Free Essay

Niokolo-Koba National Park

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sherice12
Words 1636
Pages 7
Niokolo-Koba National Park
Ronald Thompson
University of Phoenix

In Senegal, the Niokolo-Koba National Park is the largest and oldest national park (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). The park has around 200 meters of flat regions with lines of hills, where the remainder of the park is full of low plateaus. There are many languages that are spoken within the park. They are: Spanish, French, Russian, English, and Arabic. The Niokolo-Koba National Park was put on the World Heritage Danger List in 2007. The park is located in the western region of Africa near the Guinea-Bissau border in South Eastern Senegal (Absolute Astronomy 2010). It best known for its wildlife and it contains the most important natural habitat for biological diversity, including threatened species. Senegal is home to “2,500 different types of species and the Niokolo-Koba contain 1,500 of them” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). Currently 120 different species families occupy the park as well. The park is home to “80 different species of mammals, 330 birds, 38 reptiles, 20 amphibians, 60 different types of fish” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). The vegetation plays a strong role in this park as well. There are four types of soils that are found in the park in various locations. The soils include “tropical red soil, ferrolateritic crusts, alluvial, and hydromorphic” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). The vegetation in the park comes in many forms. The park includes grass, woody savannas, bushes, and many trees. A long list of animals and vegetation appear to be on the edge of endangerment. The diversity of life forms within this park is enormous, but the main attractions are the fauna and flora which are breathtaking. Human intrusions have continued to be a problem in this area. In the years of 1989-1991 a survey was given that stated that the number of animals was over 40,000, after 17 years the number has decline to less than 900. The biodiversity of the Niokolo-Koba is captivating. The park has the one of the greatest biodiversity interrelationships among its life forms found in Senegal. These species are dependent on other species and vegetation within the park to survive. Through the months of June and October there is a presence of rain throughout the park. The rest of the year is a dry season with no rain. These conditions make it hard for many species to survive in their search for food. The Gambia River flows through Niokolo-Koba National Park. In the year 2007 there was a proposed new dam intentionally meant to be created on the Gambia River which will cause problems for the large and small mammals on the park. This is a passage written in 2004 by G.G. Tappan, M. Sall, E. C. Wood, and M. Cushing stating that the accelerated degradation of natural resources, decline in agricultural productivity and rapid population growth along with the deterioration in the quality of life in the Niokolo-Koba Natural Park. The unhappiest moment happening to the Niokolo-Koba is the human intrusions in the area. The park needs protection from commercial poaching that occurs every day. The human activities going on in the park are endangering species. The government is also conversing and deciding on placing a dam in the park. This dam would cause dehydration and major damage to the aqua species wild life because the dam would upstream water while stopping the flooding essential to the Niokolo-Koba’s wild life. If the government could put a stop to the suggested dams or attempt to create artificial lakes, the species would be able to live in their own natural habitat without the worries of extinction. They are changing the environments too much in which the animals are not able to live stable. The park is now a tourist attraction, and a getaway. The climate causes concerns for brush fires that can be problem for many species habitats. The herders and farmers have disagreements that has cause them continue to develop land that is supposed to be protected. All these issues describe above are threats to the area.
Even though there are diverse protection strategies that exist to safeguard and preserve the area, there is still not enough protection for many species that reside in the park. The park is under the direct control of the Senegalese National Parks Directorate (SNPD). The Senegalese National Parks Directorate is a section dedicated to the armed forces military administration. This is a part of the Ministry for the Atmosphere and Protection of Nature Organization. The Senegalese National Parks Directorate is in charge of poaching control, poacher criminal prosecution, and any criminal activity taking place in the park. The park is under command and protection 24 hours a day by its warden and his deputy. The park contains “82 rangers and technical rangers whom occupy 15 actively used ranger posts” (Giant Eland Conservation, 2010). A total of 25 ranger posts are spread about the park. Seven of the ranger posts were recently torn down. Also there are 50 inducted soldiers whom help out the park staff when called upon. Rangers and soldiers help out the Senegalese National Parks Directorate monitor the animals and control poaching activities. They have attain radios and vehicles along with surveillance post in order to maintain a long-term security approach to combat illegal poaching in the area The conservation staff has brought their concerns forwarded asking for more staffing. This effort shows that they are understaffed to control this crisis. All species are depending on their reservation to keep them safe from poaching. Funding has been asked for by the Conservation staff multiple times but yet to be successful. The hotel profit margin would be a great tool that can be use to renovated the reservation which is on the park as well. A tourist that comes to Niokolo-Koba National Park would be asked to donate, just as if you would donate to any foundation for a good cause. The people that donate will have an art exhibit of photographs taking of the endangered animals in the reserve.
Many other efforts have been made to further the preservation of the Niokolo-Koba National Park. The park gains support from foreign organizations including three donor assisted developments by the EU and French government to recover infrastructure, inspection, and local contribution in a fresh management map drawn up in the year 2012. All of the management plans have gone through revisions monthly instead of yearly. Many anti-poaching groups are being made by the creation of anti-poaching aerial surveillance program. The government is supporting many efforts to enhance the park and have thus created boundary segregation. “Senegal’s National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) speaks of an environmental and social crisis characterized by accelerated degradation of natural resources, decline in agricultural productivity, rapid population growth, and deterioration in the quality of life” (Journal of Arid Environments, 2004). Even donor solicitation occurs to finance an increase in staffing and training of new employees. The employees have also implemented selective monitoring of area prone to poaching due to the species in certain areas. Also species survival plans have been made to help certain species survive in area with less poaching. Many people ask what can an individual do to help preserve the diversity of the Niokolo-Koba National Park. It starts with the support of all the efforts and proposals that make the park better. The educational awareness has to be in the forefront of the success of this park. The utmost desirable necessity is financial support from individuals to hire more staff and officers to help safeguard the species that exist in the park. The diversity of the park is extremely important because poaching occurs so often and the animals are getting smaller in numbers. Niokolo-Koba National park is well known for its beautiful wildlife that the numbers keep declining till tourist will no long have an exotic view. People travel here to see the waterfalls and animals. They should also think about the ways they can contribute money that would employ more people to work risk areas. The surveillance cameras are spread around the park, but it seems that this step is not working or not being maintained properly. Despite the rumors, the government has made an incredible footprint by placing the park on the endangered list for everyone to see. The awareness has to be world spread for the park to be able to survive the hard times. I chose this park because of its history and the struggles its nation has face. This article explain the life forms, biological interrelationships, threats to the area, protections that exist, efforts made to further protection, and what we can do to help. I hope my efforts to bring this story alive is not diminish, but a blueprint of understand in what this park needs now, you.

References
Absolute Astronomy. (2010). Niokolo-Koba National Park. Retrieved from http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Niokolo-Koba_National_Park
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010). Niokolo-Koba-Senegal. Retrieved from http http://www.eoearth.org/article/Niokolo-Koba_National_Park,_Senegal Giant Eland Conservation. (2010). Niokolo Koba National park. Retrieved from http://www.gianteland.com/where-we-work/niokolo-koba-national-park/ Journal of Arid Environments. (2004). Ecoregions and land cover trends in Senegal. Retrieved from http://igskmncngs086.cr.usgs.gov/webappcontent/gwpp/YJARE_1317_Tappan.pdf
Parc. W., Biodiversity and Values, (2008) retrieved from http://www.africannaturalheritage.org/Niokolo-Koba-Senegal.html
The Living Africa. (1998). Parc National De Niokolo-Koba, Senegal. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/16645/national_parks/senegal.shtml UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (2010). Niokolo-Koba National Park. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/153
United Nations Environment Program. (2008). Niokolo-Koba National Park. Retrieved from http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/Niokolo-Koba.pdf…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Parks

...For many people who live in cities, parks are an important part of the landscape. They provide a place for people to relax and play sports, as well as a refuge from the often harsh environment of a city. What people often overlook is that parks also provide considerable environmental benefits. One benefit of parks is that plants absorb carbon dioxide—a key pollutant—and emit oxygen, which humans need to breathe. According to one study, an acre of trees can absorb the same amount of carbon dioxide that a typical car emits in 11,000 miles of driving. Parks also make cities cooler. Scientists have long noted what is called the Urban Heat Island Effect: building materials such as metal, concrete, and asphalt absorb much more of the sun’s heat and release it much more quickly than organic surfaces like trees and grass. Because city landscapes contain so much of these building materials, cities are usually warmer than surrounding rural areas. Parks and other green spaces help to mitigate the Urban Heat Island Effect. Unfortunately, many cities cannot easily create more parks because most land is already being used for buildings, roads, parking lots, and other essential parts of the urban environment. However, cities could benefit from many of the positive effects of parks by encouraging citizens to create another type of green space: rooftop gardens. While most people would not think of starting a garden on their roof, human beings have been planting gardens on rooftops for......

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Yellowstone National Park

...American kestrel Kites Osprey Peregrine falcon Turkey Vulture Elk Northern Harrier Goshawks Golden Eagle Dippers Red-shouldered hawk Rabbit Mallard ducks Brook Trout Artic Grayling Yellowstone Cutthroat Westslope Cutthroat Brown Trout Consumers Cont. Longnose Dace Longnose Sucker Mottled Sculpin Lake Trout Mountain Sucker Mountain Whitefish Redside Shiner Utah Chub Speckled Dace Rainbow Trout Lake Chub Decomposers Calothrix Phormidium Synechococcus Chloroflexus Heterotrophic and lithographic bacteria Archaea Population Growth and Regulation Yellowstone National Park is a region with diverse wildlife. Each animal in the ecosystem has a niche as a scavenger or predator. They are dependent on each other for survival because the predator/scavenger relationship in the ecosystem balances it so that no one animal is overpopulated in the park. At the top of the food chain are wolves and bears that prey on other animals such as bison and elk. Yellowstone ecosystem can support a number of organisms based on abiotic factors, such as temperature, soil composition, and quantity of water and light (Petersen, 2001). Given abiotic resources with no predators or diseases, populations can increase very rapidly including humans. Resources that lack or limit the population growth include predation and climate. The major source of energy for an organism in the ecosystem is sunlight which passes energy from one organism to another (Wagner,......

Words: 746 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Great Himalayan National Park

...Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) is a major source of water for the rural and urban centres of the region with four major rivers of the area originating from the glaciers in the Park. It is also a source of sustenance and livelihood for the local community living close to GHNP. In addition to lumber, the forest environment provides local people with Non- Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) such as honey, fruit nuts, bark of birch and yew, flowers and fuel wood. In 1980, the Himachal Wildlife Project (HWP) surveyed the upper Beas region to help establish the boundaries of the park. An area comprising the watersheds of Jiwa, Sainj, and Tirthan rivers became the Great Himalayan National Park in 1984. Starting from an altitude of 1,700 metres above mean sea level, the highest peak within the Park approaches almost 5,800 metres. The area of the National Park at the moment is 754.4 sq kms and it is naturally protected on the northern, eastern and southern boundaries by permanent snow or steep ridges. Creation Of GHNP It took twenty years from inception to inauguration for GHNP to be realized as part of the Indian National Park system. The initial survey of the watersheds of Tirthan, sainj, Jiwanal in Banjar area of Kullu district took place in the year 1980. In the year 1983 survey continued in the Banjar area of Kullu district. The following year a notification was sent by the state of Himachal Pradesh to create the ‘Great Himalayan National Park’ with buffer......

Words: 1439 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Kruger National Park

...4………………………………………………………………..…….pg. 18 - 19 Work Cited………………………………………………………………………..…..pg. 20 -21 II. Define the Problem Case 27: Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park brings about many ethical questions and concerns one of the world’s greatest animals, the rhino. Kruger National Park (established in 1898) was a part of South African National Parks (SANParks). According to the case text, by the turn of the century white rhinos were said to not exist at Kruger National Park anymore. However in 1961, white rhinos were re-introduced to the park. In 2009, there were said to be 10,000 white rhinos and 500 black rhinos located within the park. Because of the significant number of rhinos located within the park, management from within decided to being selling some of the rhinos at auction; however, selling the rhinos was under one condition: “its removal could not negatively impact the populations from which it came.” White rhinos tended to sell faster than black ones because since they were less rare and were less aggressive. Some of the biggest issues presented in this case were: Kruger National Park did not know to whom they were selling the rhinos, poaching on Kruger National Park land for the rhinos horn (leaving rhinos dead or tranquilized and in pain to the point they could be killed by other animals,) and the loss of funding that Kruger Park was undergoing. In the Asian population, it was said that to rhino horns worked to retain their cultural beliefs and......

Words: 5213 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Sustainable Development in Banff National Park

...Number: 250 365 904 A Plan for Sustainable Tourism Development and in Banff National Park 1. As a new Chief Executive Officer of Banff National Park, prepare and submit a comprehensive plan for a sustainable tourism development and management in the park that will help to balance (reconcile) the conflicting goals of economic growth, social well being and environmental protection. Explore how the various actors can collaborate to ensure the development and maintenance of a sense of place, product market match, activity clustering, efficient transportation linkages, partnership and environmental protection in the park. (In your report, identify the key players and their respective roles and responsibilities, modus operandi, management approaches, existing planning policies, by-laws and zoning regulations). Introduction Since 1885 Banff National Park (BNP) has been a refuge for wildlife and people alike. BNP has become on icon of Canadian tourism but also an important showing of Canada’s conservation and preservation efforts. Over 4 millions people have visited Banff each year since 1996 (Banff 2009) keeping BNP a successful tourist destination. However, the success of the tourist sector tends to have negative effects on the product that makes a national park such a BNP so attractive. This paper will attempt to provide an outline to balance the sustainable development of Banff National Park as a tourist destination and as a refuge for the nature, wildlife,......

Words: 2484 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Geology and National Parks

...Gertrude Obeng Geology Geology and National Parks Final 11/27/2013 PART 1 Weathering is the gradual destruction of rock when it comes to certain surface donitions, it can occur with a physical process as well as chemically and of course living things can and will weather as well. The breakdown of minerals can and will vary from surface to surface and depending on the type of weathering that’s happening, it can either have a tiny effect over a long period of time or a major effect over a short and long period of time. It’s known to loosen and alter material and transform minerals and material into a whole different landform. Then we have erosion which is the breakdown and movement of a planet’s urface by the action of gravity, running water, waves, currents, ice and wind, this too also gradually wears away landforms. Which makes weathering and erosion completely two different things but also one in the same. The major importance of both weather and erosion when speaking about flat landforms is the fact that these two occurrences had probably created that flat landform. We are able to experience and have the pleasure of having mountains, slopes, and different shaped landforms because of weathering and erosion. National Parks like Nevada’s Great Basin are prime examples of what weathering and erosion can create over time. The basin is home to many landforms and mountains that have been narrowed and shaped by running water, different types of weathering like snow,......

Words: 1608 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Fenway Park

...“Fenway Park” It is the bottom of the eighth inning and the Red Sox are down five runs to one run. David Ortiz steps to the plate and with one swing hits a grand-slam. Fenway Park erupted with cheer. As I looked around at the crowd celebrating, I began to admire Fenway Park. It was chockfull of banners and memorabilia. Fenway Park appeared simple in architectural design, but little did I know how much history existed here. In today's society some of the best things are ones that change little and remain basically the same as they have for decades. Fenway Park is an example of this as the Boston Red Sox have remained committed to staying at this classic ballpark that they have called home since 1912. It is the oldest major league ballpark in use and still retains the same feel and characteristics as it did when it opened on April 20th 1912. Newspaper coverage of the opening was overshadowed by continuing coverage of the Titanic sinking a few days earlier (National Geographic 2010). On March 7, 2012, the park was added to the National Register of Historic Places. The park is considered to be one of the most well-known sports venues in the world. (BCC 2010). The park's address was originally 24 Jersey Street. In 1977, the section of Jersey Street nearest the park was renamed Yawkey Way in honor of longtime Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey. The park's address is now 4 Yawkey Way. The Red Sox moved to Fenway Park from the old Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds. In 1911,......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Yosemite National Park

...Due to the growing numbers’ of visitors to Yosemite National Park there are numerous negative effects that the human population has brought upon the natural beauty of the park. The annual visits to Yosemite National Park averages to 3.5 million visitors a year and the numbers continue to grow due to constant developments. To accommodate the growing numbers’ of visitors entering the park and those staying overnight; buildings, campsites, facilities, parking lots, and roads were created. By doing these various tasks the habitat of the park is being destroyed. There is an area of river banks close to camp sites and they have been battered by visitors, destroying natural habitats as well. All species and vegetation inside the park is in constant harm’s way due to the increase of traffic. The smog made by the vehicles cause air pollution which is so thick it is reported that the park is not always visible in the air. There is also noise pollution brought on by the vehicles attempting to locate parking and campsite rivals which sadly over takes the park’s natural noise. It is probable that increased noise could disturb wildlife behavior, mainly in mating and finding prey. The park is also the home of black bears. Human population also threatens these bears by having an abundance of food available in their vehicles, campgrounds, picnic areas, and out in the wilderness. Once a bear is able obtain food from humans it will continue to seek it out and frighten humans in order to......

Words: 439 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

William Henry Jackson, the National Parks, & Usgs

...As a young boy William Henry Jackson had an urge to explore and document the great unknown. Capturing nature and its creatures in the raw and uncut wilderness in which they live was coded within his DNA. It was something no person or agency had to request, but a natural want and desire to do so. Jackson had traveled many times within the Yellowstone wilderness and other National Park regions before their creation, but never had he been a part of something whose direct intention was to explore and document the wilderness of the West. He would later go on to state that “if any work that I have done should have value beyond my own lifetime, I believe it will be the happy labors of the decade, 1869 – 1878” (Jackson 186). He would spend these fruitful years, through his camera and brush stroke, exposing the numerous hidden wonders of the West. Many of Jackson's efforts can be credited with the creation of our nation’s first National Park, Yellowstone in the Wyoming territory, as well as Yosemite National Park, Mesa Verde National Park Rocky Mountain National Park and the Grand Teton National Park. Jackson was the first pioneer to accurately photograph such wonders so realistic, helping unravel the mysteries associated with the West. In the last years of his life he would receive one of the most important commissions of his career (Jackson 234). Through perseverance, ingenuity, and the strength that only comes from a man on the frontier, Jackson laid the groundwork for one...

Words: 4192 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Review of Current System and Recommrndations for National Department of Parks and Recreation

...Reports The current manual system used by Nationals Parks for collections of fees, attendance, and tickets inventory, was not giving the administration the sufficient reports for decision making. The analysis of the old system shows: A. the collection of revenues comprised of 3 basics operation: 1) Collection of fees 2) Deposit of fees 3) Reporting the collections The current manual system for revenue and reconciliation of deposit are prone to errors, missing items and revenue shortages. B. The record of visitor attendance was made monthly using excel worksheets. And reports were quarterly or yearly. The current method for counting visitor numbers is time consuming and imprecise C. Delayed Vendor payments create serious cash flows problems during few months of each budget year. There will not be enough available operating funds to pay outstanding vendors invoices. An automated ticket and revenue collection system in the national parks will produce sufficient report for decision making to help managers. Our team recommends the implement of the following three reports: Ticket sales report, Monthly financial report, and Visitor attendance report. Functions of tickets sales report: 1. Indicate the daily sales 2. Track the printed tickets sales 3. Plans future marketing campaign 4. Know the preferable payment method by visitor The tickets will be categorized by parks site categorization. The payment will be categorized by methods: online purchase, prepaid ticket...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Rosa Park

...was Rosa Parks. Rosa Parks stood up for African Americans at a time when people were afraid to fight for their own basic rights. Through her actions, Rosa Parks changed the segregation rules between black and white people. People were not brave to fight for their rights, but Rosa Parks became one of the first African American ladies who fight for the black community and their equal rights to end segregation. Rosa Parks was born on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama. Her full name is Rosa Louic McCauley. Her parents were Leona and James McCauley. She had a brother named Sylvester. Her father left to find work when she was 2 years old and she didn't see him again for many years. Park's mother took her two children to live with her parents on a small farm in Pine Level, Alabama. Rosa Park's grandparents were slaves. Rosa parks hobby was she liked to sew (Rosa Parks Civil Right Pioner 6). During her early life, Rosa Parks started school when she was 6 years old. In 1919, white children and African American children went to different schools. White children rode the buses, but African American children had to walk. The white children who rode the bus would throw trash at African American children who had to walk. In 1924, Rosa Parks attended class at the Montgomery Industrial School. Years later, Rosa Parks left school to take care for her grandmother, so she didn't complete her education. In December 1932, Rosa Parks married Raymond Parks, who......

Words: 972 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Arches National Park and the Formation of Arches

...listed above, but this goes to show that the park is always changing. Each arch has a different lifespan and their are many different factors that go into finding that time frame. These factors are still studied today as well as the many other geological features that the park has to other. As stated earlier, this park to home to many different things to study. Geologists continue to flock to this park because they can study more than one topic and get a better understanding of the entire region. Not only was this National Park created to preserve the beauty of the region, but also to protect these geological features to allow geologists to get a better understanding of some of earth’s greatest features. References Mattox, R.B., 1980, Arches National Park, Utah; an excellent field laboratory: Abstracts with Programs ­ Geological Society of America, v. 12, p. 478. Cruikshank, K.M., and Aydin, A., 1994, Role of Fracture Localization in Arch Formation, Arches National Park, Utah: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, p. 879–891. Doelling, H.H., 2000, Geology of Arches National Park, Utah , in Sprinkel, D.A., Chidsey, T.C., and Anderson, P.B. eds., Geology of Utah's Parks and Monuments, Salt Lake City , UT, Utah Geological Association, p. 11–36. Morris, T.H., Ritter, S.M., and Laycock, D.P., 2012, Arches National Park, in Geology Unfolded: An Illustrated Guide to the Geology of Utah's National Parks, Provo, UT, BYU Press, p.......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Denali National Park

...This is a great spot for a mission statementYou can use this fresh, professional brochure just as it is or easily customize it.On the next page, we’ve added a few tips (like this one) to help you get started.(By the way, to replace a photo with your own, just right-click it and then choose Change Picture.) | | | | | | [Recipient Name] [Address] [City, ST ZIP Code] | [Street Address] [City, ST ZIP Code] | | | Denali National ParkThis project is about the Denali National Park. I hope you guys enjoy my presentation and my project. Let’s begin! | | | | | | | | LocationThe Denali National Park is located in Alaska.Cost of Admissions Entrance feeThe park entrance fee is $10.00 per person ( younger age 15 years or younger are free).the fee provides the visitor a 7-day entrance permit.Denali Annual Pass: $40This pass is valid for 12 months from the month of purchase. It covers entrance fees for the pass holder and up to three other adults into Denali National Park and Preserve.Senior Pass - Cost $10This is a lifetime pass for U.S. citizens and permanent residents age 62 and over. The pass provides access to and use of, federal recreation sites that charge an Entrance or Standard Amenity.Military Pass – FreeThis pass is available to active duty military personnel and dependents with proper identification ( | | CAC Card or DD Form 1173) for a full year from month of purchase.HoursEvery season they have a day and...

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Everglades National Park

...Restoration Plan VII. Conclusion The Everglades National Park In the United States, the Everglades National Park is considered the largest subtropical wasteland. It hosts a variety of rare and endangered species. Many groups of people and animals have landed in the Everglades making it their homeland. Everglades is home for well-known rare animals and plants. The marshes, forests, cypress, fish, animals, plants, and people depend on the ecosystem of the Everglades. Unfortunately, many of these plants and animals are found on the endangered species list for the United States. The Everglades is a breath-taking park with a variety of plants, animals, fishes, and birds. The national park has many living organisms not found any other place on the Earth. The preservation of these natural resources will help to protect the environment along with the animals, plants, and birds. Organizations are searching for ways to preserve and protect the life of the Everglades residents especially those organisms that have become endangered species (National Park Conservation Association, 2011). Many groups and people have settled in the Everglades along with visitors for hunting and fishing. The people began moving on the land with the early settlers and Native Americans. Native Americans and early settlers known as the “Gladesman” became dependent on the natural resources produced in the Everglades (United States National Park Service, 2011). The rich soil attracted......

Words: 1648 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Rosa Parks

...Head: ROSA PARKS Rosa Parks Kaplan University CM107-12: Effective Writing I for Arts & Sciences Majors Instructor: Nick Pincumbe October 11, 2011 Courage is summoned up from deep within our inner being. It is morals, beliefs and strength. It can involve fear, danger and uncertainty. It is doing what’s right, at all cost, even when no one is looking. Courage is displayed through both adversity and triumph. It prevails through life’s journey when you face challenge and conflict with strength and tenacity. It is stronger than fear and outlives timidity. It picks you up and gives you the strength to persevere as did Rosa Louise Parks, an African-American civil rights activist, who became known as "the first lady of civil rights" and a national icon of civil rights and African-American pride. On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, a city with laws that strictly segregated blacks and whites, Parks refused to follow a command given by the bus driver, James Blake, who ordered her to give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. The bus driver called police, and Rosa Parks was arrested and fined. Although Parks' action was not the first of its kind to impact the civil rights issue, her civil disobedience had the effect of sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott, led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., which caused a national sensation. The boycott was successful and led to desegregation in Montgomery and elsewhere in the United States. Parks'......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2