Free Essay

Outline the Ways in Which the Media in Britain Are Regulated

In: Other Topics

Submitted By baudelairegal
Words 3431
Pages 14
Outline the ways in which the media in Britain are regulated. Is there enough regulation?

The history of mass communication is rather short in the broad context of the world’s progress. Despite the fact that in all times people felt the urge to share their significant experiences in more durable than verbal form – like the prehistoric paintings on cave walls and invention of writing by Sumerians later – relatively modern forms of communication, reaching large audiences, originated only in the past five hundred years. The importance of sharing information and even more – deciding what to share and what to withhold – was understood from the moment people learned to write. As Tom Clancy put it: ‘Information, knowledge, is power. If you can control information, you can control people’ and that is why since the beginning of times that precious knowledge was divided only between the chosen few: from high priests of the ancient civilizations to the nobility and servants of God in the middle ages; from the dictators like Stalin and Hitler to modern moguls like Rupert Murdoch. In our times mass media became a super-power: it has a colossal impact on society as a whole and its political, economic, cultural constituents, therefore it must be governed and regulated aiming to ensure a freedom to communicate, diversity and universal provision as well as secure communicative and cultural ends chosen by the people for themselves (McQuail, 2010).
The obligatory argument that always emerges when discussing necessity of universal media regulation practices is the violation of freedom of speech. ‘Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.’ (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, Article 19). But the fundamental mistake underpinning the liberty to express oneself argument is an assumption that freedom of media and freedom of speech is essentially one and the same. It is a common misconception – the unlimited freedom of speech epigones often forget that media corporations are profit-seeking organisations, prone to a certain level of corruption if absolutely uncontrolled.
The regulatory landscape of the media in the United Kingdom is equally complex and diverse, surrounded by ceaseless debates whether media should regulated by a government, its appointed bodies or media outlets themselves; maybe this duty should be left for the general public or perhaps all those mentioned should unite their efforts. It is a comprehensive issue, requiring extensive and profound analysis and best left for prodigious studies, therefore this essay offers a concise observations on already existing regulatory practices. The first part will present key concepts of current press regulation, while the second section will offer a brief historical perspective on broadcasting and its governance in United Kingdom. Two practical examples – media coverage of Madelaine McCann case and the very recent difficulties BBC had handling Tyson Fury controversy – were chosen to illustrate the existing issues regarding sufficiency of media regulation.
One of the key functions of press is to act as a breeding ground for participative democracy, to encourage and be a cradle for innovation and advancement of society. However, all authoritarian and totalitarian regimes used means of mass communication for its own gain too: molding the public, shaping its views and spreading propaganda. Similarly concentration of media ownership can function like an autocratic regime, as monopoly lacks accountability and performs in a market free of commercial competition. The press in the United Kingdom is controlled by only a few different corporations: Lord Rothermere (via DMG Media) and Rupert Murdoch (via News Corps UK) dividing a largest share of 27.3% and 24.9% of market between themselves – that is, two entrepreneurs controlling more than a half of printed press outlets in the UK. Over three quarters of the press is owned by only a few billionaires (Alexander and Evgeny Lebedev, Richard Desmond, David and Frederic Barclay).
Evan Ruth (n.d.) in his article Media Regulation in the United Kingdom points out: ‘The print media is entirely self-regulating in the United Kingdom and operates free of any specific statutory rules. The profession has established the Press Complaints Commission on its own initiative, and this body has developed a code against which to measure journalistic standards.’ (p. 4). The Press Complaints Commission (PCC) was formed in 1991 and began its work almost instantly, receiving and dealing with complaints and publishing guidelines on how to act in various specific cases. Soon afterwards it was clear that a code, unifying all the principles and recommendations, was needed and The Code of Practice, containing sixteen articles in total, was produced. The key objective of The Code was to set the basis for the ethical standards that were formed to protect both the rights of the individual and the general public’s right to know. Those sixteen articles were accuracy, opportunity to reply, privacy, harassment, intrusion into grief or shock, children, children in sex cases, hospitals, reporting of crime, clandestine devices and subterfuge, victims of sexual assault, discrimination, financial journalism, confidential sources, witness payments in criminal trials and payment to criminals (Editor’s Code of Practice, 2011). However, there were seven of those clauses where exceptions can be made if the published material could be named as being in the ‘public interest’ – the obligation to judge each individual example was left to a newspapers’ editor himself. This complex and rather open stipulation presented editor with a substantial amount of power and responsibility and many cases, where the rights of the individual were compromised for the ‘public’s right to know’, occurred. It is not impossible to argue that in some of these cases ‘right to know’ could have been used as a cover for newspaper’s ratings and profit.
One of the extreme examples of numerous press’ violations of the Editor’s Code of Practice was an internationally-famous Madeleine McCann case. A three year old girl disappeared from her rented holiday apartment in Praia da Luz, Portugal on the evening of 3 May 2007. What followed was arguably ‘the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history’ (The Telegraph, 2008), involving countless famous people supporting Kate and Gerry McCann (Gordon Brown, Laura Bush, J. K. Rowling, Cristiano Ronaldo, etc. ).
Outraged by media’s conduct, grieving family started a libel action against newspapers The Daily Express and Daily Star which McCanns won. During the process the Justice of High Court clearly stated that these papers from the very beginning of the investigation openly speculated that Madeleine’s parents were directly responsible for her disappearance. Moreover, without any proof they claimed that McCanns murdered the girl and disposed of her body, conspiring to cover their actions and divert police’s attention (Bennett, 2009).
Another victim of media lies and violation of the Editor’s Code of Practice was a Portuguese Senior Investigation Officer Goncalo Amaral, who was in charge of Madeleine’s case at the time. He was accused of offences linked to another missing person (unrelated to Madelaine McCann) and before court procedures even started, thus ‘innocent until proven guilty’, he was mercilessly ridiculed and attacked by a UK press, insulted and called various names (‘a disgraced cop’, for example). To both these accusations (among numerous others not mentioned in this essay) representatives of the The Daily Express and Daily Star responded with the loud words about ‘free speech’ and ‘freedom of the press’ and also with pulling all the references to Madeleine from their webpages. They have issued a formal apology and paid damages to all the parties concerned only after they’ve lost the law suit.
The controversy surrounding Madeleine McCann case followed by the The News International phone hacking scandal when Rupert Murdoch-led group of newspapers was accused of numerous violations such as hacking into private phones, bribing police officers, exercising their improper influence in pursuit of stories and others, prompted an outrage and feeling of insecurity among general public and launched an inquiry, investigating the role and responsibilities of the press, known as The Leveson Inquiry (named after its Chairman – Lord Justice Leveson). After an extensive investigation The Leveson Inquiry concluded that the press caused ‘real hardship and, on occasion, wreaked havoc with the lives of innocent people. Press behaviour, at times, can only be described as outrageous’ and also that politicians of all parties developed ‘too close a relationship with the press in a way which has not been in the public interest. The relationship between politicians and press over the last three decades has damaged the perception of public affairs.’ (BBC, 2012). The panel of independent assessors issued recommendations to establish an independent regulatory body for the press which should be backed by legislation and what’s most important – this body must be free of members of the press, the government and the commercial concerns and not include any serving editors, government members or MPs. (BBC, 2012).
Following The Leveson Inquiry on 8 September 2014 the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) to replace the discredited Press Complaints Commission was launched and almost immediately attracted a wave of criticism from both members of the press and general public. First of all, it failed to satisfy one of the most important of Leveson’s recommendations – to be independent of commercial concerns/representatives of the newspapers – as its board, consisting of twelve people, had five members from the newspaper and magazine industry. Secondly, a close analysis of IPSO by the Media Standards Trust revealed that this regulatory body meets only twelve of the thirty eight criteria outlined by Leveson for effective and independent press self-regulation. Similarly to these findings, the major British newspaper The Guardian (accompanied by The Financial Times) straightforwardly refused to join IPSO, stating that they fail to see any major differences between IPSO and its predecessor PCC, claiming that the new regulatory body is still controlled by the press similarly to the PCC – via funding body and other mechanisms – with the industry tentacles reaching into the constitutional arrangements and control of the Independent Press Standards Organisation (The Guardian, 2014).
To conclude these brief observations on press regulation in the UK it must be said that whilst freedom of speech is a base for any participative and pro-active democracy, this essay’s author believes that freedom of speech and an absolute freedom of the press is not the same thing. Condensed survey of press coverage of Madeleine McCann case shown that media corporations are not immune to putting their ratings and expectations of increasing their profits before the actual interest in the individual and public’s rights alike. Moreover, organisations like PCC replaced by IPSO in some cases can be, as a former Labour leader Ed Miliband put it, a ‘toothless poodle’ (BBC, 2011). However, while it is clear that the press has to be regulated and also held accountable for its actions, it is still rather difficult to decide how it is supposed to be done. Nevertheless, one thing is evident: a traditional self-regulatory model, which was established in the fifties and worked till the recent years, failed and needs to be radically reformed or replaced altogether. Perhaps one of the most concerned members of the society – the general public – could voice their opinion?

In contrast to the entirely self-regulating press, broadcasting regulation in UK is based on a multitude of statutory rules and codes. Yet the attempts to centralize broadcasting governance succeeded only recently – with the establishment of Office of Communications (Ofcom) in 2003 – which replaced five prior regulators: the Broadcasting Standards Commission (BSC), The Independent Television Commission (ITC), Oftel, the Radio Authority and the Radiocommunications Agency. Ofcom is an independent regulator, acting solely in the interests of consumers, but at the same time it is accountable to Parliament and works closely with the Department of Trade and the Department for Culture Media and Sport. Ofcom’s main duty is to further and defend the interests of citizens and consumers and in doing this it aims to ensure a wide range of broadcasting services of high quality and appeal, maintain plurality in the provision of broadcasting, apply adequate protection for audiences against offensive or harmful material and defend audiences against unfairness and the infringement of privacy. However, it must be said that no analysis of broadcasting regulation in the United Kingdom is possible without the basic understanding of how this specific market is divided and what important role Public Service Broadcasting plays, as the regulation requirements are very different for Public Service Broadcasters funded by a license fee and for the commercial ones.
British Broadcasting Company, or simply BBC, is the world’s largest and oldest national broadcasting organisation, set up in 1922. A creative powerhouse, shaped by its first director John Reith’s ideas and ethos, was intended to serve public’s interests and aimed to ‘inform, educate and entertain’ (Le Jeune, 2009, p. 15). However, not long after its establishing, BBC attracted a substantial amount of criticism for being a monopoly (bad for democracy) and also too elitist, obsessed by class and privilege, and after the passing of the Television Act in 1954 which was designed to break the BBC monopoly, a new – Independent Television (ITV) – was formed. While ITV was regulated by a public body and had a statutory responsibility to impose public service requirements, it had one crucial difference from BBC – was a commercial channel, thus permitted advertising. Following the creation of ITV, a new regulatory body – Independent Television Authority (ITA) – was established, designed to supervise the functioning of ITV.
1982 saw a start of Channel 4 – a state owned national broadcaster, funded by its commercial activities, namely the advertising revenue, sold by ITV companies. Channel 4 was a result of The Annan Committee, which recommended a new approach to the funding and structure of television. Not long after The Annan Committee, another very important event took place – the Broadcasting Act received royal assent on 1 November 1990. This Act allowed more commercial competition into a broadcasting system and also laid a groundwork for digital terrestrial television. Furthermore, The Broadcasting Act enabled the multi-channel environment (commercial and company-owned) and market pluralism.
As can be seen from a very brief history of broadcasting United Kingdom, there are two main kinds of TV channels – those designed for purely commercial purposes and the ones oriented towards the public benefit – the distinction lies not only in their nature, but also in the ways they are regulated. All the UK broadcasters are subject to the provision of the EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive which has been transposed into UK law. On the national level both of these outlets are currently governed by Ofcom, but while BBC is significantly more regulated as it has its own-designed protocols, policies and guidance established by a BBC Trust, and also special regulatory provisions are applied on BBC (and all Public Service Broadcasters) by UK Legislation, non-PSB television channels are subject to regulation only by Ofcom, and to a much lesser extent than the PSBs. Some of the key factors which apply to all the channels – commercial or public service – and are outlined by Ofcom in the broadcasting code are the right of appeal, the right to reply and rules of fairness, obligations for news to be accurate and impartial, general obligations of impartiality, rules preventing discrimination, racism and religious intolerance, but Public Service Broadcasters also has to meet a 25% independent production quota in addition to set quotas for the original UK production.
Judging by the complexity and scope of regulations implemented on UK broadcasters (and especially PBS) it may seem that their production is strictly governed and monitored, moreover, public could reasonably expect only the highest quality content from the BBC as it is not only well-established and prestigious media corporation, but also the one funded principally by a television license fee. However, long and convoluted debates over the efficiency of BBC and its role in contemporary society revealed a rather controversial side of what is generally thought to be an elite, objective and ‘higher-quality producing’ channel. There are numerous extensive studies dedicated to this topic, yet due to limitations of this essay it is not possible to closely analyze all these accusations aimed at BBC. Nevertheless, one very recent event could be a good example of a dissonance between broadcasting regulation theory and its performance in practice.
This particular controversy involves a British professional boxer Tyson Fury – a newly crowned heavyweight champion of the world. He defeated Wladimir Klitschko in November 2015 and became one of the most media-covered personalities overnight, although it must be said that big part of this attention was attracted by his personality, not only his achievements in the boxing ring. In his interview with Oliver Holt, Mr. Fury offered his views on many different subjects, most notably woman’s rights and homosexuality. His claims such as: ‘I believe a woman's best place is in the kitchen and on her back, that's my personal belief. Making me a good cup of tea, that's what I believe.’ (Clements for Mail Online, 2015) or ‘Homosexuality, abortion and paedophilia - them three things need to be accomplished before the world finishes. That's what the Bible tells me’ (Lawton for The Daily Mail, 2015) caused an uproar and an avalanche of protests from various society groups and its individual members alike. A petition was launched against Tyson Fury competing for the BBC’s Sports Personality of the Year award, claiming that his views are scandalous and don’t have a place in the modern society. Furthermore, Greater Manchester Police started investigating hate crime allegations against the boxer. However, the incident not only sparkled an outrage, but it also started debates about the free speech amongst the members of society: can Tyson Fury be entitled to his opinion, however unlikable it may be, or should he be punished and even prosecuted for it?
Veteran BBC News reader Clive Myrie called Fury ‘a d***head’ live on air, saying that ‘you cannot be a d***head and win Sports Personality of The Year Award’ and was thanked for his opinion by a former BBC journalist Miranda Green: ‘Thank you, Clive. That is exactly the view I was struggling towards’ (Clements for Mail Online, 2015). Similarly another former BBC journalist Alice Arnold urged her readers not to let ‘homophobic idiot’ Tyson Fury be BBC Sports Personality of Year (Murphy, et. al. for The Mail on Sunday, 2015). While it must be said that this essay’s author strongly and absolutely disagrees with Mr. Fury’s views and may support Clive Myrie in his, yet the BBC’s own regulatory body BBC Trust officially states that one of the key elements of their editorial standards is ‘being impartial in news and current affairs was at the top of the list’ (BBC Trust, 2015, p. 6). Thus it is not unreasonable to expect a demonstration of professional integrity and respect for his own employer’s standards from Clive Myrie. Furthermore, the BBC Sports Personality of the Year award winner is judged by a public and not an appointed jury, therefore it is debatable whether BBC really has a right to dictate people who they are supposed to vote for.
Summarizing the given argument it needs to be pointed out that all three media-concerned parties: the general public, government and media corporations alike, agree that regulation and governance is an essential condition to a healthy-functioning and democratic mass-communication. What sparkles various debates is the inability to agree on the level of the regulation necessary and the form such governance is supposed to assume. Since the beginning of its creation the printed press had the most unrestrained liberties and was self-regulating, monitored only by its own editors and submitted to its own created codes of ethics. However, over the years it became apparent that such practice could be harmful as being profit-seeking and commercial, newspapers are not immune to chasing ratings, thus sacrificing public and individual rights for the greater shock effect. In contrast, broadcasting regulation in UK is much more complex and diverse. The commercial and Public Service broadcasters alike are sanctioned by a numerous laws (UK and EU) and scrutinized closer than the press, but even such ‘heavy-handed’ approach cannot guarantee an fully transparent and unbiased broadcasting. It may seem that while the government and media corporations both are immersed in relentless discourse about the future of media regulation, one member of the triumvirate is pushed aside – the public, which all the media industry is aimed at. The current state of affairs gives the impression that public’s involvement into these important decisions is insufficient.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Of Friends Which Is Goin in a Wrong Way

...Ozone Layer Depletion: Effects and Causes of Ozone Depletion Ozone is a colorless gas found in the upper atmosphere of the Earth and formed by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen. Ozone forms a layer in the stratosphere, which protects life on Earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Ads by Google Olay Total Effects 1 Bottle Fights 7 Signs of Ageing, Try Olay Total Effects Today! www.olay.in Today, one of the most discussed and serious environmental issues is the ozone layer depletion, the layer of gas that forms a protective covering in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Ozone is formed when oxygen molecules absorb ultraviolet photons and undergo a chemical reaction known as photo dissociation or photolysis, where a single molecule of oxygen breaks down to two oxygen atoms. The free oxygen atom (O), then combines with an oxygen molecule (O2) and forms a molecule of ozone (O3). The ozone molecules, in turn absorb ultraviolet rays between 310 to 200 nm wavelength and thereby prevent these harmful radiations from entering the Earth's atmosphere. In the process, ozone molecules split up into a molecule of oxygen and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom (O) again combines with the oxygen molecule (O2) to regenerate an ozone (O3) molecule. Thus, the total amount of ozone is maintained by this continuous process of destruction and regeneration. Ozone layer depletion first captured the attention of the whole world in the later half of 1970 and since then, many......

Words: 3235 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

How Social Media Is Changing the Way We Communicate

...A Brief History of Social Media, ‘the first social networking website was SixDegrees which let people make profiles and connect with friends in 1997. This kind of interactive, social web application style became popularly known as “Web 2.0” and it really gained momentum with Friendster around 2002, followed by MySpace (2004 – 2006) and then Facebook (2007 -> ).’ In the social networking industry, many have tried and many have failed, making room for bigger companies to dominate with user-friendly features. In the early days of social networking, teenagers and young adults were the main users. Today, people of all ages use some outlet of social networking, ranging from young children to the elderly. According to an article Social Networking Statistics, ‘There are over 1.2 billion FaceBook users worldwide, there over 190 billion tweets per day, and an average of 3,000 pictures uploaded using Flickr per minute.’ With the ease and user-friendly features that are associated with social networking, they can be very advantageous. A main hit with social media is the ease of connected with friends and family who are far away. With these networks, it is easy to share personal stories, pictures, news, or just daily updates. Using the Internet for this type of sharing can save a lot of money whether it is on international phone cards or postage costs. When it comes to business, there are many advantages, according the article The Developing Role of Social Media in the Modern Business......

Words: 1174 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Outline Some of the Ways in Which Cultural Deprivation May Lead to Educational Under-Achievement for Working-Class Pupils

...There are many ways in which cultural deprivation may lead to educational under-achievement working-class pupils. The term ‘Culture’ refers to all the norms, values, beliefs, skills and knowledge that a society or group regards as important. This culture is transmitted to the next generation through socialisation. According to cultural deprivation theory, some working class parents fail to transmit the appropriate norms, values, attitudes, knowledge and skills – that is the ‘right’ culture needed for educational success. Cultural deprivation theorists see three factors as responsible for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code. Bernstein (1975) distinguishes between elaborated and restricted speech codes. He says that the working class use the restricted code. The restricted speech code is less analytic and more descriptive, has a limited vocabulary and is formed of simple sentences or even just gestures. The middle class however, use the elaborated code. This is more analytic, with a wide range of vocabulary and......

Words: 377 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Examine the Ways in Which Two of the Following Agencies May Shape the Process of Socialisation: Family; Education; Mass Media; Religion. (24 Marks)

...Examine the ways in which two of the following agencies may shape the process of socialisation: family; education; mass media; religion. (24 marks) Socialisation is the process of learning social norms and values, these for example, things like manners and ways to behave around people and what behaviour is suitable for your gender. From birth onwards all individuals go through a process of socialisation during which they learn the norms and values of their society and certain factors influence your interpretation of society and what norms and values you have been taught. Family socialisation begins the process through which learn and develop to be the adult persons they become. For some adults, their interaction with family continues in such a close relationship that the family maintains a dominant role in their on-going socialisation. Most of the time growing up is spent with family and so this is what is called a primary relationship, it’s important that we learnt the dos and don’ts from them. However when you get older it becomes less important in the socialisation process as other agencies take over from the family. Comparisons between classes show big differences, for example it has been proven that working class families use more simple sentences whereas middle class use more complex sentences which links to achievements in school, this shows how different class families contribute to family socialisation. Child rearing practices such as nutrition, sleeping and...

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline the Main Ways by Which Offending by Children and Young People May Be Prevented. Explain Any Conflicts You Feel May Exist with the Principles of Human Rights and Natural Justice.

...Outline The Main Ways By Which Offending By Children And Young People May Be Prevented. Explain Any Conflicts You Feel May Exist With The Principles Of Human Rights And Natural Justice. The aim of the question stated is to discuss how the New Labour Government has responded in terms of preventing children and young people from engaging in criminal behaviour and entering the youth justice system. In order to answer this statement the essay shall explore the various legislations implemented in an attempt to prevent youth criminality, discussing any conflicts that exist with the principles of Human Rights and Natural Justice. In Britain there are two types of Law, firstly Statutory Law, which are Acts of Law passed by the Parliament. Whereby the Parliament must check its consistency with the 1998 Human Rights Act (the HRA). The HRA ‘introduced European Convention on Human Rights into English Law’ (Crawford & Newburn; 2003: p16). The UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice include: ‘The best interests of the child are paramount; judicial proceedings should be avoided where possible; any intervention should be kept minimum; police, prosecution or other agencies should be able to dispose of cases at their discretion; criminalizing and penalising young people should be avoided unless there is serious damage or harm to others; legal assistance should be prompt and free of charge’ (Crawford & Newburn; 2003: p16). The second type is Common......

Words: 3369 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Examine the Ways Which State Policy Effect Families and Households.

...policy as the reason why the traditional family institution is in decline in Britain today. Whether this is an accurate reflection on state policy will be assessed in this essay. Functionalists have always had a traditional view on family ideology where there is a clear segregation of tasks between the man and the women which is seen as natural or God given. But through the introduction of government policies in order to cater for the changing image of the family, functionalists feel that this is causing the nuclear family as an institution to be in decline. They believe that the 1960s and the 1970’s was a big turning point for the decline in familiar ideology as the state introduced policies such as the legalisation of abortion which was seen as women lessening their commitment to the family and the availability of the contraceptive pill. This introduction had a significant effect on the family as it undermined the family as private institution where important decisions could be made. Other policies such as the role of social workers through the local government, as discussed in item B were “if social workers feel that the upbringing of children is not provided properly children could be temporarily or permanently taken into care”. This has an effect on the nuclear family in particular because it means that the family’s privacy is undermined. Functionalists such as Howard argue that the state and the media have made marriage have less value and importance in society. With......

Words: 911 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Explain the Ways in Which the Contract of Agency Maybe Terminated ?

...made with an agreement is an implied authority. Contract of agency can be helpful for big business official as they cannot be available anywhere, anytime. The relationship with an agency can be terminated if the parties feel that the relationship is not going in a beneficial manner. There are various factors which can influence and terminate contract of agency it depends on the legal contract and various clauses they have signed during the agreement. According to Scottish law if the contract which has been set up for indefinite time the notice for termination of agency to be given for first year should be 1 month for second year two months and for third year 3 months prior before the termination by any of agent or the principal. There are different ways in which contract of agency can be terminated 1)Act of parties 2)Operation of law 3)By agreement. Under act of parties there can be few scenario's one is revocation by principal in which the principal no longer wants the agent to work or act for his business or premises this situation can be handled by giving a notice to an agent and the notice should also be presented to the third party. Second is renunciation by agent in which the agent no longer wishes to work for the principal and he can stop working by giving a notice. If the agent wishes to leave before the expiration of the contract compensation must be provided to the principal for breaking the clause in an agreement. Agreement is where both the parties agent and the......

Words: 1202 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Outline Some of the Ways in Which Cultural Deprivation May Lead to Educational Under Achievement for Working Class Pupils

...There are many ways in which cultural deprivation may lead to educational under-achievement in working-class pupils. The term ‘Culture’ refers to all the norms, values, beliefs, skills and knowledge that a society or group regards as important. This culture is transmitted to the next generation through socialisation. According to cultural deprivation theories, some working class parents fail to transmit the appropriate norms, values, attitudes, knowledge and skills – that is the ‘right’ culture needed for educational success. Cultural deprivation theorists see three factors as responsible for working-class under-achievement. One factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code. Bernstein (1975) distinguishes between elaborated and restricted speech codes. He says that the working class use the restricted code. The restricted speech code is less analytic and more descriptive, has a limited vocabulary and is formed of simple sentences or even just gestures. The middle class however, use the elaborated code. This is more analytic, with a wide range of vocabulary and......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Explore the Ways in Which Characters Are Isolated

...Explore the ways in which characters are isolated or lonely on the ranch. John Steinbeck’s ‘Of Mice and Men’ portrays several characters as isolated or lonely whilst living on a ranch. By portraying the characters in ‘Of Mice and Men’ lonely, loneliness would affect their personalities such as how they think and how they behave giving more reasons to think they are all somewhat isolated even though they all live in a large group. In Crooks case, loneliness has made him a very bitter individual; he is treated differently compared to the other workers on the ranch mainly because of his race but also because of his low status job. Other workers can’t relate to him unless he is working because he is black. Crooks emotions are displayed towards the audience when he has a conversation with Lennie in his room, he talks about how he has no one to talk to and no one to relate to, and he talks to Lennie about George and says “S’pose you didn’t have nobody S'pose you couldn't go into the bunk house and play rummy `cuase you was black...A guy needs somebody--to be near him” this may suggest that Crooks doesn’t have anyone to have a general conversation with whether or not it was an animal, family or friend. He mentions this to Lennie to give him the idea of what it is like to feel isolated and have no one to talk to. He tells Lennie this based on his own experience and by having no one talking to him and treating him differently eventually making him feel lonely, which was the......

Words: 1182 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Outline Some of the Ways in Which Material Deprivation May Affect Educational Achievement Amongst the Different Social Class Groups. (12 Marks)

...Outline some of the ways in which material deprivation may affect educational achievement amongst the different social class groups. (12 marks) Despite brilliant improvements within the educational system and level of the nation as a whole, social class differences still continue to exist, as middle class pupils tend to achieve higher academically than working class pupils. This is due to many external factors (these are factors outside of the educational system, e.g. influences from home and the family background as well as cultural deprivation etc) but also internal factors (these are factors within schools and the educational systems, such as the relationship between teachers and pupils). In this essay I intend to explain the ways in which material deprivation can affect the educational achievement between different social classes. Material deprivation, an external factor refers to poverty and a lack of resources to succeed in education, such as; books, internet and adequate housing etc. It is the working class families who have a low income and inadequate housing that affects how a child does in their education. There are 3 features within material deprivation; 1) housing- working class families are more likely to live in poor housing with overcrowding, which means a lack of personal space that can lead to illnesses to spread within the house quicker meaning children are ill more often and taking time off school, resulting in underachievement. 2) Diet and......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline and Explain Two Ways Families Socialise Children

...Outline and explain two ways families socialise children. (16) The family for most people in the contemporary UK is the main agent of primary socialisation. There are multiple ways in which the family socialises young people. Firstly the family teaches the basic norms and values of society. This allows the young to copy older family members and see them as role models for how they are supposed to behave in society. The basic norms passed on from generation to generation through the family can be as simple as how and where to eat when it comes to family meal times. These simple norms are important to pass on because it reflects wider values, for example the importance of family eating together at mealtimes and keeping a close bond within a family unit. Secondly the family also displays many gender roles which may influence an individual’s perspective of what is right and wrong when it comes to gender. For example a young boy may see his father go out to work every day and providing for the family as the main wage earner known as the ‘breadwinner’, while his mother my stay at home or work only part time caring for the children and taking on the role of the homemaker. This is likely to have an impact on how he would view gender roles within the family. This does not mean that he will copy these gender roles later on in life with his own family; however it is likely to influence the way he perceives gender roles and may lead him on to set paths in life....

Words: 269 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline Some of the Ways in Which Cultural Deprivation May Lead to Educational Underachievement in Working Class Pupils (12 Marks)

...may start school without the developed intellectual skills needed to progress. Douglas (1964) found that working-class pupils scored lower on ability tests than middle-class pupils. He argues that this is because working-class parents are less likely to support the intellectual development of the child. In support, Bernstein and Young (1967) had similar conclusions. They found that the way mothers think about and choose toys influences on the child’s intellectual development. Middle-class mothers are more likely to choose toys that encourage thinking and reasoning skills to prepare children for school. Bernstein (1957) distinguishes between two types of speech code: restricted, where it has limited vocabulary and is based on short, grammatically incorrect sentences, typically used by the middle class; and elaborated, which has a wider vocabulary and has longer, more complex sentences, typically used by the middle-classes. The elaborated code is the language used by teachers, textbooks, and exams which puts the middle class-pupils at a disadvantage. It is taken as the ‘correct’ way to speak and write and, in Bernstein’s view, it is a more effective tool for the essential skills in education. Working-class pupils, who lack the elaborated code, are likely to feel excluded from school and to be less successful. Bernstein (1975) Unlike most other cultural deprivation theorists, Bernstein recognises that both the school and home influences a child’s achievement.......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Outline on Social Media

...Topic: MEDIA: Social Media Thesis Statement: Although it is a norm for Filipinos to share information, ideas, and messages through social media, it is also inevitable for someone to be affected mentally, socially, and physically through these. I. Social media was created to spread information to millions of people around the world. A. Companies and businesses use social media as a means to advertise their products and/or services. B. New technologies and discoveries by scientists are spread using the internet. C. Journalists use social media to send out their interesting stories, news and documentaries to the public. II. Numerous people in the Philippines share their ideas on the web. A. A number of Filipinos are “youtube famous” thanks to the most famous free-video-sharing website used in the country, Youtube. 1. The controversial video of a very emotional DJ, Mo Twister, went viral. 2. Maria Aragon is a ten year-old Filipino-Canadian girl who catapulted to fame when her sister uploaded a YouTube video of her playing the piano and singing “Born This Way” by Lady Gaga. 3. A Filipino-Canadian comedian, Mikey Bustos, became a YouTube sensation for his tutorials on Pinoy accent. B. Bloggers use Tumblr, WordPress.com, Instragram, and other websites to share fashion trends, showcase their photography skills and spread other ideas. III. Communication has been made easier through modern......

Words: 433 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Discuss Ways in Which Social Developments Associated with ‘Thatcher’s Britain’ Are Reflected in ‘Babylon’.

...Discuss ways in which social developments associated with ‘Thatcher’s Britain’ are reflected in ‘Babylon’. Babylon is a film from 1980, which was directed by Franco Rosso. Its about black youth growing up in Brixton, South London. To many it stood out because it reflected the very dark, depressing realisms of Britain at the end of the 1970s. Back then it wasn’t really received by the public, probably because it revealed the hard naked truth of Britain, but now it’s known to be one of the best British films ever made. Its about a young Rastafarian rapper who has hopes to rise above the trails of his daily life and succeed at a sound system completion. Around this time Margaret Thatcher becomes the new prime minister of 10 Downing Street. She was regarded as one of the most important prime ministers of the 20th century being credited for breaking ‘post war consensus’ in British politics. Thatcher re-invigorated capitalism, allowed for market forces to ‘let rip’. All of this, as well as increasing inequality between the rich and poor and also in some ways between the whites and the ethnic minorities. This is fully reflected in Babylon. A way in which social developments associated with Thatcher’s Britain that is reflecting in Babylon is police brutality. An example of this was when blue in the film gets chased b police for no reason and then beaten up. Then later accused of something he did and taken to court. Police brutality was prominent around this time, mainly due...

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Using Examples Outline the Ways in Which Urban Areas Have Reimaged Themselves to Attract Visitors. (10 Marks)

...Using examples outline the ways in which urban areas have reimaged themselves to attract visitors. (10 marks) Multiple places have reimaged their cities to boost up their economy some of these are Glasgow and Nottingham. Firstly if we start at looking at Glasgow then take a look at Nottingham we’ll be able to compare them both to get an overview of what makes them unique and know. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, and the fourth largest in the United Kingdom it is up towards the north. Glasgow has reimaged itself using clever techniques for example to show its visitors and the local people themselves it treasures its history as once being part a world leader manufacture in ships, engineering and trade they left one Crain making it into a landmark and building a visitor attraction around it although this may sound boring to us many people find this amusing its one of which they have used this to encourage visitors to spend money locally as people go to visit this particular attraction it also pulls them towards local towns where they can look around new places. In 1980 Glasgow tried to reimage itself by flagship development and invested its money into 3 main cultural infrastructure to show visitors although its passionate about its history, Glasgow also wants to show it has a personality to it and to show off its creative side Burrell Gallery one of the largest attraction in Glasgow displays a range of art work from major artists this can conduct aspiring artists or...

Words: 794 - Pages: 4