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What is Emergent Literacy?
Emergent Literacy is the reading and writing concept, behavior and dispositions that precede and develop into conventional reading and writing.
Recently the term “reading readiness” has given way “emergent literacy” by which we mean the many skills children need for reading and writing. From the time they were born and continuing through the preschool years, each child picks up in his or her own way. Listening, speaking, reading and writing are all part of emergent literacy. Literacy really begins when an infant coos or babbles, then hears those sound repeated by a responsive and loving adults. These early conversation, which can make adults feel a little silly, and a gentle introduction to spoken language and will soon change into soon change into the sound and rhythms of language. Adults encourage these beginning steps in to language by singing, saying nursery rhymes, doing finger play and sharing picture books.

Reading Readiness vs Emergent Literacy

Reading readiness has been defined as a point at which a person is ready to learn to read and the time during which a person transition from begin a non-reader into a reader. Other terms for reading readiness include early literacy while emergent literacy is how young children interact with books when reading and writing, even though they could not read or write in the conventional sense.
According to piaget theory of cognitive development the concept of reading readiness refers to the general state of maturity (physical, emotional, mental, social) that will allow him or her to benefit from formula without experience much difficulty. Because a child early experience with literacy, related activities is highly correlated to the child success with reading. It is important to consider a child developmental level when choosing appropriate activities and goals.
Reading readiness is highly individualistic. There is no “one size fits all” solution to teaching a child to read. The concept of emergent literacy describes a continuum of behavior involving both oral and written language. As children are involve in varied experience as both sender and receiver of oral and written language, they develop an understanding of literacy that involves over time.

Two (2) Early Literacy Behaviors and Four (4) activities

Two early literacy behaviors are: * Phonemic awareness – this is the ability for the child to understand that language that are spoken are made up of discrete sounds and their ability to manipulate these sounds to produce words. * Picture reading – this is where the child sees a picture and try to develop a story of what him or her see.

Activities for Early literacy
Phonemic awareness 1. Bleeding sounds – pulling words together * Step 1. Teacher show to the class a rubber band * Step 2. The teacher then stretches out the rubber band as the word and will say “mmm-aaaaa-tttt” * Step 3. Students will then pronounce each sounds of the word ‘mmm’ ‘aaa’ ‘ttt’ * Step 4. Teacher will then say we are going to put these sounds together and see what we get. Teacher then use the rubber band and stretch out and bring it back to the original length. Teacher will then put the words together to get the word “M-A-T”

2. Sound substitution- replacement of sounds * Step 1. Teacher would call a word to the student “meat” * Step 2. Students will then pronounce the word * Step 3. The teacher will then “If I remove the ‘m’ sound from the word “eat” and replace it the “S” sound what would u get?” * Step 4. Student will then say “Seat”

3. Deletion- take away sounds from present word * Step 1. Teacher will say “ I have the word CAT” * Step 2: “If I take away the ‘C’ sound from the word, what word will I have? * Step 3. Student will then say ‘AT’

4. Nursy rhymes * Step 1. Teacher will introduce the rhyme to the student * Step 2. Teacher will a to the students “ clap your when you hear the words that rhyme) * Step 3. Teacher will give target words to the student. “clap when you hear word ending with the ‘ing’ sound. * Step 4. Teacher will read “the children were playing, when they saw the a bus coming” students will then clap at the ‘ing’ sound.

Picture reading 1. * Step 1. Teacher can give student bold color pictures to look at and observe it. * Step 2. Teacher will then introduce a sentence to the students so the that they may have a decision “I see many fruits in the baskets. What do you see?” * Step 3. Students will then respond to what they see “ I see apple in the basket, I see a banana in the basket…..” 2. * Step 1. Teacher can introduce questions to think about relevant information in the picture. “What day do you think it is?” * Step 2. Students will give their feedback while the teacher list them on the board

3. * Step 1. Teacher will show a picture to the class * Step 2. Teacher will then say to the class “ If we were writing a story, what would be the first thing that you would say” * Step 3. Teacher will say “Today is Sunday and everyone going to the church. Some wore…..” * Student will then respond with their own story
4
* Step 1. Teacher can engage student in a decision of pictures * Steep 2. Student will then use the information to make a story

Two activities for each of the following words A. Visual discrimination 1. A | a A | C | C U c | B | b d p |

* Step 1. Teacher will give the student the work * Step 2. Circle the letters that look alike in the first Colum. * Step 3. Students will then look at the picture carefully and identify letters that seems alike.

2. | M M W M | | S S 2 S | | b d b b |

* Step 1. Circle the letter that is different in each row * Step 2. Student will then circle the letter that does not look like the others.

| | B. Auditory discrimination 1.

* Step 1. Teacher and students would pronounce the letter “H” * Step 2. Teacher will then say “call the name of the object on the top of the page then circle the one that begins with the same sound.”

2. * Step 1. Teacher can engage them in a listening activity * Step 2. Teacher will then say “clap your hands when you hear the ‘M’ sound” * Step 3. Teacher then list the words ‘man, mat, melon, house, mother …..’

C. Motor skills (fine & gross) 1. Fine motor skills * Step 1 Teacher will give students a shoe and lace * Step 2. Teacher can then say “we are going to lace or shoe today by trying to take through the lace through this small hole on the shoe” * Step 3. Student will follow what the teacher do then use their finger in pulling the lace through the hole

2. Gross motor skills * Step 1. Teacher may take the student outside to help develop their larger muscle by having them playing games with a ball. The teacher may form a circle with the students. The teacher may go in the middle and throw the ball to the students allowing them to catch it. the child will then throw the ball back to the teacher. This will be done over and over again.

D. Oral language development
1.

Introduction of Early Literacy

This section speaks about early literacy that has been develop to educate the reader of the issue associate with literacy development. It gives information of Emergent Literacy and activities that are use to develop early literacy development. It also states the important of reading readiness for children and their behavior. The researcher hopes that the reader will find this section to be informative and of importance.

Importance of word Recognition and Vocabulary development to literacy

Work recognition can be described as a process of formatting the meaning and pronunciation of a word. In other words word recognition is the ability to read. Children are taught word recognition strategies in school. When encountering an unknown word, adults continue to use the strategies subconsciously. Vocabulary development is a process by which people obtain words. Babbling shifts towards meaningful speech as infants grow and produce their first words around the age of one year. In early word learning, infants build their vocabulary slowly.

Mini lesion of Word Recognition

Context Clues
Context Clues – this is a method that identify unknown words by the sense of the sentence

* Step 1. Teacher will select a reliable text passage with example words to define through context. ( Context means the words and sentence nearby that give meaning to the example) “My cat likes to…….” * Step 2. Teacher will select text so that students having some prior knowledge of the concept and with enough information to reason the meaning. At this point student will say that the cat like to “jump, play, run……” * Step 3. Model the process of gaining information from the text about the meaning of words in context. * Step 4. “Think aloud”, make the thought process clear * Step 5. Use key words surrounding the target word, as well as prior knowledge to decide the meaning. These will be the clues to help decide the target word meaning. Circle the clues in the passage that help with the word meaning * Step 6. Check the word meaning with the dictionary definition

10 Guidelines teaching vocabulary

10 guidelines that can be use in teaching vocabulary are: 1. Have structure and organization behind the words you present. Rather than randomly selected words at their grade level, the teacher can present words in related groups. Examples: Present words about feelings and make a poster with the students with different words to describe being "afraid" or "happy." Students can discuss the degrees of emotion and the differences between the words. Another option is to study word parts. Have the students learn that 'ject' means 'throw,' and then tackle "projectile," "reject" and "trajectory. 2. Integrate multisensory learning from the beginning. Many students gain a lot if an illustration or demonstration is presented first. Later, when the word is used or its meaning discussed, they have an image to associate it with, and are more likely to learn from the discussion as well as from the visual presentations. 3. Model the activities first. Demonstrate these activities with exciting, familiar words first. Once you've modeled an activity with a word, do it with student and finally have the students do it on their own perhaps in groups before working individually. 4. Most work with vocabulary should be done with the meanings available. If the activity involves expressing the ideas in a different form than the definition, then the student has to think about the meaning and interpret it. If the student doesn't use the right meaning, they're learning the wrong things. In addition, students may commit a simplified meaning to memory, but if they have a more developed definition they will be able to think about that and use it. 5. Keep an ongoing list prominently posted. If the words are visible and accessible to students, they are more likely to see them, think about them, and use them. If you've got different students learning different words, put them all up there, but be sure each student knows which words s/he is responsible for knowing. 6. Go beyond the definitions of the words. Include the connotations of the words and the ways they are most likely to be used. Don't limit this exploration to the "discussion" of words. When students are drawing or acting out words, encourage them to incorporate the connotations or the more subtle aspects of the meanings of the words. 7. Illustrate the words. Teacher will then show pictures or video clips that demonstrate the meaning of a word. Have students draw and label something illustrating the meaning of the word. Drawing skills are important but stick figures with accurate labels can briefly express an idea as well as finely crafted caricatures. The infamous flashcards can be made more meaningful with illustrations, as well. Teacher will be sure that the student doesn't replace an abstract idea with a concrete example of it. 8. Play "Quick Draw." Teacher can then see how quickly students can put across the essence of a words meaning on the board without words. This works especially well with words describing visual concepts. Again, the teacher will make sure students don't oversimplify things, if you play this game repeatedly, make sure the students are using different ways to draw the words. 9. Have students generate examples and non-examples for words. This can be done with visual or kinesthetic illustrations as well as verbal descriptions. The teacher can have students explain whether something is a good example of a word or not, and why they think so. For most groups, this activity should be practiced with familiar, concrete words first. It can be used to lay a solid foundation for "comparing and contrasting" and defending ideas in essays, especially if you encourage the students to use precise language and good sentences. 10. Compose with the words. Only after a student has heard and read a word used correctly many times should s/he is expected to compose something original with the word. This can be a fun class activity, though, once a sizable list has accumulated. Students can take turns picking words from the list to add a sentence to an ongoing story - students will get a chance to hear the words they weren't sure of used by other students, and the sentences can be revised if the words are not used correctly. Eventually, students may enjoy composing absurd tales using the words

Introduction of Comprehension

This section of the resource book deals with comprehension in school and how it influence child learning. It entails the levels of comprehension and how they used within a story for story to be interesting to students. Strategies for comprehension are also seen and are used. In this section the researcher ensure that there are activity so that readers may have a better understanding, thus, the researcher do hope that you may enjoy.

Comprehension is the ability to grasp something mentally and the capacity to understand ideas and facts. Comprehension requires the reader to be an active constructor of meaning. Reading research has demonstrated that readers do not simply "perceive" the meaning that is in a text. In fact, expert readers co-construct meaning with a text. The research shows that reading is a transaction in which the reader brings purposes and life experiences to bear to converse with the text. Comprehension always attends to what is coded or written in the text, but it also depends upon the reader's background experiences, purposes, feelings, and needs of the moment. That's why we can read the same book or story twice and it will have very different meanings for us.

What processes and strategies are required to be an active constructor of meaning as a reader? There is wide agreement among reading researchers that every time a reader reads anything, they make use of the following strategies: * Activate prior knowledge, and connect the applicable prior experiences to the reading (if students don't have the requisite background knowledge about a topic, they will be unable to comprehend) * Set Purposes * Predict * Decode Text — identify word and sentence meanings * Summarize — bring meaning forward throughout the reading, building on prior information to create new and fuller meanings * Visualize — see characters, settings, situations, ideas, mental models * Question * Monitor understanding - the most salient difference between good and poor readers is that good
Levels of Comprehension

Literal
Durkin (1989) define knowing the meaning of the words and the order in which they are represented as literal comprehension. It is also defined in terms of many skills for understanding and remembering what the author said. It basically involves reproducing the fact that is stated in the material. Iit is the first level of the comprehension skill and involves recall of facts from the texts, these usually include recall of the main idea and several support detail. Because of the basic nature of this level of comprehension, the aspect of comprehension is relatively easy and is the lowest level.

Inferential
This inferring what the author implies but not does directly state the meaning. The reader has to read between the lines by inferring what the author implies. This process requires the reader to integrate their prior knowledge or world knowledge to extract meaning from the text that may not be explicitly printed or obvious within the passage. This level or comprehension is dependent on literal comprehension because it is not possible to draw valid conclusion or inference from the text unless one has understood the text.

Critical
This is the highest level of comprehension. It involves using the author’s ideas and determines whether they are biased or logical. It also include such skill as the ability to distinguish fact for opinion.
The skills involved in this level are: * Recognizing fact from opinion * Forming judgment * Judging accuracy * Recognizing persuasive statements * Determining propaganda * Detecting mood * Evaluating…...

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... Outline Name BUS 670 Legal Environment (MOD1623B) Jason Lum June 27, 2016 Outline For my final paper, I will be talking about the claims and lawsuits brought against businesses. Over the years, there have been several laws set into place so that the working class can feel safe and secure in the position in which they ae working. The legal/ethical issue that I will be focusing on will be Employee Health and Safety. These safety laws are the number one leading issues which cause lawsuits against businesses. I will speak on worker’s compensation claims. Using examples from my experiences with working in the insurance field. Responsibilities of managers: Observe health and safety of employees Instruct employees to be safety alert Looking into accidents Clearly communicate regarding safety policy to employees Responsibilities of supervisors/departmental heads: Offer technical training concerning to obviation of accidents Align health and safety programs Train employees on treating facilities and equipment’s Formulation of safety reporting systems Assertion of safe working conditions. I will use several references pertaining to management guides, safety management and human resources. References: Armstrong, M. (2000). Strategic Human Resource Management: A Guide to Action. (2nd Ed.). Kogan Page Publishers. Bernardin, H. (2007). Human Resource Management. McGraw Hill. Bratton, J. &. (2001). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. (2nd......

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