Free Essay

Pathology Parkinson

In: Science

Submitted By nava
Words 657
Pages 3
-------------------------------------------------
Pathology
Anatomical
The basal ganglia, a group of brain structures innervated by the dopaminergic system, are the most seriously affected brain areas in PD.[41] The main pathological characteristic of PD is cell death in the substantia nigra and, more specifically, the ventral (front) part of the pars compacta, affecting up to 70% of the cells by the time death occurs.[8]
Macroscopic alterations can be noticed on cut surfaces of the brainstem, where neuronal loss can be inferred from a reduction of neuromelanin pigmentation in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus.[42] The histopathology (microscopic anatomy) of the substantia nigra and several other brain regions shows neuronal loss and Lewy bodies in many of the remaining nerve cells. Neuronal loss is accompanied by death of astrocytes (star-shaped glial cells) and activation of the microglia (another type of glial cell). Lewy bodies are a key pathological feature of PD.[42]
Pathophysiology
The primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from greatly reduced activity of dopamine-secreting cells caused by cell death in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigra.[41]
There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor,oculo-motor, associative, limbic and orbitofrontal circuits, with names indicating the main projection area of each circuit.[41] All of them are affected in PD, and their disruption explains many of the symptoms of the disease since these circuits are involved in a wide variety of functions including movement, attention and learning.[41] Scientifically, the motor circuit has been examined the most intensively.[41]
A particular conceptual model of the motor circuit and its alteration with PD has been of great influence since 1980, although some limitations have been pointed out which have led to modifications.[41] In this model, the basal ganglia normally exert a constant inhibitory influence on a wide range of motor systems, preventing them from becoming active at inappropriate times. When a decision is made to perform a particular action, inhibition is reduced for the required motor system, thereby releasing it for activation. Dopamine acts to facilitate this release of inhibition, so high levels of dopamine function tend to promote motor activity, while low levels of dopamine function, such as occur in PD, demand greater exertions of effort for any given movement. Thus, the net effect of dopamine depletion is to produce hypokinesia, an overall reduction in motor output.[41] Drugs that are used to treat PD, conversely, may produce excessive dopamine activity, allowing motor systems to be activated at inappropriate times and thereby producing dyskinesias.[41]
Brain cell death
There is speculation of several mechanisms by which the brain cells could be lost.[44] One mechanism consists of an abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein bound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells. This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.[8][45] According to the Braak staging, a classification of the disease based on pathological findings, Lewy bodies first appear in the olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum, with individuals at this stage being asymptomatic. As the disease progresses, Lewy bodies later develop in the substantia nigra, areas of the midbrain and basal forebrain, and in a last step the neocortex.[8] These brain sites are the main places of neuronal degeneration in PD; however, Lewy bodies may not cause cell death and they may be protective.[44][45] In people with dementia, a generalized presence of Lewy bodies is common in cortical areas. Neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, are not common unless the person is demented.[42]
Other cell-death mechanisms include proteosomal and lysosomal system dysfunction and reduced mitochondrial activity.[44] Iron accumulation in the substantia nigra is typically observed in conjunction with the protein inclusions. It may be related to oxidative stress, protein aggregation and neuronal death, but the mechanisms are not fully understood.[46]…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Project Pathology

...Thomsett International : Project Pathology Page 1 of 8 Home -> Hot Articles -> Project Pathology Project Pathology Causes, patterns and symptoms of project failure You know a project is failing when you can't stop it Rob's Rough Rules of Project Management Dana Scully and Fox Mulder, the F.B.I. team in The X-Files, show the value of clinical analysis of cause and effect. While Mulder is focussed on mixing it with various aliens, shape changers, mutant worms and other wonderful creatures, Scully is often back at the base dispassionately examining the numerous bodies that turn up in each episode. It is often Scully's understanding of pathology and autopsy that provides the vital evidence in their search for the truth that is out there. A bit like Mulder and Scully, over the past 18 years, our group has reviewed over 20 major projects that were in the process of failing or had failed. These reviews were not done as an academic exercise or a controlled experiment but, they were undertaken "in the heat of the battle". Our clients wanted to know what they could do to fix the projects or what could be done to prevent other projects failing. The pathology of failed projects has aided us and our clients in understanding the major issues in computing. Home Our Company Public Workshop Schedule In-house Delivery and Consulting Workshop Descriptions Site Map Articles What our group has learnt is that there is a common set of causes for project failure, a common pattern of......

Words: 4437 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Parkinsons Disease

...Parkinsons Disease Introduction Defination Parkinson’s diseases is a slow progressive neurological movement disorder that eventually leads to disability. Its associated with decreased levels of dopamine resulting in distruction of pigmented neuronal cells in the substantia ingrain the basal ganglia region of the brain. (brunner and suddarth eleventh edition) Signs and symptoms Tremor is the characterisitic shaking associated with Parkinsons diseas and often begins in the hand. Pill-rolling and bacj and forth rubbing of the thumb and forfinger is alos seen and may occure whrn the hand is at rest. Slloowed motion is another common sign and symoptom of parkinsons disease, over time there is reduced ability to initiate voluntary movement therefore making simple tasks difficult anf time consuming. This causes the patient to have a short steps while walking and a shuffling walk. Muscle rigidity is occurs in any part of the body, it may sometimes be so severe that it limits the range of movement s and causes pain. The posture is impared and there is no balance therefore the patient is seen to have a stooped posture. This causes a problem with balance in later stages of the disease. Loss of automatic movements such as blinking smiling swinging the arms while walking are diminishes and sometimes even lost Some patients with Parkinsons disease have a problem with speech they may speak more softly, rapidly or in monotone and sometimes slurring or repeating words is seen.......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pathology

...Pathology: Myocardial Infarction Name University Objectives 1. Discuss myocardial infarction and its pathogenesis. 2. Describe the sequence of changes involved in myocardial infarction. 3. List the major physiologic and morphologic complications of myocardial infarction. 4. Describe management of myocardial infarction. 5. Discuss patient teaching of myocardial infarction. Definition Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is an irreversible necrosis of the heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. This usually results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand, which is most often caused by plaque rupture with thrombus formation in a coronary vessel, resulting in an acute reduction of blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. (Zafari, 2011) Etiology The etiology of MI is predominantly from atherosclerosis i.e. coronary artery narrowing due to plaque formation. Non-modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis includes: age, sex, family history of premature coronary heart disease, etc. Modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis includes: smoking or other tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and/or lack of exercise, psychosocial stress, poor oral hygiene, etc. Non-atherosclerotic causes of MI include the following: • Coronary occlusion secondary to vasculitis • Ventricular hypertrophy (e.g., left ventricular hypertrophy, idiopathic......

Words: 2514 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Parkinsons Disease

...Parkinsons Disease Introduction Defination Parkinson’s diseases is a slow progressive neurological movement disorder that eventually leads to disability. Its associated with decreased levels of dopamine resulting in distruction of pigmented neuronal cells in the substantia ingrain the basal ganglia region of the brain. (brunner and suddarth eleventh edition) Signs and symptoms Tremor is the characterisitic shaking associated with Parkinsons diseas and often begins in the hand. Pill-rolling and bacj and forth rubbing of the thumb and forfinger is alos seen and may occure whrn the hand is at rest. Slloowed motion is another common sign and symoptom of parkinsons disease, over time there is reduced ability to initiate voluntary movement therefore making simple tasks difficult anf time consuming. This causes the patient to have a short steps while walking and a shuffling walk. Muscle rigidity is occurs in any part of the body, it may sometimes be so severe that it limits the range of movement s and causes pain. The posture is impared and there is no balance therefore the patient is seen to have a stooped posture. This causes a problem with balance in later stages of the disease. Loss of automatic movements such as blinking smiling swinging the arms while walking are diminishes and sometimes even lost Some patients with Parkinsons disease have a problem with speech they may speak more softly, rapidly or in monotone and sometimes slurring or repeating words is seen.......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Parkinsons

...Parkinson's Disease in Genetics and How We Sleep, Smell and Digest. Retrieved from http://www.michaeljfox.org/foundation/news-detail.php?searching-for-early-signs-of-parkinsons-disease-in-genetics 2) Boeve, B.F. (2013). Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder in the development of Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.cyber.usask.ca/biologicalsciences/docview/1328376965/13F442B4AA029B813A9/1?accountid=14739 3) Kempfner, J. (2010). REM behaviour disorder detection associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.cyber.usask.ca/biologicalsciences/docview/812133972/13F446B243C407E354C/1?accountid=14739 4) Fantini, M.L., Postuma, R.B., Montplaisir, J., Ferini-Strambi, L. (2012). Olfactory deficit in idiopathic rapid eye movements sleep behavior disorder. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.cyber.usask.ca/science/article/pii/S0361923006002358 5) Onofrj, M., Thomas, A., Bonanni, L. (2007). New approaches to understanding hallucinations in Parkinson''s disease: phenomenology and possible origins. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.cyber.usask.ca/biologicalsciences/docview/993522343/13F4465B21A4FCD737A/3?accountid=14739 6) Parkinson's Disease and Sleep. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-topics/parkinsons-disease-and-sleep 7) What is Parkinson’s? Retrieved from http://www.parkinson.ca/site/c.kgLNIWODKpF/b.5184077/ ...

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Parkinson

...the disease, motor symptoms non motor symptoms and others symptoms. They brought up treatments in how to deal with the disease. They explained the role of genetics and how it effects the population. They also spoke about functional and behavioral changes. The overall presentation was very informative. Team B did a great job on the organization and the information on the disease Parkinson’s. References: Behavioral disturbances in Parkinson's disease. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181807/ Parkinson's Disease Foundation. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.pdf.org/en/causes#genetic Understanding Parkinson's Disease -- the Basics. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/guide/understanding-parkinsons-disease-basics...

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Forensic Pathology

...Forensic Pathology Have you ever just wanted to come home from a long days at work and kick off your shoes and grab some food and pig out in front of the television? You began to flick through all the channels and can’t find what you are looking for so you come to CSI Miami and this had caught your attention and now you’re toned in and intrigued of what they are doing. You find yourself yelling at the T.V. saying “how they do that?” “What is that?” “Why are they doing that?” and “how did they solve the case?” Well as you began to read further all of your questions will be answered, and you will see the real from the fake and what exactly a forensic pathologist is and as well as what it takes to become one. You will learn the ins and outs of how forensic pathologist has more than just one obligation. Forensic pathology has to do with the cause and manner of how someone died, as well as working with the police and their overall investigation it is almost like they are an investigator too. There is a lot of schooling and training that goes into becoming a forensic pathologist. As you continue further you will see that forensic pathology is a part of everyday life because, someone passes on every day. Forensic pathologist are specially trained doctors/physicians that study and examine the bodies of people who are deceased suddenly, violently, or unexpectedly. It is their job to figure out the immediate reason for this cessation of life. What are the duties of a forensic......

Words: 1288 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Parkinsons

...make an important chemical called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement. It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do. There are four major signs that you may have Parkinson’s: Tremors, which means shaking or trembling. Tremor may affect your hands, arms, or legs. Stiff muscles. Slow movement. Problems with balance or walking. There are many factors in what can cause Parkinson’s; this is why there is such a hard search for a cure. According to the video, a person who shot up Heroin gave him instant Parkinson’s, it was tainted. It is hard to figure out how to cure since it can happen to people in different ways. There is a drug out there that many people with Parkinson are prescribed, this is called Sinement (Carbidopa/Levodopa) there is extended release and immediate release of this drug and has been shown to not cure but to help with the symptoms. Now they are doing stem cell research to help people they are cells that can be put back in the brain and restart the dopamine, from abortive tissue and transferring them into patients. There are many problems with stem cell research. One of the problems is the religious groups that wish to have the research stopped. They believe that killing an embryo is the same as aborting a fetus in a mother. Even though there is to be a separation of church and state the religious groups feel that this is considered murder. The arguments are valid and need to...

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Forensic Pathology

...in private practice which would contract their service to other government agencies. They perform autopsies, write out autopsy reports, look over victim's medical records, and interview the victim's next of kin. They also have to be trained in the legal system and to be able to testify in court cases involving death or injury (“Forensic Pathology,” 2009). Most forensic pathologist start as a resident, then after residency they awarded the title medical examiner. They can continue working to deputy chief medical examiner and the top position chief medical examiner. It takes between 13 to 15 years of education to become a forensic pathologist. This includes your bachelor degree and medical course requirements, followed by four years of medical school, and four years practicing forensic pathology as a resident. Once all of this is completed, you are required to accomplish a one year fellowship. The last and final step to be a certified forensic pathologist is to pass The American Board of Pathology. This is a very difficult exam with failure rates as high as 40 percent in anatomic pathology and 60 percent in clinical pathology (“Forensic Pathology”, 2009). Forensic pathologist are also involved in firearm examination, trace evidence, toxicology, DNA technology, and forensic serology to their investigate the victim's death. Some of the tools and technology used to conduct their analysis are: autopsy dissection forceps for general use, autopsy hanging scales, autopsy knives or......

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Parkinsons Disease

...Parkinsons Disease The cause of Parkinsons Disease & Which cells stop working? Parkinson’s occurs when certain nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra die or become impaired. Normally, these cells produce a vital chemical known as dopamine. Dopamine allows smooth, coordinated function of the body's muscles and movement. When approximately 70% of the dopamine-producing cells are damaged, the symptoms of Parkinson disease appear. The problems that result: 1. Tremor, (shaking, trembling) is the most well known symptom of Parkinsons, but is absent in one third of people when the condition is first diagnosed. Tremor usually begins in one hand and the spreads to the leg, before crossing to the other side. It may also be felt internally. Typically it is most noticeable at rest and when stressed or tired and disappears during movement and when asleep. 2. Rigidity or stiffness of the muscles is a very common early sign of PD whereby the muscles seem unable to relax and are tight, even at rest. You might feel that your muscles will not do what you want them to do. Rigidity may be experienced through the entire range of movement of a joint (called 'lead pipe rigidity') or just in parts (called 'cog-wheel rigidity). 3. Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) occurs because the brain is not able to control smooth and delicate movements. * Leads to a lack of spontaneous activity eg. arm swing diminishes. * Fine motor......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Parkinsons

...the disease, motor symptoms non motor symptoms and others symptoms. They brought up treatments in how to deal with the disease. They explained the role of genetics and how it effects the population. They also spoke about functional and behavioral changes. The overall presentation was very informative. Team B did a great job on the organization and the information on the disease Parkinson’s. References: Behavioral disturbances in Parkinson's disease. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181807/ Parkinson's Disease Foundation. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.pdf.org/en/causes#genetic Understanding Parkinson's Disease -- the Basics. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/guide/understanding-parkinsons-disease-basics...

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

To in Parkinson

...Terapia ocupaţională în boala Parkinson: intervenţia în sfera autoângrijirii Rezumat Boala Parkinson este o afecţiune lent progresivă degenerativă a sistemului nervos central. Este caracterizată prin tremor când muşchii sunt în repaus (tremor de repaus), creşterea tonusului muscular (rigiditate), lentoarea mişcărilor voluntare şi dificultate în menţinerea echilibrului (instabilitate posturală). Semnele şi simpotomele acestei boli duc la desfăşurarea cu dificultate de către pacienţi a activităţilor de auto-îngrijire (îmbrăcat, mâncat, spălat, îngrijire personală), precum şi a activităţilor din afara casei (cumpărături), a celor de la locul de muncă şi a celor de timp liber şi agrement. Terapia ocupaţională ajută pacienţii cu Parkinson să-şi îmbunătăţească capacitatea de a îndeplini sarcinile lor zilnice. Intervenţia constă în asistarea pacienţilor în dezvoltarea unei rutine în autoîngrijire, ţinând cont de limitările mobilităţii funcţionale, încurajarea pacienţilor să menţină maximul funcţional în activităţile zilnice pentru cât mai mult timp posibil, învăţarea de tehnici adaptative pentru a reduce tremorul. Cuvinte cheie: boală Parkinson, terapie ocupaţională, activităţi de autoângrijire Abstract Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It is characterized by tremor when muscles are at rest (resting tremor), increased muscle tone (rigidity), slowness of voluntary movements, and difficulty......

Words: 1373 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Parkinsons

...loss, possibly a treatment can slow, stop or reverse the progression of Parkinson’s (Foundation P. d., n.d.). Maybe in the near future there will be a cure for Parkinson’s and no one else will have to suffer. References Aragon, A., & Kings, J. (2010). Occupational Therapy for People with Parkinson’s [Best practice guidelines]. Retrieved from http://www.bgsmdslive.org/OTPeopleParkinsons.pdf Foundation, T. M. (n.d.). Parkinson's Disease Causes. Retrieved from http://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php?causes: http://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php?causes Foundation, P. d. (n.d.). Chaseing the Cure. Retrieved from Parkinson's Disease Foundation: http://www.pdf.org/en/chasing_parkinsons_cure Foundation, T. M. (n.d.). Parkinson's Disease Causes. Retrieved from http://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php?causes: http://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php?causes Parkinson’s disease (PD). (2013). Retrieved from http://www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE-PD.htm Shaikh, S. I., & Verma, H. N. (2011). Parkinson’s disease and anaesthesia. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 55(3), 228-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5049.82658 Speech Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease. (2014). Retrieved from http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_Parkinsons_Disease_An_Overview/hic_Speech_Therapy_for_Parkinsons_Disease Yarnall, A.,......

Words: 948 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Parkinsons Disease

...Doctor James Parkinson in 1817. The disease was first known as the “shaking palsy” before being named after James Parkinson. (Ramirez, 2004). One million people are affected by Parkinson's disease in the United States. Worldwide five million people are affected. Parkinson’s disease is an idiopathic disease that occurs in people over 60 years of age. However study also shows that a small number of people 40 years of age also have Parkinsons. It affects both men and women. It is rare in children. Having a close relative with Parkinson's increases the chances that a person can also develop the disease. Exposure to herbicides and pesticides increases the risk for Parkinson's. Symptoms for Parkinson’s disease are easily noticeable. They may be mild at first. For instance, you may have a mild tremor or a slight feeling that one leg or foot is stiff and dragging. The characteristic shaking associated with Parkinson's disease often begins in a hand. A back-and-forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger, known as pill-rolling, is common, and may occur when your hand is at rest. However, not everyone experiences tremors. Bradykinesia or slowed movements occur. Parkinsons decreases the ability to start voluntary movement. This may cause a simplest task to be time consuming and difficult. Muscles become stiff and can occur any part of the body. If the stiffness gets really sever it causes limited movement and brings a lot of pain to the individual. Parkinsons also......

Words: 1641 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Parkinsons Disease

...sub-thalamic nucleus. The microelectrodes are attached to external pacemakers and the settings of these pacemakers are adjusted by the neurology team to provide optimal benefit. DBS is most effective in patients who have a good response to levodopa but also have motor complications that cannot be handled through medication adjustments. It is important to remember that surgery may help with symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but does not cure the disease or stop the progression of the disease. References Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc. (2011). Statistics on Parkinson's retrieved from: http://www.pdf.org/en/parkinson_statistics Healingwithnutrition.com (2002) Parkinson ’s disease: Facts, Disease Prevention, and Treatment Strategies retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/pdisease/parkinsons/parkinsons.html National Institutes of Health (2004) Parkinson’s disease: Challenges, Promises, and Progress http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_research.htm Knie B; Mitra MT; Logishetty K; Chaudhuri KR (2011) CNS Drugs Vol. 25, pp. 203-12....

Words: 1168 - Pages: 5