Free Essay

Paper

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Daianeboran
Words 1030
Pages 5
Daiane Boran
Introduction to Psychological Testing
PSY475
Dr. Andrea Engles March 21, 2016
Introduction to Psychological Testing
Psychological testing consists of many types or categories of tests. Because psychology is a science testing is a large part of this field. Individual behaviors, characteristics, and traits are part of humans a need to measurable these by psychologists is necessary. Psychologists must be able to conduct psychological test and quantify the results. These traits vary from person to person and in such a way that measuring clearly will show the different aspects of the individuals through testing. Psychologists agree that different psychological states and traits are part of human behavior. To quantify these states and traits can be difficult because qualities are not tangible and testing can give assistance in this matter (Hogan, 2007). Test
The term test according to Hogan (2007) can be defined in a number of ways. Originally, the term test was used to describe a cup “used for smelting gold or silver ore, perhaps an apropos reference for some high-stakes testing today” (Hogan, 2007, p, 38). In modern times the term is typically defined as any assessments designed to measure peoples’ behaviors, knowledge, abilities, skills, or personalities. Hogan (2007) suggests that regardless of these various definitions of the term test, there are six common elements defining the term test in the behavioral sciences. These six elements include procedure or device, behavior, information, and cognitive processes, systematic, and standardized, sample, and measurement or quantification. To have a more comprehensive understanding as it pertains to psychology the individual needs consider the basic assumptions, major categories, users, uses, reliability, and validity of testing (Hogan, 2007). Mental Ability Tests
The first category of tests is mental ability and can be administered both individually or group. Mental ability tests measure memory, creative thinking, intelligence, quantitative reasoning, spatial ability, and vocabulary. Two examples of mental ability tests are the Stanford-Binet intelligence test and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Both of these tests are administered to individuals by trained psychologists to obtain information on most mental abilities (Hogan, 2007). The Stanford-Binet is the standard for intelligence testing and new tests are validated in terms of their correlations with this measure. The Wechsler scales are an alternative to the Stanford-Binet because it provides more than just an IQ score. The Wechsler scales provide Full Scale IQ, Verbal and Performance IQ, and 10 to 12 subtest scores (Burn, 2010). Achievement tests
These tests are designed to measure skills or knowledge in one certain area. The tests are usually administered through the avenues of batteries, licensing, certifications, government-sponsored programs, single-subject tests, and individual achievement tests. “The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) has eight composite scores in the following areas: Oral Language, Basic Reading, Total Reading, Reading Comprehension and Fluency, Written Expression, Mathematics, Math Fluency, and Total Achievement. WIAT-II is considered the best achievement test available” (Burn, 2010, p. 1). Personality tests
These tests attempt to measure personality into types and are used mostly in research or clinical settings to help with diagnoses. Some of the issues tested for in a clinical setting are eating disorders, depression, or anxiety. “Two of the most common personality tests are the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory it is composed of several hundred “yes or no” questions. The second is the Rorschach (the “inkblot test”) it is composed of several cards of inkblots. The individual taking this test simply give a description of the images and the feelings he or she is experiencing looking at the blots” (ABDELFATTAH, 2010, p. 1). Interests and attitudes test
This category of tests assists in measuring vocational interest and attitudes as pertaining to career choice or college. “This category also includes numerous measures of attitudes toward topics, groups, and practices. Examples of these tests are the Strong Interest Inventory and the Kuder Career Search (Hogan, 2007, p. 8). Neuropsychological Tests
This category of tests assesses the functioning of the central nervous system. A psychologist can identify the extent of brain damage by measuring the personality changes and behavioral deficits that have developed. Neuropsychological tests can provide valuable information about injuries to the brain and the extent of damage. These tests can give a direction for rehabilitation for brain injury sufferers (Hogan, 2007). Uses and Users
Uses of psychological tests are primarily used in research, educational, clinical, and personnel contexts. In clinical situations the uses of psychological testing for clinical psychologies, school psychology, facilitate counseling, and neuropsychology is assessed through the use of projective techniques, and intelligence tests. Users of psychological tests are psychologists trained in the scoring, administration, and interpretation of psychological tests (Hogan, 2007). Reliability and Validity
Reliability is mostly concerned with how precise or accurate the score on a test is, whereas validity is more concerned with true measuring than the test score. Documentation of research should demonstrate that a test score is a meaningful measure of the quality or qualities that the test was designed to measure. “A test is administered, and the outcome is an observed score of the quality measured by the test. However, the observed score may be misleading without information on how successful the test has been in measuring that quality accurately” (Hogan, 2007, p. 112). Conclusion
Psychological testing is the use of a variety of psychological assessment scales to aid in identifying psychological problems, cognitive problems, personality characteristics, motivational issues, memory impairment, and other issues. Once a test has been deemed reliable and valid it can be used in its proper context it may be applied to a specific purpose or use. It is the responsibility of the test user to be knowledgeable about psychology tests and about the standards for identifying a bad test or good test for the particular situation.

References
ABDELFATTAH, F. (2010). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN LOW-STAKES EXAMINATIONS. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 38(2), 159-167.
Burns, T. G. (2010). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III: What is the 'Gold Standard' for Measuring Academic Achievement?. Applied Neuropsychology, 17(3), 234-236. doi:10.1080/09084282.2010.499803
Hogan, T. P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:
Wiley.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Paper

...Paper #1: Expository writing to inform Draft for peer review DUE: at class time, Wed Sept 19th by class time. Points deducted from final paper if peer review is missing. Points awarded for participation Final Paper DUE: Sunday, Sep 23 by midnight. Upload to SafeAssign Length: 3 – 3 ½ pages Format: Standard MLA or Letter format: Use the appropriate format for your chosen purpose. The Prompt: 1. You have an acquaintance coming to the Dallas area on vacation and you have been asked to provide advice on what to do and visit while he/she is here for three or four days. Your purpose is to explain attractions in Dallas that a 3 – 4 day visitor might consider. Write your paper as a short essay that gives the traveler good information about the city. Write so that the essay might be published on a travel blog. Use and cite correctly at least one source from the possibilities posted by Dr. Coder, our librarian. You may use any of the modes of development discussed in the first weeks of class. You may need to use several of the techniques to accomplish your task. How the paper will be evaluated…Consider each on a five-point scale 1. Does the paper have a clear purpose in the form of a thesis statement in the introduction paragraph? 2. Does the introduction make an attempt to hook the readers’ interest? 3. Does each paragraph have a transition device, (a word or short phrase) to indicate the logical organization of the paper and lead into the......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Paper

...students will reflect on what they are thankful for, and visually present it by creating a placemat to use on their Thanksgiving table. Materials Pencil Paper Construction paper with leaves Construction paper with lines Large construction paper in various colors Glue Scissors Butcher paper Procedure: Beginning Teacher will instruct students to write a list of things they are thankful for. Once the list is written, the students will be handed a sheet of construction paper with the outlines of four different shapes of leaves on it. The students will cut out the leaves, and choose four things they are thankful for to copy down onto the leaves. Middle Once the leaves are finished, the students will be given three more sheets of construction paper; one large sheet, and two with lines on it to cut into strips. Students will be instructed to fold the long sheet in half, and cut from the fold to one inch away from the edge. The teacher will model this so there are few errors. Students will cut the other sheets of paper into strips along the drawn lines. Students will weave the strips of paper into the large sheet of paper, creating a placemat Once all strips are woven in, the students will glue the four leaves with what they are thankful for on them. End The students will place their placemats on a sheet of butcher paper in the back of the room to dry Once all students have finished, teacher will lead a discussion with the students to talk about what they are......

Words: 620 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Paper

...Paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper do it do it should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could will but for it should should should shuold should should should should should should should Paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper do it do it should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could will but for it should should should shuold should should should should should should should Paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper do it do it should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could will but for it should should should shuold should should should should should should should Paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper do it do it should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could will but for it should should should shuold should should should should should should should Paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper do it do it should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could should could will but for it should should should shuold should should should should should...

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Paper

...Paper is Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper is Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper......

Words: 266 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Paper

...and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop your cheating and write your paper. Stop......

Words: 596 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Paper

...paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper paper......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

No Paper

...I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add one to this soon. I don’t have a paper to upload, but I will add......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Paper

...Environmental Scan Paper The business environment of an organization reveals much about its competitiveness and the possible influences on the success of its strategies. The focus of this paper will be an environmental scan of the internal and external environments of two real-world firms, their competitive advantages and company strategies for creating value and sustaining competitiveness, measurement guidelines for verifying strategic effectiveness and their evaluation. Internal and External Environments Environmental scanning of the internal organizational environment focuses on company culture, employee-employee, manager-employee, and manager-manager, manager-shareholder interactions, in addition to organizational structure, natural resources’ access and brand awareness, among others (Schneider, 1995, p.70). Environmental scanning of the external organizational environment focuses on the analysis of the industry/immediate environment, national, and macro-environments. Analysis of the industry environment appraises the competitive Environmental Scan Paper The business environment of an organization reveals much about its competitiveness and the possible influences on the success of its strategies. The focus of this paper will be an environmental scan of the internal and external environments of two real-world firms, their competitive advantages and company strategies for creating value and sustaining competitiveness, measurement guidelines for verifying strategic...

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Paper

...Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper, paper, paper, Paper,......

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Paper Paper Paper

...Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper P Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper aper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper......

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Paper

...Research or Interview Paper Instructions You can choose 1 of the following two options for your Research or Interview Paper. Your paper will be 7 double-spaced pages for the main content (not including the cover page and reference page). Your choices include: 1. A research paper Steps for writing the research paper: a) Choose a topic in Managerial Economics. b) Submit the topic and the outline of the paper to the instructor anytime for approval. c) A minimum of 3 references besides the textbook are required. Liberty University library has excellent resources for your search for journals. http://www.liberty.edu/index.cfm?PID=178 OR 2. An interview paper Steps for writing the interview paper: a) Choose a topic in Managerial Economics. b) Design at least 5 questions according to the topic. c) Submit your questions to the instructor for approval. d) Contact a local or non-local company for an interview. e) Conduct the interview for answers to your questions. f) The paper must have 3 parts: • The description of the company; • Interview questions and answers; and • Your comments. *The research paper is to be done individually, not as a group. **Do not wait until the last module/week to work on the paper. Do it as early as possible. ***A paper that was written for other classes would not be accepted......

Words: 265 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Paper

...Week 4 Student Name Kaplan University HR420 Employment Law Introduction This is generally one paragraph. The easiest way to explain this section is to think of it like a brief overview of the topics you will be discussing in your paper. The introductory paragraph is designed to set up the rest of the paper by offering your reader a glimpse of what is to come. The goal here is to grab your reader’s attention and make him/her want to read the rest of the paper. Type your paper in the third person (no I, my, we, you, our, your…) Describe a BFOQ and when are they legally permissible? Answer to question #1 with supporting arguments-minimum one paragraph. Your response should be written in your own words, using your own thoughts, ideas, and opinions. Include information from the chapter reading assignment and the case study to help support your points. Be sure to let your reader know where you got your supporting information by including a citation afterward. An example of a citation for your textbook is (Scott, 2008). What is sex-stereotyping? Include examples with your description? Answer to question #2 with supporting arguments-minimum one paragraph. Your response should be written in your own words, using your own thoughts, ideas, and opinions. Include information from the chapter reading assignment and the case study to help support your points. Be sure to let your reader know where you got your......

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Paper

...Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper. Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper paper.Paper paper......

Words: 2107 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Paper

...business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper business paper......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Paper

...PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is expensive and too expensive to use anyway. So why don’t you go on with it and write the constitution. Jon Jacob! PAPER is......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5