Premium Essay

Newtonian Theory vs. Chaos Theory

In: Business and Management

Submitted By prashant0890
Words 295
Pages 2
In the article “Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to Chaos”, Toby Tetenbaum argues that Chaos theory, a term used to describe nonlinear complex systems and organizations, can be used to study change in organizations. Unlike Newtonian scientists who believed that “…relationships between cause and effect are simple, clear and linear.” , Tetenbaum argues that due to the information era organizations are more complex with employees working anytime from dispersed locations. The increasing speed of communications and the demand for knowledge sharing has also contributed to more of a self managed model. Consequently, Tetenbaum says that the 21st century manager’s role must consist of 5 critical skills. He/she must be able to: 1) Manage the Transition, 2) Build Resilience, 3) Destabilize the System, 4) Manage Order and Disorder, the Present and the Future, and 5) Create and maintain a Learning Organization.
In the first role, “Managing the Transition”, Tetenbaum explains that organizations are moving from the industrial to the information era. Both employees and managers have to change their attitudes towards how work is done and how problems are solved. In the industrial era workers take orders from upper management and follow instructions to ensure the expected results. Their knowledge and practices are based on proven skills and experiences previously tested. Transitioning to an information era would mean letting go of what is familiar and moving away from what workers and managers know as stable, comfortable, predictable and safe. The role of the manager is to “be specific regarding the attitudinal and behavioral changes that are necessary, communicate consistently and often, expect and accept people’s negative reactions, and reward their positive efforts.”
Secondly managers are to “Build Resilience”. Workers are more productive when they can anticipate…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Newtonian Theory vs. Chaos Theory

...Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to Chaos   In the article “Shifting Paradigms: From Newton to Chaos”, Toby Tetenbaum argues that Chaos theory, a term used to describe nonlinear complex systems and organizations, can be used to study change in organizations.  Unlike Newtonian scientists who believed that “…relationships between cause and effect are simple, clear and linear.”   , Tetenbaum argues that due to the information era organizations are more complex with employees working anytime from dispersed locations.  The increasing speed of communications and the demand for knowledge sharing has also contributed to more of a self managed model.  Consequently, Tetenbaum says that the 21st century manager’s role must consist of 5 critical skills.  He/she must be able to:  1) Manage the Transition, 2) Build Resilience, 3) Destabilize the System, 4) Manage Order and Disorder, the Present and the Future, and 5) Create and maintain a Learning Organization. In the first role, “Managing the Transition”, Tetenbaum explains that organizations are moving from the industrial to the information era.  Both employees and managers have to change their attitudes towards how work is done and how problems are solved.  In the industrial era workers take orders from upper management and follow instructions to ensure the expected results.   Their knowledge and practices are based on proven skills and experiences previously tested. Transitioning to an information era would mean letting go of what is...

Words: 925 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Chaos Theory

...INTRODUCTION TO CHAOS THEORY BY T.R.RAMAMOHAN C-MMACS BANGALORE -560037 SOME INTERESTING QUOTATIONS * “PERHAPS THE NEXT GREAT ERA OF UNDERSTANDING WILL BE DETERMINING THE QUALITATIVE CONTENT OF EQUATIONS; TODAY WE DO NOT KNOW WHETHER THE EQUATIONS OF FLUID FLOW CONTAIN THE BARBER POLE STRUCTURE OF TURBULENCE; TODAY WE DO NOT KNOW WHETHER THE SCHRODINGER EQUATION CONTAINS FROGS, MUSICAL COMPOSERS OR MORALITY OR WHETHER SOMETHING BEYOND IT LIKE GOD IS NEEDED OR NOT “ PARAPHRASED FROM R.P.FEYNMAN * “ONLY A CORNER OF THE VEIL HAS BEEN LIFTED, BUT PERHAPS WE HAVE STARTED ON THE ABOVE JOURNEY ” PARAPHRASED FROM FLORIS TAKENS WHAT IS CHAOS THEORY? * CHAOS THEORY IS BASED ON THE OBSERVATION THAT SIMPLE RULES WHEN ITERATED CAN GIVE RISE TO APPARENTLY COMPLEX BEHAVIOR. * EG. LET US CONSIDER X0 RULE X1 X2 RULE | | | | X1 XN RULE X N+1 THE BASIC OBSERVATION IS ; IF IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ABOVE RULE X 0 IS CHANGED BY A SMALL AMOUNT, THE RESULTING SEQUENCE WILL BE VERY DIFFERENT. AFTER SOME ITERATIONS MATHEMATICIANS HAVE STILL NOT AGREED ON A DEFINITION OF CHAOS THAT IS ACCEPTABLE TO ALL HOW EVER AN OPERATIONAL (MEANING ONE THAT CAPTURES MOST ESSENTIAL FEATURES) DEFINITION OF A CHAOTIC SYSTEM IS ; 1) THE SOLUTION MUST BE APERIODIC 2) THE SOLUTION MUST BE BOUNDED 3) THE SOLUTION MUST BE EXPONENTIALLY SENSITIVE TO INITIAL CONDITIONS THE RULE THAT GOVERNS A CHAOTIC SYSTEM MUST SATISFY CERTAIN PROPERTIES 1) THE RULE MUST BE NONLINEAR 2) IN THE...

Words: 1747 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Theory vs Law

...Theory/Law Many Students tend to intermingle the two terms law and theory. A law can be explained as a tested observation that has perfect reliability without explanation of the origin. It is the knowledge of something in nature but without the explanation of how it came to be. For instance the Universal Law of Gravitation is a principle regularity of how two particles attract each other. Whereas a theory may be explained as an extension of a hypothesis intended to explain something in nature. For example The Big Bang Theory is a hypothesis that has gained attention and evidence to support it. Mayonnaise Experiment In my double blind study to test my hypothesis that mayonnaise facials cause warts in humans I will have two different groups, my control group and experimental group. The subjects who get the Mayonnaise facials will be in the experimental group and the subjects who receive a traditional facial crème will be the control group. The doctor or scientist in charge should not be informed of which group is the receiving the mayonnaise facials, this will cause neither the subject nor the researchers to form any unconscious bias. The experiment should consist of multiple races to show any other variables. This experiment will last one month with weekly reports from the subjects based on how the experiment is going if there are any side effects or if the facial seems to be working. FDA does not label milk that has been produced with hormone treatment. Since:...

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Intellegent Design vs. Theory

...1 Religion in Schools – Intelligent Design vs. Theory Stephanie C. Hansen Western International University April, 2006 Intelligent Design should be taught in schools, not only viewed as a religious theory. The debate continues on what roles the school should take on controversies regarding Theory of Evolution vs. Intelligent Design. Opponents insist that this is a “veiled way” of getting religion into the classroom, and that it should not be allowed. One of the main reasons to have Freedom of Speech is so “Truth” can emerge from vigorous debate on all sides of every important issue. Why then should we Americans ever want to suppress the free discussion of important issues in our public schools? (William McGinnis, 2006) Opponents would insist that Intelligent Design has no part in science. On the contrary, the more Intelligent Design is argued, the more scientific it proves to be. In the book Darwin’s Black Box (Behe) the author contends that “Darwin’s response is no longer adequate because of scientific advances that have occurred since Darwin’s death”. Thus, the Theory of Evolution deserves to be revisited. It wasn’t until after his (Darwin’s) death those life forms could be inspected on a molecular level. Therefore, it would also be “scientific” to re-evaluate the Intelligent Design concept on a scientific level since it has been determined “scientifically” that “even in their most basic forms, various organisms are so complex that......

Words: 1695 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Stakeholder vs Stockholder Theory

...Chapman Business Ethics Exam Two The Stakeholder theory of a firm is made up into equal percentages on a pie chart, which is made up of Financials, Suppliers, Employees, Customers and Communities. The Stockholder theory of a firm is made up by a pyramid structure consisting of Labor, Management, CEO, Board and Stockholders. I believe the Stakeholder theory is less ethical than the stockholder theory in terms of Libertarianism and Egoism. Libertarianism view points are that there is no direct harm, not infringing on rights, not breaking the laws, government protection only, free market and charity. The Egoism viewpoint is to maximize long-term self-interest. The Stakeholder Theory is less ethical from the Libertarianism viewpoint, because there are some major concerns that don’t agree with their principles. The first principle it breaches is no-direct harm, because it does cause direct harm. The theory causes direct harm by having everybody set as equal to the firm, but in reality the creditors and shareholders are above everybody. I believe this causes harm in that you have to pay back your creditors and shareholders back first, because without them there would not be a company and if you don’t pay them their higher percentage they will not re-invest inside the company, which will cause the direct harm to the pie by causing the equal pie pieces to be broken up and forcing the company to shutdown due to default. This theory also infringes on the rights of the......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Modernization vs Dependency Theory?

...Critically Compare and Contrast Two Sets of the Following Theories of Development: Modernization, Structural Change and Dependency Since the end of World War 2 international development has become increasingly endeavoured upon by academics and politicians alike. The impulse to further understand growth and development was largely due to the dismantling of the European empires following the war. Nations now freed from their colonial ties strived towards a modern status as economies and societies. These Third-World nations were in search of a development model to stimulate their advance towards a modern and affluent society; this was mirrored globally, for various reasons ranging from economic self-interest to genuine humanitarianism. Development institutions such as the United Nations and International Monetary Fund were created, both in 1945, to aid international cooperation and economic development. The prominent theories of development have long been debated. Adelman (2001, p 103) said “no area of economics has experienced as many abrupt changes in its leading paradigm since Wold War 2 as economic development”. The two competing perspectives of development theory I shall compare and contrast are the Modernization and Dependency theories, both will also be applied to Latin-America. Modernization Theory dominated developmental economics in the 1950’s and 60’s. It explains underdevelopment is a result of traditional society systems, caused by internal problems within......

Words: 1817 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Evidence vs Theory Base

...Evidence-based practice has gained particular salience in nursing and health care and is also applicable to social practice.(Photo: Medioimages/Photodisc/Photodisc/Getty Images) In theory, practice and theory are the same. In practice, they are not. Evidence-based practice has gained prominence over more theoretical approaches in several areas, particularly in the field of health care. Theory-guided and evidence-based practice share the common goal of making the right decision and finding the most effective solution for a perceived problem. However, they have some core philosophical differences. Sponsored Links * Full-Text Journal Library Browse millions of journal articles from top academic publications. www.questia.com/Journals Features Greek philosopher(Photo: Maros Markovic/iStock/Getty Images) At its core, the divide between evidence-based practice and theory-guided practice can be traced back to an ancient divide often found in science and philosophy: That of rationalism versus empiricism. Extreme rationalists claim that our senses are limited and place all their trust in reason. In contrast, empiricists claim that sense experience is the source of all our concepts and knowledge. While their positions are not so extreme, theory-guided practice follows a rather rationalist approach, while evidence-based practice favor empirical knowledge. Read more : http://www.ehow.com/about_6646089_difference-practice-evidence-based-practice.html The movement for......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cartestian Dualism vs. the Identity Theory

...Cartesian Dualism vs. the Identity Theory Dualism is a view that attempts to explain the relationship between mind and matter. Aristotle and Plato have tackled their version on dualism. Cartesian means “pertaining to the thought of Descartes” according to Edward Feser, “Philosophy of Mind.” Cartesian Dualism originates from Rene Descartes whose version of dualism is well known and an accepted explanation of the mind and body being vastly different. Let’s go deeper in the thoughts of Descarte’s and the support to the validity of his view on dualism. According to Professor Edward Feser’s book “Philosophy of Mind” Descarte’s “dualism claims that there is a difference between the mind and the body. Basically the mind is different from the body. We need a body to sustain life, whereas Descarte’s view is that the mind is an immaterial object. The mind allows a person to think, hope, believe and even doubt. These exist only in the mind and not a physical object. They are not physical, but the body is. Cartesian dualism clearly separates the conscious (mind) as a separate non-material form. Now let’s look deeper into the physical aspects of the body and the physical aspect of the mind. Descarte’s view depicts the body and the mind as extremely different. The body is a materialistic object; it has height, width, has movement and takes up physical space. The body itself is full of chemicals, water, tissue, organs and a skeletal frame that makes the body a physical object. These...

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Contract Theory vs Social Theory

...Conflict Theory vs. Social Theory Introduction Society has come to determine that social behavior is a direct result of an outside source. There are several different theories that could determine why a person acts or reacts in the manor that they do. This paper will address two of those theories; conflict theory and social theory. Conflict theory, would suggest that behavior is a reaction to the social order around them, where social theory would suggest that abstract sources are the cause of behavior. The writer of this paper will also provide examples to support the findings of these theories and evaluations of the effects of these theories. Comparison of Conflict Theory to Social Theory Conflict theory states that there is a social order that society follows. This order determines what social class you are in and what economic class you’re in. The theory was derived by Karl Marx. He believed that the greatest power came from those who had the “greatest political, economic, and social resources” (about education, 2014) “According to conflict theory, inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society’s resources actively defend their advantages. The masses are not bound to society by their shared values, but by coercion at the hands of those in power” (about education, 2014) Conflict also suggest that it is all about power and control. “Conflict emerges between groups attempting to exercise control over particular......

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Stakeholder vs. Shareholder Theory

...CULTURE AND SOCIETY Shareholder v/s. Stakeholder Theory Under the guidance of Dr. Kuriakose Mamkoottam Professor & Director School of Business, Public Policy & Social Entrepreneurship (SBPPSE) Ambedkar University Delhi (AUD) Submitted by: Amrita Arora S143F0005 Shareholder v/s. Stakeholder Theory The term business refers to any organization that is engaged in making a product or providing a service for a profit. And society, in its broadest sense, refers to human beings and to the social structures they collectively create. Both, business and society, taken together, form an interactive social system. Each needs the other, and each influences the other. The most central and debatable topic on the relation between business and society today is about the fundamental purpose of the business. This question has been answered with the help of two different theories – Shareholder Theory and Stakeholder Theory. Each of them is explained below. The Shareholder Theory (Ownership Theory of the Firm) sees the firm as the property of its owners. The purpose of the firm is to maximize the returns to its shareholders, which is also depicted in its single objective of Value Maximization. Here, managers and boards of directors are agents of shareholders and have no obligations to others, other than those directly specified by law. Many companies, like Apple, have performed exceptionally well while following the shareholder theory because they are of the view that social......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Goal Setting Theory vs Reinforcement

...The Behavior Analyst 1995, 18, 173-185 No. 1 (Spring) Encore "Reinforcement" in Behavior Theory William N. Schoenfeld Queens College, City University of New York, and Cornell University Medical College In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the standpoint of reflex behavior theory. From its modest beginnings in behavior science, the term "reinforcement" has come to play a central role in modern behavior theory. Like so many others in psychology, the verb "to reinforce," and its cognate nouns and adjectives, were an importation from common usage in which they had seen broad service: reinforced concrete; reinforcing a conclusion; reinforcing a fence; and so on. In acquiring their new dignity in science, they have also acquired some......

Words: 8155 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Social vs Cognitive Theory

...and more difficult jobs with more and more responsibility until he reaches upper management where he finds himself not nearly as happy as the other guy. He is making much more money, yet he is unhappy. Perhaps, he never was “suited” for a management position. Is there a way to know which employees are better suited for which jobs? David McClelland thought there was. He believed that if we could identify what it was that motivated employees, than we could put them into the appropriate jobs to meet those needs. This in turn would produce a motivated workforce contributing to economic growth (Nohria, Groysber & Lee, 2008). McClelland developed a concept known as the Three Needs Theory, also known as Human Motivation Theory, Acquired Needs Theory, Motivational Needs Theory and Learned Needs Theory (Agyenim, n.d. ). He proposed that an individual’s needs are acquired over time and are shaped by our life experiences. These needs can be classified as, achievement, affiliation, or power. Motivation and effectiveness on the job are influenced by these three needs. The first of the three needs is achievement. People who are achievement oriented tend to look for ways of doing things better, making improvements. They are not gamblers but do like some moderate risk. They enjoy tasks that are not too hard nor too easy. In their eyes, if it is too difficult, they risk failure. Too easy and they don’t feel a sense of accomplishment, anybody could do it (Dowling, 1972). To......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psychoanalytic Theory vs Behaviourism: Motivation

...Psychoanalytic theory vs behaviourism: motivation Freud's psychoanalytic theory with its model of the mind and its central concepts provides a better interpretation of one's behavior and accounts for behavior on a wider scope of issues than does the radical behaviorist theory of B. F. Skinner. Skinner successfully explains human behavior in terms of operant conditioning and reinforcing agents. He changes the focus from Freud's internalized (mental) processes to the importance of the external environment. Skinner emphasizes the importance of the directly observable behavior. However, he fails to completely account for behavior, excluding the original motivational drive. In contrast, Freud succeeds in construing the origins of behavior and motivation, which makes the psychoanalytic theory of Freud more adequate as a theory of personality. Throughout history humans have been puzzled by human behavior, the reasons behind it, and have been faced with the consequences of their own as well as others' behavior. Many studies have been done and theories developed in an attempt to explain this fascinating area of human existence. Among many theories and theorists, Freud's psychoanalytic and Skinner's radical behaviorist theories have been selected and looked at throughout the following paper. Theory of personality that Freud introduced together with its concepts, many deemed romantic, unprovable and sometimes obscene, has shaped the way humans view themselves in many......

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Equity vs Expectancy Theory

...Motivation Theory and Practice Analyze, compare, and contrast the two contemporary theories of motivation (a) equity theory and, (b) expectancy theory. Include in your discussion, an evaluation of each theory and the implications to managers in a global work environment. Your analysis should include identification of the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using scholarly references to defend your arguments. by Tassos Pericleous Student’s Number: 20153386 American College Semester 1 November 2015 Abstract The purpose of this paper was to analyze, compare, and contrast the two contemporary theories of motivation equity theory and, expectancy theory. Evaluate each theory and the implications of the theories to managers in a global work environment. Analysis should include identification of the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using scholarly references to defend your arguments. Motivation is the answer to the question “Why we do what we do?”. The motivation theories try to figure out what the “M” is in the equation: “M motivates P” (Motivator motivates the Person). It is one of most important duty of an entrepreneur to motivate people. Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. This paper explores the two contemporary theories of motivation process theories, equity (Adam’s) theory and expectancy (Vroom’s) theory. Analysis of equity theory (a) Equity Theory Equity Theory......

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Entity vs Proprietory Theory

...accounting theories and their developments. I will also argue entity and proprietary theory and how they have contributed to the development of existing accounting practices. I will also highlight the strengths and weakness of the two theories and the impact it has on current accounting practices. Accounting theories can be said to be a process of reasoning problems by means of distinguishing the basic relationship, which in turn simplifies the issues to a generalized form that is easy to understand. Accounting theories are a coherent set of hypothetical, conceptual and pragmatic principles forming the general framework of reference for a field of inquiry (Hendriksen). Theories are words or other symbols made in a statement and do not have a physical form and can also be said to be a set of logical reasoning in the form of a set of broad principles that has two important functions. Fist they provide a general framework of reference by which accounting practice can be evaluated and secondly guide the development of new practices and procedures (Hendriksen). These two definitions of accounting theory underpin the use of theory as a guide to accounting practices.  While looking at the Entity and Proprietary theory, it is important to note that the main difference between the two theories is that under the proprietary theory transaction are recorded, assets are valued and account statements are prepared in the view point of the proprietor. However under entity theory......

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9