and learner must work closely to create an environment that |
|permits opening the intellect to new ideas. Then, using structured debates, brainstorming, group discussion or |
|physical skills, teachers and learners can encounter fascinating perspectives together and create memorable |
|experiences. |
|Dr. Oliver Sacks has written some fascinating accounts of his patients. Though he sometimes writes about |
|seemingly functional dysfunctional people, it is the seemingly dysfunctional functional people which are most |
|often the subjects of his research. |
|Sacks makes it all too clear that we are all very delicately constructed and that the brain can go astray with |
|the least provocation. By birth or by accident the world is full of people who deal with what they have and, in |
|many instances, they shouldn't be thought of as disadvantaged. |
|Teachers must learn to deal with diversity and respond to everyone's differences in a manner that encourages the|
|best learning possible. I began by recommending changes of perspective to encourage new patterns but Sacks |
|writes about brains that cannot lured into perspective taking. Sacks writes about how Human and worthwhile his |
|patients are and it is obvious he never gives up on them. In fact, he has taught us all a great deal about how |
|we define normal. |
|Whether we are examining the swirls on fingertips, or comparing the nebulae of thoughts in a brainstorming |
|session, instructors must recognise no two of us are alike. An understanding of the brain encourages an |
|understanding of what is humanly possible. Studying brain physiology is an appreciation of infinite combinations|
|of intellect and ability. |
|Instructors try to create or associate memory patterns in their learners. The infinite possibilities in humanity|
|call for the open, mindful, flexible teaching. The simple beauty of open mindfulness, and the sort of |
|inquisitiveness that Sacks displays, is that learning and teaching can become a holistic Zen-like endeavour. |
|Obviously a person cannot be talked out of Tourettes Syndrome, colour blindness or agnosia. Dr. Sacks sends a |
|message to all teachers and all learners: A meaningful life, and educational experience, is not always a matter |
|of getting what you want, but dealing with what you get. |
|[pic] |Dr. Ellen Langer has a few thoughts for instructors who are |
|The Coach Approach |questioning current educational techniques. Langer wonders about |
| |the effectiveness of teaching by rote or by decree of expert. |
| |Examining sport, Langer speculates upon whether we should teach |
| |students step by step or whether we should let them develop sport |
| |skills by themselves with expert guidance. A sort of coach approach|
| |known as mindful learning. Mindful learning, says Langer, has three|
| |characteristics: the ability to create new categories; openness to |
| |new information; and an implicit awareness of more than one |
| |perspective. |
|If instructors and learners remain open to new information and different perspectives, new categories of |
|knowledge are created. So, though the brain likes to find patterns and associate with previous learning, the |
|ability to draw distinction between new and existing knowledge makes for mindful and memorable learning. |
|Langer is saying that the best teachers and learners are those who actively pursue the creation of knowledge. |
|Mindfulness, Langer theorises, benefits our psychological and physical well being. Once again we see the |
|holistic benefit implied when teaching and learning are on the same course. Teaching and learning can lead to |
|practical memorable experiences and enjoyment. |
|Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi claims enjoyment has eight major components. Instructors and learners can ask |
|themselves what is enjoyable or lacking in any classroom setting by inquiring, do I have a chance of completing |
|the task? Can I concentrate on the task? Are there clear goals and immediate feedback? Do I feel involved enough|
|that I become unaware of other frustrations? Do I have a sense of control over the task? Can I lose myself in |
|this task without worry and is my sense of time altered? Examining these aspects, and seeking to fulfil them, |
|leads to an optimal experience Csikszentmihalyi, and others, have named Flow. |
|Csikszentmihalyi has an interesting, if not controversial, view on rote learning. Memorising, he says, is worth |
|the effort. Not only does it create order and content, there is the advantage of being able to amuse oneself |
|without external stimulation. Rote memory, encourages Csikszentmihalyi, creates a feeling of ownership and |
|connectedness with the subject area. |
|[pic] |Rote learning is known to help develop procedural memories but what|
|Memorising creates order and content |impact does it have on our declarative memory processes? Certainly |
| |rote memorisation is known to enhance semantic memory but do they |
| |also create neural frameworks that make episodic memories more |
| |likely? Does someone who has memorised information have a greater |
| |chance to create associative memory pathways? |
| |To answer these questions about semantic memories we must explore |
| |episodic memory because, whether Csikszentmihalyi admits it or not,|
| |he is suggesting emotional involvement in the creation of |
| |procedural memory. Perhaps terminology is a hindrance. |
| |Csikszentmihalyi believes that both supplying content for, and |
| |learning how to create, long-term memories has many advantages |
| |related to autonomy of being. |
| |Knowing how to create long term memory is a useful skill to both |
| |teacher and learner. Perhaps there is still a place for rote |
| |memory, when thoughtfully applied, in our learning system. Teachers|
| |and learners are responsible to each other for the emotional and |
| |factual content of long term memory. |
|Dr. Robert Sylvester says that a long-term memory begins to develop out of a temporary event when our brain |
|determines that the event is emotionally loaded and may reoccur. A strong memory is easier to trigger than a |
|weak memory and frequent activation of interrelated neural networks promotes dendritic growth, thereby |
|strengthening synapses, and increasing the amount of receptors. Adding receptors to a synapse increases the |
|likelihood of reaching its threshold and firing. |
|The implication for learning and teaching is that memory has to be used or it is lost. For long term memories to|
|form, teacher and student must engage in the active re-use of information. Activities planned to engage previous|
|knowledge reinforce memories and biologically alter the structure of the brain. Neurons that wire together fire |
|together! |
| |
|Brain based teaching and learning is, itself, the outcome of how seriously some educators' view their |
|responsibility to teach and ensure learning takes place. Whether we discuss brain biased teaching and learning |
|at the physical level, or the biological level down to chemo-receptors; whether we approach learning by |
|observing the diversity and limitations in all of us; or whether we approach as a coach or note by rote; the |
|responsibility for the formation of long term memory is an emotional experience for both the teacher and the |
|learner. If learners are to participate willingly, they must be part of the process. Emotion is so crucial to |
|long term memory that we, as teacher/learners, must examine the content of our lesson plan and formulate |
|emotional experiences to make memories happen |
|A Quick look at Memory Types |
|[pic] |Procedural Memory |What you know about |
| |Motor & Conceptual Skills |electricity |
| |i.e. Cycling, Typing and turning on |Automatically turning on |
| |lights. |the light when you go into|
| |Skills which do not require conscious |a room. |
| |thought after the skill is learned. | |
|[pic] |Declarative Memory Types |Knowledge and facts about |
| |1. Semantic Memory |electricity and how it |
| |i.e. Knowledge, Facts and Concepts we |works. |
| |learn in school. Acquired by learning. | |
|[pic] |Declarative Memory Types |The DAY the electricity |
| |2. Episodic Memory |went out because of the |
| |i.e. Life experiences, Events, Time & |big snow storm. |
| |Places. Not necessarily accurate. | |
| | | |
|Author |Bibliography |
|Among other things, Bruce Mol has been the |Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1990. Flow. New York: Harper Collins. |
|night school Calligraphy instructor in |Edwards. B. 1979. Drawing on the Right Hand Side of the |
|School District #43 for 15 years and has |Brain. Calif.: JP Tarcher. |
|lead bicycle skills courses on the West |Langer, E. 1997. The Power of Mindful Learning. Perseus Books. |
|Coast. His main interests are in Adult |Sacks, O. 1995. An Anthropologist on Mars. New York: Alfred A. |
|Education and Instructor Development. Bruce |Knoff. |
|received his Diploma in Adult Education from|Sylverster, R. 1995. A Celebration of Neurons. Virginia: ASCD |
|VCC; trained at BCIT in electronics and | |
|Inventory Control. He is an incessant | |
|columnist for the Cycling BC Newsletter, has| |
|made numerous guest speaker appearances, | |
|live and on CBC radio and has the potential | |
|of entering your living room via TV reruns | |
|of Knowledge Network ‘Roadworthy’ and CBC | |
|‘Cycle.’ | |

|Home |Part 1 |Part 2 |

|Real Life Application of Adult Motivation Principles |
| |
|In Real Life... |
|I love to hear, see and feel I've done something right. I also love to learn how to do things better. I don't think I'm alone in |
|wanting to be appreciated and congratulated. Below is an Overview of how I applied suggestions found in Raymond Wlodkowski's book |
|on adult motivation to the courses I teach. Reading Wlodkowski I learned I was doing a lot of things right, why they worked and |
|where I could improve my teaching. Consider the following as a compliment to 'winging it' style instruction. Learning where to |
|'wing it' and when to 'structure it,' has helped to improve the marks in my classes and given me a sense of how to appeal to more |
|learners more often.. |
|This methodology can be applied to any course you teach so, as you read the article below, read in your course name of field of |
|expertise. I also teach calligraphy and the concepts are equally applicable. |
|Bruce Mol's Guide To... |
|Assisting adults to improve their cycling skills using Raymond Wlodkowski's Time Continuum Model of Motivation. |
|No two of us are a like, especially cyclists! Recreation and competition cycling club members, advocacy groups and BAC’s, all meet |
|this reality very quickly. The reasons you cycle will not be the reasons your friends and family do. You probably won’t be able to |
|‘motivate’ them with your attitude or accomplishments. As a matter of fact, one of the more than 20 internationally (i) accepted |
|theories about adult motivation assumes you can’t ‘motivate’ adults at all. You can, however, create an environment to encourage |
|and stimulate interest in cycling if the motivation is already there.(ii) |
|Motivated like behavior may be elicited if you use rewards for bicycling. For example, if you buy your friend an ice-cream cone, |
|after each ride, cycling can easily turn into a requirement for receiving an ice-cream cone paycheque. Would you go to work if you |
|didn’t get a paycheque? Some of us would. What does your friend like better, ice-cream or cycling? |
|Perhaps the ice-cream reward system will lead a person to take up bicycling for its pleasure alone. Your guess is as good as mine, |
|but why guess? |
|There is another, more holistic way to introduce someone to bicycling. Applying the Wlodkowski model of adult motivation to cycling|
|takes time and energy but it is always worthwhile. It requires you to demonstrate cycling skills and knowledge with expertise, |
|empathy, enthusiasm and clarity. It requires you to guarantee your friend quality instruction, give evidence their effort makes a |
|difference, supply continual feedback, give them control over their own learning, help them with difficult tasks and encourage them|
|to develop self evaluation. |
|[pic] |
|Introduction |
|To encourage a person to take up cycling recognize there are three phases, six factors, to tap into their motivation. ( see diagram|
|above) In the beginning you must assess their attitudes and needs. Analyze and question attitudes, without invalidating them, and |
|offer new or accurate information in an acceptable manner. Try to establish what needs must be met to allow cycling to occur. Next,|
|create a mental and physical environment which will be stimulating and mentally appealing to allow a learning process. Lastly, |
|allow competence to grow, not simply just appear. You must learn to be honest and constructive in reinforcement of new skills and |
|behaviors. |
|Consider yourself the architect of a skills and information bridge which spans between the old and new, attitudes and abilities. |
|Take time and lay a proper foundation to ensure the bridge reaches its full potential. You can’t change someone or give them a |
|skill but you can provide the components to allow change and skills to develop. |
|Though this overview is about instructing, considering learning types is helpful when deciding on the best course of action for any|
|learning situation. |

|PHASE 1 |
|Attitudes and Needs |Lets begin at the beginning. Attitudes, or |
|[pic] |predisposition’s, about Cycling differ from person |
| |to person. Attitudes are a learned behavior based |
| |on a persons concepts about cycling in general, the|
| |information that they have absorbed in the past and|
| |their emotional response to the concepts and |
| |information. Gender, culture, age and economic |
| |circumstances will also influence a persons |
| |attitude to cycling. Do you know everything that |
| |ever happened to this person and how they reacted? |
| |No you don’t. |
| |Determine what is important to your intended |
| |cyclist? Many cyclists report they do not have one |
| |single reason to ride. |
|Many ride for a combination of reasons including: exercise; stress release; environment; faster in traffic |
|congested cities; time to be alone; time to be with others; so they can eat whatever they want; cannot afford |
|other means of transportation; just to be outdoors; sight seeing; independence. The list goes on and on and the |
|combination of priorities are as varied as each one of us. |
|Find out what your learner has based cycling attitudes on. If you find those attitudes are based on some |
|erroneous assumptions about cycling, discuss those issues openly. Validate concerns and correct erroneous |
|assumptions with good information. Realize that most people encounter cycling information as accidents reported |
|in newspapers etc., or as elitist news from the sports world which they cannot relate to. We will never hear or |
|see a mass media headline which reports how many people ride to work, or the gym, or on vacation or to the store |
|and make it home safely. In so many ways ‘perception is NOT reality.’ |
|Recognize some attitudes are based on problems which, if the person is willing, can be overcome. Some problems |
|may have a resolution which does not favor cycling. For example, some people won’t ride to work because there is |
|no shower and their clothing will be rumpled and besides there is no safe place to lock their bike. All three |
|problems are real and valid reasons but, if resolutions are never sought, the problem |
|is unwillingness NOT facilities. Make sure you are working on the right problem and, if you haven’t encountered |
|the problem before, seek out others who have. |
|Find out early what you friends attitude is: towards you; towards cycling in general; towards the situation which|
|led them to cycling; towards themselves; and towards their expectancy of success. Keep checking attitudes as you |
|progress. |
|If you want to influence a persons attitude toward cycling, determine what Needs must be met to allow cycling, |
|then set about meeting those needs. Maybe there is a physical reason not to ride. It could be an experience with |
|a bad bicycle fit or it could be an ailment which prevents comfort on a bike. (iii) |
|For example, do your best to ensure a good bike fit. Go out of your way to remember we are all different. Adjust |
|and twiddle everything to make the bike as personal a fit as possible. Get good help if you do not know the major|
|points of a good bike fit. Remember to respect a persons feelings too. If, no matter how great a bike fit you |
|have accomplished, that person does not feel comfortable unless their feet can touch the ground, make sure their |
|feet can touch the ground. At a later date, show them how easily they can touch the ground using a more efficient|
|seat height. |
|Another example is the common feeling that cycling in traffic is too dangerous. Yet there are lots of cyclists |
|proving it can be done safely. How is this contradiction possible? Is it safe to cycle in traffic or is it not? |
|There is no right or wrong answer and traffic is not safe just because you say it is. Find the underlying concern|
|(theneed to be addressed) and build a bridge toward a solution and new attitude with skills or information. |
|So, to begin, take the time to assess attitudes. When you meet the physiological, physical and psychological |
|needs to address those attitudes, you are well on your way to mutual success. |
|There are plenty of resources available to help you to encourage and promote cycling. There are bicycle skills |
|courses, clubs, charity or private rides, books, videos |
|PHASE 2 |
|Stimulation and Affect[pic] |There are more needs to consider as you move into |
| |the next stage of the learning process. While you |
| |are considering a stimulating environment, where |
| |learning can take place, remember the above needs |
| |for safety as well as the need for a positive |
| |experience. Positive emotions have |
| |an affective (influential) effect of the learning |
| |process. |
| |Do your best to ensure early success in all your |
| |learners needs. Don’t take Molly, who is afraid of |
| |traffic, out on Broadway at rush hour and say |
| |‘follow me.’ Don’t take Bart, who just bought his |
| |first mountainbike, out to a technical trail. Both |
| |are disappointing venues. |
|Create success stories. Leave your ego and ability at the door and decide on something good for your learner. |
|Comfort level and experience leads to confidence and ability. Positive emotions enhance the experience of |
|learning and allows meaning, relevance, interest and feelings of involvement, to take place. |
|To move ahead, if you have taken the time to learn and meet the needs of the new cyclist, and you have created a |
|safe influential environment which guaranteed positive results, change and success, it is time to move into the |
|role of coach. |
|PHASE 3 |
|Competence and Reinforcement[pic] |Competence is a much desired sign of inner growth, |
| |maturity and ability to control life and |
| |environment. When competence is shown, and |
| |appreciated, confidence emerges and self esteem |
| |flourishes. |
| |Provide continuous and prompt feedback throughout |
| |the learning process. Bear in mind what effect your|
| |feedback will have on feelings and confidence. Keep|
| |the feedback positive if possible. Use negative |
| |feedback with forethought and care. Reinforcement |
| |must also be relevant, timely and free of |
| |patronization if learning is to occur. |
| |In short, kindle competence with positive relevant |
| |reinforcement and learning happens freely. |
|THREE IN ONE |
|[pic] |If only teaching was as straight forward as |
| |summarizing concepts! There is plenty of overlap |
| |between the three phases. Some attitudes, and |
| |therefore needs, may be harder to assess than |
| |others. You will probably find yourself working |
| |different phases, of different objectives, at the |
| |same time. No matter, always take the time to |
| |assess attitudes. Meet the physiological, physical |
| |and psychological needs, of those attitudes, and |
| |you are on the road to successful cycling. Create a|
| |safe environment which guarantees positive results |
| |and allows a demonstration of competence. Reinforce|
| |competence with timely, helpful feedback and |
| |learning will occur as a natural consequence. |
| |For those of you using ice cream cone approach, try|
| |providing the ice cream cone up front with no |
| |strings attached. Advise your friend you are |
| |available for cycling whenever they feel like it. |
| |Try to holding back the puppy dog eyes and lower |
| |lip. Try verbal ice-creams of encouragement, they |
| |come in all sorts of flavours as plain as Vanilla |
| |and as appropriate as Rocky Road. |
| | |
|What else can you do? |This overview has been about teaching. A |
| |consideration of learning styles would take as much|
| |or even more room. We all learn differently because|
| |we are all a different mix of learning styles. Some|
| |people learn best with self study, some work best |
| |participating in discussions and some people learn |
| |best by ‘doing.’ We say, Head, Heart, Hands. Each |
| |one of us is a unique mix of these three learning |
| |styles. It is important, as a course leader, to |
| |recognize and appeal to different styles of |
| |learning. |
| | |
|For example... |In the CANBIKE bicycle skills course I lead, one of|
| |the most important parts of the course is |
| |understanding the five traffic principles. These |
| |principles are in the course text book and |
| |summarized in a handout (HEAD), we discuss the |
| |principles and their ramifications in real |
| |scenarios (HEART) with model bikes and cars. |
| |(HANDS). We reinforce the principles by cycling |
| |around town, pulling over frequently, getting |
| |opinions about traffic situations and checking for |
| |understanding with discussion (H-H-H). Lastly, we |
| |view a video, incorporating the five traffic |
| |principles, which encapsulates the whole course. |
| |Done correctly, it never seems like repetition, |
| |just good reinforcement for the different learning |
| |styles. Some people feel good they can analyze |
| |traffic situations for best actions, some feel good|
| |they found ways to handle traffic situations as |
| |they arise and some feel confident they know the |
| |right moves for different traffic conditions. Head,|
| |Heart, Hands. Leading groups is no easier or |
| |harder, just different. How do you learn best and |
| |what will be best for your learner? |
| | |
|Work through this whole process together. Question everything. I am confident you will learn something about |
|yourself as well. |
| |
|Notes |(i) Schenstead, B., in his paper, ‘Motivation in |
| |Adult Learning: From Theory to Practice (1997) |
| |(ii) According to Wlodkowski, R.J. ‘Enhancing Adult|
| |Motivation to Learn’ (1985) there are also five |
| |assumptions to keep in mind. 1. Adults are |
| |motivated. 2. Adults are responsible for their own |
| |motivation. 3. If anything is to be learned, it can|
| |be learned in a motivating manner. 4. There is no |
| |best way to instruct. 5. Your instructional plan |
| |needs a motivational plan. |
| |(iii) According to Maslow, A.H. in Theory of Human |
| |Motivation (1943), there is a hierarchy of needs to|
| |fill before we can reach our goals. First there are|
| |physiological needs (food, water, clothing etc.) |
| |then psychological and physical safety. We must |
| |also feel love and belonging and lastly self esteem|
| |before we are able to achieve a personal sense of |
| |fulfillment independent of what others may think. |…...

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