Free Essay

Motivation

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Knockturnal1
Words 3053
Pages 13
Motivation in the Healthcare Environment

HCA 310 Health Care Strategic Management

Introduction “Many business managers today are not aware of the effects that motivation can (and does) have on their business, and it is therefore important they learn and understand the factors that determine positive motivation in the workplace.” (ROK connect unlimited 2006) Why is this important? Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces to help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive which can help maintain efficiency. It takes hard work and insight to motivate employees to join the company, perform well and stay with the company. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is arguably the most complex and important. (Dunham 2004) This is due, in part, to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly. For example, research suggests that as employees' income increases, money becomes less of a motivator and as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a motivator. (Dunham 2004) This paper attempts to look at theories of motivation, determine what implications they have on the healthcare industry and demonstrate why it is such an important consideration for managers.

Why is motivation important? “Employee motivation has a direct impact on a health services organization’s performance; therefore, managers need to understand what motivates employees.” (Borkowski 2005, 114)

What is Motivation? According to Borkowski, “motivation is described as the conscious or unconscious stimulus, incentive, or motives for action toward a goal resulting from psychological or social factors, the factors giving the purpose or direction to behavior. Motivation is one of the biggest challenges a manager can face. In the health care environment, it is important to keep employees motivated for several reasons. Most importantly, low productivity equals low profits.” Most people can relate to making choices about how much effort to put forth at their jobs. “They never check these reports anyway, so I can probably get away with not doing them this week,” or “I’ll get done what I can, and what I can’t do, will just have to wait; after all I’m just one person and I only make ten dollars an hour! What do they expect?!” Employees can also have bad perceptions of the company and blame re-structuring and inter-office politics for their poor performances.

Defining management To ascertain why motivation is important to managers, you must first look at what the definition of management is. Management is, getting work done through others. In working through others, managers must think about efficiency and effectiveness. This allows you as a manager to accomplish organizational objectives with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste. The classical functions of management include: • Planning- determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them; • Controlling- monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when progress isn’t being made; • Organizing- deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom in the company; and • Leading- inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals. (Williams 2006, 5)

Theory X and Theory Y managers In the mid 1900’s Douglas McGregor proposed Theories X and Y by which managers motivated their employees. “McGregor, in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior towards subordinates according to these assumptions.” (Shah 2000) Theory X managers are autocratic and believe that employees are unintelligent and lazy. They promote a closely controlled work environment. Theory Y managers believe that employees can be creative and competent; they want meaningful work; they want to contribute; and they want to participate in decision making and leadership functions. McGregor found that theory X managers were no longer effective in todays’ workplace. (Borkowski 2005, 9)

The big challenge for managers Typical problems that managers face in motivation include: low performance, turnover, conflict, and stress. The biggest impact on all of these problems is attitude. Attitudes are a complex combination of personality, beliefs, values, behaviors and experiences. (Borkowski 2005, 44) This is important because one person with a consistently bad attitude can lower the morale of an entire workgroup in an otherwise healthy organization. “When it comes to Human Resource Management and recruiting, in recent years hire for attitude became a well known mantra. Several commercial tests such as the LAB Profile, iWAM and PAPI were developed to measure work Attitude and motivation, e.g. for pre-employment testing.” (Wikipedia, 2006) “Unlike personality, attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience.” (Wikipedia, 2006) Motivation techniques and detailed managerial attention can help to alleviate these problems. Listening, coaching, and providing feedback as well as promoting a collaborative team environment can also be considered important.(Borkowski 2005, 50) A study was done to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide. Results from the study showed the following problems: understaffing, insufficient training and managerial feedback, and promotion. The study indicated that although financial incentives are important, they are not sufficient to motivate health workers. Supportive supervision, performance appraisal, career development and transparent promotion have since been prioritized by PHCF workers for improving the services they deliver in Tanzania. (Manongi 2006)

What makes a great manager? “What great leaders do is to find what is common to all and take advantage of that quality. Great managers treat employees as chess pieces knowing that each moves differently and they fine-tunes roles to take advantage of their distinctiveness. They must also learn workers strengths (self-assurance), their triggers (recognition) and determine how they learn (analyzing, doing, or watchers). Finally they must hire well, set expectations, and interact effectively with their own boss.”(Wilkinson 2006) One of the most popular business minds of the 20th century, Charles Schwab, said, “I consider my ability to arouse enthusiasm among my people, the greatest asset I possess, and the way to develop the best that is in a person is by appreciation and encouragement.” Regarding employees, he also said, “There is nothing else that so kills the ambitions of a person as criticisms from superiors. I never criticize anyone. I believe in giving a person incentive to work. So I am anxious to praise but loath to find fault. If I like anything, I am hearty in my approbation and lavish in my praise.” It is natural for most of us to do the opposite. We are quick to criticize wrongs and slow to appreciate correctness. As the old saying goes, “Once I did bad and that I heard ever, twice I did good and that I heard never.” (Carnegie 1936, 25)

Theories of Motivation “Understanding individuals and what motivates them is a conundrum for healthcare mangers, especially since there is a need to manage such diverse groups. On a daily basis, managers need to manage not only secretarial staff with minimal education requirements, but also highly skilled individuals such as nurses, physicians, and other licensed healthcare professionals. Process theories assist in predicting employees’ behavior so that it may be influenced if necessary.” (Borkowski 2005, 139)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Considered to be the father of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslows’ hierarchy of needs is the most popular and widely cited of the human motivation theorists. People have five levels of needs that they are driven to fulfill. “Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.” (Shah 2000) “The most basic needs are physiological, such as the need for air, water, and food. After the basic physiological needs are achieved, an individual moves toward satisfying safety and security needs. At this lower level of the hierarchy, individuals are interested in having a home in a safe neighborhood, job security, a retirement plan, and medical insurance.” (Borkowski 2005, 115) The next level addresses affiliation needs. Humans have a drive to feel needed and loved and in the workplace, they seek a sense of community and belonging. At this level interaction between coworkers and managers becomes important. The fourth level involves self esteem needs. These include the need for recognition, promotions and participation in decision making. The very top tier is about self actualization. The needs fulfilled at this level are autonomy, fulfillment from the job, the ability to demonstrate creativity and innovation for challenging tasks. Although only a limited number of studies support Maslow’s theory, it possesses potent ideas both tangible and psychological, that can help a manager gain insight into how complex human needs are. (Borkowski 2005)

Equity Theory The equity theory suggests that employees are motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly. The basic components of the equity theory are inputs, outcomes, and referents. Inputs include all of the contributions that an employee makes to an organization, such as experience, hours worked, education, etc. Outcomes are the rewards that an employee receives in exchange for their contributions to the organization. These include pay, job titles and fringe benefits. Referents refer to employees comparing themselves to each other to determine if the treatment is fair and equitable. Comparisons are usually drawn between employees of like characteristics such as job level, age, race, gender, or tenure. (Williams 2006, 393) Employees compare what they “input” into the organization versus the received “outcome” or rewards. This is called the outcome/input (O/I) ratio. When inequity exists, it is either called underreward or overreward. Underreward happens when a referents perceived O/I ratio is greater than your own or when their outcomes outweigh their inputs in comparison with your own. Overreward is just the opposite, however due to peoples unsurprisingly high tolerance for overreward, there is little expectation for impact on the overrewarded. (Williams 2006, 395)

Applying Equity Theory The main way that managers can utilize this theory is to focus on correcting major inequities. (Williams 2006) Minor inequities are usually considered to be subjective. It would be next to impossible to have every employee feel that they are being treated with 100% equality across the board. Each employee has a different perception of what they think equal is. “Although these different perceptions make it difficult for managers to create conditions that satisfy all employees, it is critical that they do their best to take care of major inequities that can energize employees to take disruptive, costly, or harmful actions, such as decreasing inputs or leaving.” (Williams 2006, 395)

Expectancy Theory Imagine that you work for a company that offers telecommuting to eligible employees, sponsored daycare or four day work weeks. This is the essence of the expectancy theory. “Expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when there is a belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward.” (Shah 2000) You might not have children, so the daycare service is not going to be of much use to you. Maybe telecommuting isn’t very important to you because you live really close by or you function better in a team environment. The big consideration is that different things motivate different people and designing a corporate reward system could prove to be a challenge. “Expectancy theory says that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards.” (Williams 2006, 396) The basic components of the expectancy theory include: valence- the attractiveness or desirability of a reward or outcome; expectancy- the perceived relationship between effort and performance; and instrumentality- the perceived relationship between performance and rewards. According to this theory, if any one of these variables declines, overall motivation will decline as well. (Williams 2006, 394)

Applying Expectancy Theory In applying the expectancy theory, managers need to frequently and systematically gather information about what employees want from their jobs. Surveys can be useful in this endeavor, and it is important to determine these wants on a regular basis. (Williams 2006) Marc Albin, CEO of Albin Engineering says, “My experience in managing is, they’re all different. Some people want to be recognized for their cheerful attitude and their ability to spread their cheerful attitude. Some want to be recognized for the quality of their work, some for the quantity of their work. Some like to be recognized individually; others want to be recognized in groups.” (Williams 2006, 395)

Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory uses psychology to effect change in a corporate environment. “B.F. Skinner, who propounded the reinforcement theory, holds that by designing the environment properly, individuals can be motivated. Instead of considering internal factors like impressions, feelings, attitudes and other cognitive behavior, individuals are directed by what happens in the environment external to them. Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation. Hence, the only way to motivate is to keep on making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.” (Shah 2000) Behavior is based on consequences. Reinforce positively if you want to increase the frequency of a behavior and reinforce negatively if you want to decrease the frequency of a behavior. (Williams 2006, 399)

Applying Reinforcement Theory Five steps are important to remember in applying this theory. First, identify critical, observable performance related behaviors. Then measure how frequent the behavior is. The next step is to analyze the causes and consequences of those behaviors. After that, intervene by using positive of negative reinforcement to increase the desired behavior. Finally, evaluate whether steps were successful in changing the behavior. Additionally, managers should choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement, administer punishment at appropriate times, and make sure not to reinforce the wrong behaviors. (Williams 2006, 400)

Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke According to Williams, people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement. Things to look out for are: goal specificity- making sure that goals are specific and detailed; goal difficulty- extent to which a goal is difficult or challenging; goal acceptance- the extent to which a goal is consciously understood and agreed upon; and performance feedback- indicates progress being made by giving information about past performance.

Applying Goal Setting Theory It is important for managers to give employees specific challenging goals. “Instead of giving vague tasks to people, specific and pronounced objectives, help in achieving them faster.” (Shah 2000) This simple tool is often overlooked by managers. Also, making sure that workers truly understand, accept, and embrace the given goals can mean the difference between a well oiled organization and a situation of constant frustration. Trust is the key here, and allowing employees to play a part in decision making will help in this regard. Most importantly, give specific and detailed feedback to the employee. When employees reach goals, giving them positive feedback can give them the motivation they need to attain higher and more difficult goals. (Williams 2006, 406)

Conclusion “To support good performance, health care workers need motivation. Indeed, highly motivated individuals can often overcome obstacles such as poor working conditions, personal safety concerns and inadequate equipment. Given the current challenges related to human resources for health in most developing countries, helping workers to be as productive as possible in the face of such obstacles can be an important outcome of increased motivation.” (Intrahealth 2006) With the growing elderly population, new treatments, and advances in medical technology, there is no doubt that health care is one of the largest industries in America and the world and motivation in the healthcare environment is more important than ever. Denise Holland, the Corporate Director for Human Resources, Incorporated, a substance abuse treatment center, says that motivation is probably the biggest challenge of her job.(Holland 2006) Overall morale is pretty good, and the pay is fair; the counselors are usually pretty satisfied and they take steps to maintain that satisfaction. “Monetary rewards don’t last long, so we use other incentives, like luncheons and time off,” she says. Motivation is a constant adjustment that managers must make and it requires knowledge, understanding, perseverance and effort to accomplish this task on an ongoing basis. It is important for organizations to set attainable goals for their employees as well. Understanding that you motivate your employees whether you are actively participating or not is the first step in becoming a better manager. Applying the different theories of motivation can give a manager a decided advantage in obtaining optimum productivity from their employees.

Bibliography

Borkowski, Nancy, Organizational Behavior in Health Care, copyright 2005.

Dunham, Randall B., The Manager’s Workshop, copyright 2004.

Hawkins, Benjamin, Departmental Study: HCA310, 2006.

Holland, Denise- Corporate Director of Human Resources Incorporated, Interview.
IntraHealth International, Increasing the Motivation of Healthcare Workers, 2006, http://www.intrahealth.org.

Kongstvedt, Peter R., Managed Care: What it is and how it works, 2e copyright 2002.

Manongi, Rachel N, Marchant, Tanya C, and Bygbjerg, Ib Christian, Improving motivation among primary health care workers in Tanzania: a health worker perspective, 2006, www.human-resources-health.com.

Mathis, Robert L., Human Resource Management, 10e, copyright 2003

ROK Connect Limited, Motivation in the Workplace, copyright 2006, www.bizhelp24.com.

Shah, Ken & Shah, Param J. Prof., The Theories of Motivation, copyright 2000-2006, http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html

Williams, Chuck, Effective Management: A Multimedia Approach, 2e, copyright 2006.
.
Wilkerson, John P., Comments for Test 1, 2006.

Wikipedia 2006, Attitudes (psychology), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_(psychology).…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation Introduction This essay is about defining Motivation and how it affects employees. Also an explanation of the main the types are to be given. A research on popular Theorist was done to support the definition and types. The researcher recognized what impact motivation has on the workplace and seek to discuss the importance. Theory Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits controls and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force, a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action towards a desired goal. In other words, a person may have certain needs or wants, and this causes them to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction). Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs.(Ozgurzan, 2013). For this paper the researcher would focus Content Theories. Developing out from the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET- Deci 1975) it was stated motivation can be divided into two types: extrinsic (external) motivation and intrinsic (internal) motivation . Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two opposing ways to motivate people. Extrinsic motivation deals with......

Words: 1276 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and situation. Motivation is” the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal” (Robbins 2003) Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation. Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization and persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivation individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Motivation means to move. It includes three common characteristics: It concerned with what activates human behavior, It involves what directs this behavior towards a particular goals, and Motivation concerned how this behavior is sustained. The motivation factors are; Job security, Sympathetic help with personal problems, Personal loyalty to employees, Interesting work, Good working conditions, Tactful discipline, Good wages, Promotions and growth in the organization, Feeling of being in on things, and Full appreciation of work done. Process of motivations are; Needs (desire or wants), Drives, Goal, and Relief/ Incentives. JOB SATISFACTION. It is defined as an individual’s general attitudes toward his/her job. A high level of job satisfaction equals positives attitudes towards the job and vice-a-versa. Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well.......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. External factors that stimulate desire an energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job that is getting people to do things by rewarding them. Example of motivation is if teachers inform the class that whoever out of the students get the highest mark she would reward them with a toy or something that interest the students, which the students would be happy to receive that would motivate them to do their work. There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers. Fredrick Taylor put forward the idea that are motivated mainly by pay. His theory of Scientific Management argued that workers naturally do not enjoy work and close supervision is necessary. Taking this theory into consideration, managers should train workers and provide appropriate tools to get a general idea of the interest of each worker to give item or set a particular task that they would be qualified or interested in doing, which would help with producing of products to increase profits. Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce, as a result workers will be encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity. Taylor’s theory also makes you consider the self-determination theory, then is where people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory. There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Siew Table of Contents: 1.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………….……… 3 2.0 Definition …………………………………………………………………….……... 4 3.1 Types of Motivation …………………………………………………………. 4 3.2 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory …………………………………………... 5 3.3 Herzberg’s Motivational Theory …………………………………………….. 7 3.4 McClelland’s Need Theory ………………………………………………….. 8 3.0 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….. 9 4.0 References …………………………………………………………………………. 10 1.0 Introduction In the past decades, there has been a very high growth of employment in every sector and industry. Employees, workers and staff usually carry out their specified task on regular basis to meet certain goals and targets the company is aiming at. They are known to be an essential part of the organization as they play a key role in determining the organization objectives. As the employees play an important part in the company, the employers, supervisors and administrators must ensure that the employees are productive and efficient when it comes to fulfilling their duties. The question that arises from this topic is how to make these employees productive and effective towards carrying out their daily tasks and why is it that important? The answer is Motivation and this will be the topic of this assignment. 2.0 Definition Motivation is the state of willingness which mainly acts as a driving force for an individual to put better and exert higher effort levels towards a specific......

Words: 1873 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Education Charles Kurose September 2013 MOTIVATION, BEHAVIOR, AND PERFORMANCE IN THE WORKPLACE I. INTRODUCTION Motivation is a subject that has long interested researchers and practitioners seeking to understand human behavior and performance. Over the course of the 20th century and into the new millennium, scholars have developed sweeping theories and have amassed large bodies of applied research investigating motivation across a variety of settings. Motivation has been studied in schools, the workplace, government, and athletic competitions, to name but a few contexts. It has been studied at the level of the individual, the group, and the organization. Some motivation researchers have employed cognitive models, which emphasize the role of thought processes in determining motivation and behavior, while other researchers have adopted non-cognitive paradigms, which focus on factors such as personality traits, affective states, and environmental determinants. This paper focuses specifically on research about motivation and behavior in the workplace. It discusses motivation theory, which has broad applicability across contexts, as well as the empirical research conducted in workplace contexts. In reviewing this literature, particular emphasis is placed on research about motivation and behavior as they relate to individual performance. A central aim of motivation research is to explicate the complex relationships that exist among motivation, behavior, and performance—such......

Words: 12762 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation is what causes us to act. Motivation can also be the reason for an individual's action or that which gives purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is any Internal and external process that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation plays an important role in a business environment, as employee motivation is believed to improved work performance. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the following three aspects (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class. Another example is we work because we don’t have money. Motives are expressions of a person's need and hence they are personal and internal as well. Motivation is something's that motivates a person into action and continues him/her in the course of action. It is complex of forces inspiring a person to work intensifying his willingness to use his/her ability to......

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Motivation

...Motivation is the foundation all athletic effort and accomplishment. Without your desire and determination to improve your sports performances, all of the other mental factors, confidence, intensity, focus, and emotions, are meaningless. To become the best athlete you can be, you must be motivated to do what it takes to maximize your ability and achieve your goals. Motivation, simply defined, is the ability to initiate and persist at a task. To perform your best, you must want to begin the process of developing as an athlete and you must be willing to maintain your efforts until you have achieved your goals. Motivation in sports is so important because you must be willing to work hard in the face of fatigue, boredom, pain, and the desire to do other things. Motivation will impact everything that influences your sports performance: physical conditioning, technical and tactical training, mental preparation, and general lifestyle including sleep, diet, school or work, and relationships. The reason motivation is so important is that it is the only contributor to sports performance over which you have control. There are three things that affect how well you perform. First, your ability, which includes your physical, technical, tactical, and mental capabilities. Because ability is something you are born with, you can't change your ability so it is outside of your control. Second, the difficulty of the competition influences performance. Contributors to difficulty include the......

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Sources of Motivation This document will provide a brief description of what motivation is; it will identify at least two sources of motivation, explain the relationship between motivation and behavior, and will examine how behavior exhibits motivation. How is motivation defined? Motivation is defined as an internal process that makes an individual move toward a goal, and it is what causes an individual to act the way he or she does to accomplish that goal. However, motivation can only be limited by an individual’s behavior (Deckers, 2010). The sources of motivation are able to originate from internal sources that are described as biological and psychological variables, and from external sources, such as incentives and goals (Deckers, 2010). The most important sources of motivation are biological, psychological, emotional, environmental, and evolutionary. Biological and psychological have an immense influence on motivation as well as and these two sources are considered internal variables while environmental is considered an external variable. Biological is emotions or feelings such as appetite and hormones that work in the individual body. Psychological can be described as the “need to feel right” that can motivate the individual to act together with others. Environmental is described as the positive incentives or goals that create a center of attention on an individual whereas the negative consequences are a drive back to the individual. Emotional can be......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Motivation

...OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Types of motivation 3. Major theories of motivation 4. Importance of motivation 5. Benefits and effects of motivation 6. Conclusion 7. References 1. INTRODUCTION Competition between organizations is becoming more and more fierce. It requires organizations to operate efficiently while innovates effectively for the future. ‘Managers and leaders within those organizations cannot only be focused on the market success and profitability of each project, but they also need to motivate their employees in order to be profitable and successful.’[1] ‘Motivation is one of the most critical drivers in personal and business success. Without motivation, nothing gets done.’[2] ‘Motivation plays crucial role in achieving goals and business targets and is equally as important for companies that work in team-based environment and in a workplace comprised of people who work independently. It is very important to make sure that each employee's goals and values are aligned with the organization's mission and vision. That is major issue for creating and maintaining a high level of motivation, which often leads to higher productivity, improved quality of work and financial gain.’[3] ‘Motivation is the creation of stimuli, incentives, and working environments which enable people to perform to the best of their ability in pursuit of organizational success. Motivation is commonly viewed as the magic driver that enables......

Words: 4132 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Final Report MGT321 (Organizational Behavior) Section: 10 Chapter: 06 Motivation Concepts Prepared By: Prepared For: 1. Nusrat Sababa Shamma ID: 083425030 Md Mujibul Hoque ………………………………. 2. Nazratun Sururan Shahrin ID: 0910029030 Faculty of ………………………………. School of Business 3. Jesmin Jerin ID: 0910036030 ………………………………. 4. Badrun Nahar ID: 0910150030 ……………………………….. Students of School of Business North South University August 8th, 2010 Md. Mujibul Hoque (MJB) Faculty: School of Business North South University Subject: Submission of a report. Dear Sir, With due regards and respect we state that we are very thankful to you as you assigned us this report on ‘‘Motivation Concepts”. It is a great opportunity for us to acquire theoretical and practical knowledge about motivation concepts of the garments sector of Bangladesh. We have tried our best to gather what we believe to be the most complete information available. Your kind acceptance and any type of appreciation would surely inspire us. We would always be available and ready to explain further any of the context of the whenever asked. Sincerely yours, Nusrat Sababa Shamma ...

Words: 6378 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. It is the scientific word used to represent the reasons for our actions, our desires, our needs, etc. Motives are hypothetical constructs, used to explain why people do what they do. A motive is what prompts a person to act in a certain way or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior.[1] For example, when someone eats food to satisfy the need of hunger, or when a student does his/her work in school because they want a good grade. Both show a similar connection between what we do and why we do it. According to Maehr and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are".[2] Wikipedia readers will have a motive (or motives) for reading an article, even if such motives are complex and difficult to pinpoint. At the other end of the range of complexity, hunger is frequently the motive for seeking out and consuming food.Types of theories and models[edit] Motivation theories can be classified on a number of basis. Natural vs. Rational based on whether the underlying theory of human Cognition is based on natural forces (drives, needs, desires) or some kind of rationality (instrumentality, meaningfulness, self-identity). Content vs. Process based on whether the focus is on the content ("what") motivates vs process ("how") motivation takes place. Monist and pluralistic motivational theories[edit] A class of theories about why people do things seeks...

Words: 8883 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Motivation

...~Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. It represents the reasons for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one's direction to behavior or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. For example, when someone eats food to satisfy the need of hunger, or when a student does his/her work in school because they want a good grade. Both show a similar connection between what we do and why we do it. According to Maher and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are". Motivation is a complex phenomenon. Several theories attempt to explain how motivation works. In management circles, probably the most popular explanations of motivation are based on the needs of the individual. The basic needs model, referred to as content theory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. Although these factors are found within an individual, things outside the individual can affect him or her as well. In short, all people have needs that they want satisfied. Some are primary needs, such as those for food, sleep, and water needs that deal with the physical aspects of behavior and are considered unlearned. These needs are biological in nature and relatively stable. Their influences on behavior are usually obvious......

Words: 339 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Motivation

...Motivation Plan LDR 531 Nelson Garcia Soto December 23, 2013 Denna Atkinson “Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal” (Robbins and Judge, 2013, p 202). An effective leader motivates his or her followers or subordinates to perform. Leaders encourage other to be moved by something. The degree of motivation and the type of motivation are both important. The degree of motivation is how much is someone motivated and the type of motivation concerns with what brings that motivation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are mentioned as catalysts of the explained behavior. Several theories of motivation try to explain the concept and its origins. The purpose of this paper is to explain key ideas of some of the theories as they relate to a team of six members and a mentor who is in a leadership position. The DISC assessment tool will be used to compare and contrast the individuals of the team based on their personalities. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators exist. Extrinsic motivation means doing something that leads to a separable outcome and intrinsic motivation means doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable (Ryan and Deci, 2000). In consequence, the behaviors portrayed are different. Intrinsic motivation comes natural and is even associated with behaviors since one is a child....

Words: 1520 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Motivation

...EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF CASE STUDY OF COCACOLA KWANZA COMPANY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA) BY OMARI RAHA SHEDRACK A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Human resources Management of Tumaini University Makumira-Dar es salaam College. 2015 IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE: (A CASE STUDY OF CASE STUDY OF COCACOLA KWANZA COMPANY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA) BY OMARI RAHA SHEDRACK Supervisor: Dr. J. Mwita A Research Proposal Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Human resources Management of Tumaini University Makumira-Dar es salaam College. 2015 ABSTRACT The study aims at assessing the impact of employee motivation on organization performance so as to help the organization know the contribution of motivation to them. This study will be carried out at Coca-Cola Kwanza Company limited at Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The study have the objectives of assessing various motivational packages for the staff of Coca cola Company Limited, to determine which of these motivational packages influence staff performance at Coca Cola Kwanza Company Limited, to assess the effect of motivational packages on corporate performance at Coca Cola kwanza Company limited, and to examine the motivation strategies of motivating employees The study is expected to help employers to determine whether......

Words: 4742 - Pages: 19