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Natural Resources of Bangladesh

In: Other Topics

Submitted By arifchowdhury
Words 2783
Pages 12
Assignment on
Natural Resources of Bangladesh
Course title: Bangladesh Studies
Course code: HUM 101

Prepared For,
Md. Rakibul Islam
Department of Economics

Prepared By,
Name: Md. Al- Amin
Id.: 15162108083
Intake: 17th
Program: B.Sc. in EEE

Date of submission: 03/04/2016
Natural resources are most important for a country. There are many countries which directly depend on natural resources. Bangladesh is a developing country. Area of Bangladesh is small. We have also some natural resources. Some are renewable and some are non-renewable.
Classification of natural resources of Bangladesh
In the context of Bangladesh the natural resources are classified into two types. Followings are the categories of natural resources of Bangladesh.
Natural Resources
Natural resource determines the course of development and constitutes the challenge which may or may not be accepted by the human mind, we house the following natural resource as- * Land * Water resources * Fisheries * Forest * Mineral resources * Marine resources * climate * Rainfall * Oil and natural gas * Energy and power resources * Topography.
• Renewable Natural Resources are Water, Fish, Forested and
• Nonrenewable Mineral Natural Resources are Gas & Oil, Coal, Rock, and Sand etc.

Renewable Natural Resources:

1. Water Resources:
Water is the available renewable natural resources of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is endowed with plenty of surface and ground water resources. Surface water inflows of the country vary from a maximum of 140,000 m3/s in August to a minimum of about 7,000 m3/s in February. Several resources of water are-

Bangladesh is the country of rivers. Main rivers in Bangladesh are- Padma, Meghna, Shurma, Brahmaputra, Jomuna, Kapotaksha, Matamuhuri etc.
Bay of Bengal
Another surface water source of Bangladesh is Bay of Bengal, a northern extended arm of the INDIAN OCEAN. The Bay occupies an area of about 2.2 million sq km and the average depth is 2,600m with a maximum depth of 5,258m. Bangladesh is situated at the head of the Bay of Bengal.
2. Fisheries resource
Bangladesh possesses a wide range of fishes, prawns, lobsters and other crustaceans, mollusks, turtles and other fishery resources inhabiting its extensive marine and inland open waters. The total fish production of Bangladesh was estimated at 11, 72,800 m tons in 1995. Inland open water fisheries contributed 73 percent of the total fish production. In 1987, Bangladesh became third in world inland fish and shrimp production after China and India. Fisheries account for 4.7 percent of GDP, 9.1 percent of the export earnings, 6 percent of the supply of protein and about 80 percent of the animal protein intake of its population. In Employment and Livelihoods about 8% of the total population depends on this sector for livelihood and about 73% of households were involved in subsistence fishing in the floodplains in 1987/88. Around 1 crore people are also involved in fish marketing and fish processing. Thus the involvement of a large section of the people in this area is clear and the pressure on fishery resources is therefore continuing to increase.

Fish and fish products plays a vital role in foreign currency earnings for the country. In 2005-06 an estimated 68,829 tons of fisheries export items earned a total of 45 crore dollar as foreign exchange.

From the above, it is clear that fisheries sector is important for the overall development of our country especially economic development and to meet the various necessity of our society. Fisheries sector has comprehensive contribution to other sectors of the society. We should be more put emphasis on this sector for assuring its growth.
3. Forest Resources

Forest is other renewable natural resources of Bangladesh. 16% of total land is forest-area of Bangladesh. Based on their ecological characters, the forests of Bangladesh can be divided into
1. Tropical wet evergreen,
2. Tropical semi-evergreen,
3. Tropical moist deciduous,
4. Tidal, and
5. Planted forests
Bangladesh is situated in north eastern part of South Asia. It has three major rivers viz Padma, Meghna and Jamuna and their numerous tributaries. The country covers an area of 1,47,570 sq. km and bounded by India and Myanmar.

Forestry is a long-term system. It has various contributions towards the welfare of mankind. The multiple uses of forest resources have been familiar from the advent of civilization. The Forestry sector contributes about 5 percent of the total GDP of Bangladesh. This does not show the true contribution of this sector. The rural population uses fuel wood and other minor forest products free of cost. Forest also plays an vital role in protecting watersheds and hydraulic structure, also in keeping the rivers and ports navigable. It also plays due role in protecting the coastal areas from natural calamities. The role of forest in defending the environment from pollution and its contribution towards bio-diversity is immense.

The participatory social forestry contributes towards rural poverty reduction considerably. In the last 3 years, out of total sale proceeds of timber and fuel wood about 308 million taka has been distributed to 23561 participants.

In 2001-2002, about 2% of the total manpower of the country was engaged in the forestry sector. Many people benefited directly from forestry-related activities e.g. in wood based industry, saw milling, furniture making, establishing private nursery. Besides this in Sundarban millions of people are dependant on the mangrove forest for their livelihood.

Fuel wood is the main wood product required today, Bangladesh needs over 8.0 million cubic meter fuel wood each year. Domestic cooking uses an estimated 63%, which is 5.1 million cubic meter yearly. Industrial and commercial use is also important, which is 2.9 million cubic meter per year.

Wood is the main fuel for cooking and other domestic needs. It is not surprising that population pressure has an adverse effect on the local forests. By 1980 only about 16 percent of the land has been forested.

In Bangladesh the largest areas of forest are in the Chittagong Hills and the Sundarbans. The evergreen forests of the Chittagong Hills cover more than 4,600 square kilometers and are the source of teak for heavy construction and boat making as well as other forest products. The Sundarbans, a tidal mangrove forest covering nearly 6,000 square kilometers is the source of timber used for a variety of reason, including pulp for the domestic paper industry, poles for electric power distribution, and leaves for thatching for living.
4. Agricultural Resources:
Bangladesh has a agriculture based economy. Agriculture is the main producing sector of the economy since it introduces about 30% of the country's GDP and employees around 60% of the total labour. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic objectives like employment, poverty alleviation, human resources and food security.

Most Bangladeshis earn from agriculture. Although rice and jute are the main crops, wheat is assuming better importance. Tea is grown in the northeast of the country. Because of Bangladesh's fertile soil and normally sufficient water supply, rice can be grown and harvested three times a year. Due to some factors, Bangladesh's labor-intensive agriculture achieved steady increases in food grain production despite the often adverse weather conditions. These include flood control and irrigation, more efficient use of fertilizers, and establishment of better distribution and rural credit networks. 35.8 million metric tons produced in 2000, rice is Bangladesh's main crop. National sales of the classes of insecticide used on rice, including granular carbofuran, and malathion exceeded 12,000 tons of formulated product in 2003. The insecticides not only represent an environmental danger, but are a important expenditure to poor rice farmers. The Bangladesh Rice Research Institute is working with various NGOs and international organizations to decrease insecticide use in rice.

In comparison to rice, wheat production in 1999 was 1.9 million metric tons. Population increases pressure continues to place a severe burden on productive capacity, creating a food deficit, especially of rice. Foreign help and commercial imports fill the gap. Underemployment remain a serious problem, and a growing concern for Bangladesh's agricultural sector will be its ability to absorb extra manpower. Finding alternative sources of employment will continue to be a frightening problem for future governments, particularly with the increasing numbers of landless peasants who already account for about half the rural labor.
Mineral resources:
Mineral resources are very valuable from all the natural resources. It is very important for any country’s economic development. The entire factor, which are important for a country’s economic development and human welfare definitely mineral resources are in that list.
Bangladesh is not rich in mineral resources. We have a very few type of mineral resources and some of them is not in sufficient amount. In past all the survey happened in our sub-continent Bangladesh was not in that list. In that all scientist thought that Bangladesh is not good enough for this type of survey. Actually in that time scientist have found huge amount of mineral resources on Choto Nagpur so it did not give time to be concern with the other portion of this sub continent after the division of the sub continent at 1947 scientist can give time to concern with the other portion of this sub continent. After the division of the sub continent at 1947 the hunts of mineral resources start with step by step.
Mineral resources are important for every country. All the country, which are economically developed those, are rich in mineral resources. Coal, iron, mineral oil is the main resource for the development of a country. Those countries are developed which are utilizing their mineral resources properly. As example we can tell about United States of America, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Russian Federation, Kuwait etc.
Bangladesh is a developing country. Nowadays we are looking that it is going for become industrialized. So, mineral resources are not only important for our country but also too much essential. For the developing of this country’s economy mineral recourses has unlimited importance but unfortunately Bangladesh is not rich in mineral resources. Only natural gas can be considered as the main mineral resources of our country. On the other hand petroleum is also another main mineral resource of us. Though Silica Sand, White clay, Hard rock are not actually mineral resources if we consider it as international level. But now these resources are heavily used in our industrial sector as raw material.
Classification of mineral resources of Bangladesh
We have different type of resources and we can classify our mineral resources into three broad categories. Those are listed bellow-
Power resources: * Immaterial mineral resources. * Material mineral resources. Power resources
All the mineral resources which are used to produce power for our uses are called power resources. Some of our mineral resources are in this category. Those are * Natural Gas. * Coal. * Carosine Oil. * Petroleum etc
Though we have some other power resources which are not coming from mineral those areas- * Wood fuel. * Electric power. * Tidal power etc
Immaterial mineral resources: All mineral resources which are not material can be categorized in this group. We can have some of this resource. Those areas- * Lime stone * Glass sand (silica sand) * China clay (White clay) * Hard Rock * Mineral Sand * Salt * Atomic Sand * Sulfur
Material mineral resources:- * Copper * Iron * Zinc etc
Though these types of resources are not found in our country but many scientist thinks that we might have these resources under the surface and we may discovered its future period and consume it.
Nonrenewable mineral natural resources
Mineral Resources are mineral reserves plus all other deposits that may eventually become available. Deposits that are not economically or technologically recoverable at present, unknown deposits or those have not yet been discovered. Because of a different geological environment, important mineral deposits of Bangladesh are-

Oil and gas
There are 24 discovered gas fields in Bangladesh of various sizes. The total reserve of 20 gas fields is about 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet). Gas in most of the fields is dry; in a few fields it is wet. Main gas fields of our country are- Titas, Beanibazar, Jalalabad, and Kailashtila, chatok. Currently, natural gas accounts for more than 70% of the total commercial energy consumption and the major part of the future energy demand would be met from it.
Use of Gas:
Power sector ranks the highest (44%); fertilizer sector ranks the second (28%); and industry, domestic, commercial and other sectors together rank third (22%) in gas consumption.
Coal first discovered in the country by Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) in 1959 was at great depth. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF BANGLADESH (GSB) continued its efforts for exploration that resulted in the discovery of 4 coalfields. The development of underground Barapukuria Coal Mine, one of the five fields, started in June 1996, which was scheduled to be completed in May 200l, but due to some changes in mine design it will take some more time. Exploitable coal reserve of Barapukuria is 64 million ton and annual production has been estimated to be I million ton A power station will be set up with a capacity of 300MW using this coal.

In the early 1960s, a quarry of limestone of Eocene age with a small reserve at Takerghat in the North eastern part of the country started supplying raw materials to a cement factory. In the 1960s GSB discovered another limestone deposit in Joypurhat with a total reserve of 100 million ton. In the mid 1990s GSB discovered limestone deposit at Jahanpur and Paranagar.

Hard Rock

Bangladesh has dearth of construction materials. A large deposit of grand diorite, quartz diorite,
GSB discovered hard rock in Maddhyapara, Dinajpur. The Rock Quality Designation (RQD)of fresh rock varies from 60% to 100%.Development of this underground hard rock mine is going on by Nam Nam Co, a North Korean company. Its production was scheduled to start in 2002 and the annual production has been estimated to be 1.65million ton.

In Bangladesh peat deposits occur in the marshy areas of the north-eastern, middle and south western parts with a total reserve of more than 170 million ton. Calorific value of peat ranges from 6000 to 7000 BTU/lb.
Use of Peat:
Peat can be used as fuel for domestic purposes, brick manufacturing, boilers etc.

Construction sand
It is very much available in the riverbeds throughout the country. Sand consists mostly of quartz of medium to coarse grains. It is extensively used as construction material for buildings, bridges, roads etc all over the country.

Deposits of gravel are found along the piedmont areas of the HIMALAYAS in the northern boundaries of Bangladesh. These river borne gravels come from the upstream during the rainy season. Total reserve of the gravel deposits is about 10 million cu m. Gravel deposits are being exploited and used in the country.

Glass sand
Important deposits of glass sand of the country are at Balijuri, Shahjibazar and Chauddagram at or near the surface, Maddhyapara and Barapukuria below the surface.

White Clay
There are surface to near surface deposits of white clay in Bijoypur and Gopalpur area of Netrokona district, Nalitabari of Sherpur district, Haidgaon and Baitul Izzat of Satkania upazila,Chittagong district, Maddhyapara, Barapukuria, Dighipara of Dinajpur district and Patnitalaof Naogaon district. The exposed white clay is not good in quality.
Use of white clay:
It is used in the ceramic factories of Bangladesh after mixing with high quality imported clay.

Beach sand
Deposits of beach sand have been identified in the coastal belt and in the coastal islands of Bangladesh. Different heavy minerals and their reserves are: Zircon, Rutile, Ilmenite, Leucoxene, Kyanite, Garnet, Magnetite and Monazite.

Brick Clay
In Bangladesh the mineralogical, chemical and engineering properties of Pleistocene and Holocene brick clays of Dhaka, Narayanganj and Narsingdi districts are well documented. The bulk chemistry and engineering properties of the Holocene and Pleistocene samples have been found satisfactory for manufacturing good quality bricks. These are being exploited and widely used in the country.
Mineral Sand
An Australian scientist had discovered the mineral sand in the sea shore of Cox’es Bazar for the first time. This discovers might be a great opportunity for Bangladesh. This mineral sand is also called as radio active sand. If it is really radio active sand than it is going to be a great resource for Bangladesh
Scientist found this type of sand in follows place- * Cox’esbazar * Takenaf * Moheskhali * Maturberi * Kutubdia * Atomic mineral
In Bangladesh scientist have found a very few amount of atomic mineral. Those are- * Zinkon * Rutel * Ziolite * Menite * Leucoxene * Magnetite etc

Not only those are natural resources but also some other elements are known as natural resources. But in Bangladesh those are the most common and important natural resources. Compromise…...

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...A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard. Bangladesh, a country in southern Asia that is home to 140 million people, is widely known as a land of natural disasters. It is highly vulnerable to floods, famine, drought, earthquake, cyclones, and river erosions. Due to the effects of these disasters, the country is now permanently in distress. These disasters have become regular phenomena and have been causing suffering to millions of residents for many decades. Natural Disasters are occurring every year in our country. And so found to suffering in it. In Bangladesh Natural Disasters can be of many different kinds, but We suffer most, Some of this like floods, cyclones, earthquake and river erosions. The similarity in all is their massive destruction in the area of their occurrence. In the wake of all these, in one sweep there is complete devastation and destruction, due to which normal life comes to a standstill. Loss of life is well high complete, and belongings of people get lost, blown away or swept away. In Bangladesh we depends on the annual rainfall for our source of water, if there is no rain, for the water supply, the obvious famine comes in its wake. This condition of getting no rain is called drought, and with it, as its automatic corollary comes famine. For with the scarcity of water there is no vegetation and food scarcity follows. The crops get burnt up with heat, the earth gets parched for water, and all life comes in End. Just the opposite......

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Of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

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