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3G品牌

iPhone引入中国:
文化与品牌的碰撞
何廷润

国家无线电频谱管理研究所

【摘 要】文章首先分析指出iPhone是美式消费文化意识的产物及其在金融危机影响下品牌认可度的下滑;剖析了苹果 iPhone运营模式的霸权特质;指出中国引入苹果iPhone必然要面临文化差异对品牌造成的冲击。 【关键词】iPhone 中国联通

1

品牌

引言

度持续不减。这种热度除了与苹果手机自身的技术优势、

中国联通引入苹果iPhone手机及其运营模式,广受业

时尚功能有关以外,更重要的是与美国特有的“酷”文化

界关注。iPhone引入中国何以引起如此关注,它将在中国

密不可分。

通信市场扮演何种角色,各方评论见仁见智。笔者认为,在

“酷”文化缘于一种极具开拓性和引领潮流的大胆创

美国及部分发达国家引起轰动的iPhone落地中国,必将遭

新,契合美国消费者敢于也乐于尝新的体验心理。所谓美国

遇文化差异以及品牌冲突的问题,因此,iPhone无法在中

“酷”文化,通常被解释为强调个人价值,以个人为中心,

国复制在美国的辉煌。

创新、进取、冒险,并追求个人利益和个人享受。这种文化
体现为他们有以付出远高于产品价值的消费习惯。比如,仰

2 iPhone是美式“酷”文化的产物
用户对美国苹果iPhone连续三年的购买狂热,使其热

仗着美国全球霸主的形象,脱胎于美国军车的悍马暗中切合
了消费者追求“霸气”以及张扬的心态,而悍马一向以高耗
油量著称,成为浪费的象征。可是美国“酷”文化告诉我

收稿日期:2009年8月25日

42

2009年9月(上)

们,驾驶悍马更多是驾驶一种感觉;听iPod和抢购iPhone

责任编辑:林 菊 linju@mbcom.cn

3G品牌

iPhone引入中国:文化与品牌的碰撞

更多是为了给自己贴上时尚标签;穿耐克和吃麦当劳可能是

其原因,O2已是苹果iPhone在英国的唯一合作运营商;由

为了显示自己融入了新潮的生活方式。这些带有美国“酷”

于选择了与苹果iPhone进行排他性合作,O2自然不可能再

文化烙印的产品,本质其实很简单,悍马仅是一种汽车,

引入iPhone的强劲对手——诺基亚的N97。

iPod与iPhone也不过是随身听和手机,耐克则是鞋子。但

透过这一热点事件不难发现,排他性合作正凸显出

在商场中,这些物品所承载的美国文化成了某种身份的象

iPhone的“霸权”特征。所谓排他性,是指一旦双方之间

征,可等同于财富,从而产生了高溢价的附加值。

建立了合作关系,即在一定地域范围内(一般为国家),不

在种种纷繁的“酷”文化背后,是掌握着雄厚经济实力

允许再有第三方(无论是运营商还是手机制造商)介入。在

的商人(比如苹果),它们控制着“酷”的决定权,传媒和

早期推广阶段,苹果会在每个国家选择一家运营商作为唯一

广告奋力鼓吹消费主义的意识形态,商家则在背后数着大把

的iPhone运营商,如美国的AT&T、英国的O2。此外,排他

大把的钞票。“酷”文化在商业资本的推动下似乎要攻占整

性的定制合作,往往还会伴随着排他性的渠道销售合作。换

个流行文化领域,夺得话语权。苹果iPhone正是这种美国

言之,用户的购买途径是唯一的,用户通过定制获取服务优

“酷”文化的产物,同时,在其它国家取得文化渗透上的成

惠的途径也是唯一的。

功,引起爱好者的破解、其它厂商的模仿、盗版、山寨机纷

当然,在与苹果的排他性合作下,运营商能够获得独一

纷出现,这也正说明iPhone得到了商业资本以及有着同样

无二的差异化优势,可以实现上佳的市场表现。以AT&T为

价值取向的年轻大众的认可和追捧。

例,通过与苹果iPhone的排他性合作,不仅赢得了更大的

但是,席卷全球的金融危机也给美国“酷”文化蒙上

市场份额,还获得了丰厚的利润。但是,这种排他性的“霸

了一层阴影。君不见,美国百年通用的破产重组,使悍马品

权式”合作,并非只有光辉灿烂的一面。运营商因排他性合

牌可能被中国一家名不见经传的民营企业收于麾下;家长们

作获得市场成功的同时,也不得不为和苹果合作付出更多代

开始减少带孩子吃肯德基麦当劳这类“垃圾食品”的次数;

价。其一就是苹果拿走高额的业务分成,或者是高额的手机

40岁中国男人将自身骨密度的疏松与口感爽酷的可口可乐

补贴;其二是交出用户和业务渠道的掌控权;其三免费为苹

联系在一起;更加实用的手机开始挑战iPhone给“80、90

果品牌大做广告,而运营商却退居“幕后”。更加值得注意

后”所带来的感观愉悦。因此,“酷”文化注入所产生的高

的是,排他性合作模式本身,就存在因“放弃”而遭遇风险

溢价正在经受挑战,苹果iPhone也无法幸免。

的可能性,比如由于排他性合作,而放弃与其他手机制造商
的合作,这是运营商必须付出的代价。

3 苹果强势品牌的商业霸权

正是出于对苹果商业霸权的忧虑和抵制,俄罗斯要求苹

商业霸权可以在很大程度上将其自身的规则和愿望强加

果iPhone在进入时必须同时与三家移动运营商建立合作关

于其它企业,其内涵的解释中,“能力”和“支配”是两个

系。由此可见,在苹果商业霸权的强势面前,并非所有国家

重要的关键词。“能力”代表拥有商业霸权的企业在实力和

的运营商都会买账。

品牌上的优势,“支配”则意味着该企业利用这种优势支配
别的企业。

4 文化与品牌碰撞后的得与失

从诞生那天起,iPhone依靠苹果的强势品牌就被赋予

对中国联通来说,3G试商用期间市场不温不火的反应

了商业霸权的特质。最近的例证是,英国最大的移动运营商

使其认识到,要想用差异化手段迅速撬动国内3G市场,就

O2在全球手机业巨头诺基亚的眼中,形象变得有些突兀起

必须找到吸引消费者的独特卖点,而苹果iPhone恰恰具备

来。原因很简单,面对全球手机龙头老大推出的全新旗舰机

成为市场引爆器的潜质。

型N97,在所有的英国运营商中,只有O2一家不买账。究
责任编辑:林 菊 linju@mbcom.cn

首先,苹果iPhone仍是一款能够唤起用户购买欲望的

2009年9月(上)

43

3G品牌

iPhone引入中国:文化与品牌的碰撞

手机终端,并且苹果已经在中国市场建立了强大的品牌和

整个品牌标识图形设计取自中国联通标识“中国结”的一部

良好口碑;其次,iPhone的目标客户是崇尚新潮的中高端

分,寄寓了传承与突破的双重含义。这个以英文为主打的标

用户,与中国联通3G目标客户群非常吻合;最后,竞争对

识现代感十足,很容易在时尚、追求个性的人士中找到共

手正在3G产业链成熟度上奋起直追,中国联通需要抓紧时

鸣,同时标识中的“W”也暗示了联通3G业务采用的是世

间,尽快扩大用户基础,因此引进iPhone具有急迫性。以

界上应用最为广泛的WCDMA技术。同时“WO”在英文中

上正是中国联通力图引进iPhone的原因。笔者也相信,一

作为一个表示惊讶的感叹词,也向人们传达了标识本身视觉

旦中国联通引进iPhone取得成功,短期内将在资本市场大

效果外的听觉冲击。最可圈可点的是,这一标识以橘黄色、

有斩获,在用户市场上起码能吸引上百万水货iPhone拥有

蓝色和绿色覆盖了个人、商务、家庭三个用户群。

者的相当部分用户的加盟,在业务市场上由于iPhone将集

由此可见,在“现代感十足”、“时尚、追求个性”、

成联通各项业务以及App store平台的强大功能,也将使其

“惊讶”等方面,中国联通的品牌追求与苹果iPhone的理

数据业务收入攀上新台阶。

念非常相似。那么引入苹果iPhone后能带来中国联通品牌

但是,苹果iPhone进入中国也必然面临“水土不

的大幅提升吗?答案几乎是否定的。从已有的苹果与运营

服”。首先是美国文化与中国文化的碰撞。苹果iPhone所

商的排他合作中,谁也拿不出运营商品牌同时得到提升的

依存的美国消费文化元素不是简单的模仿就能实现的,适合

例子,只是含混地表述“两个品牌并列时,运营商品牌价

美国人的东西不一定适合中国人。中国消费市场的习性是喜

值得到了提升”。其实真正得到大幅提升的是苹果品牌,

欢观望,注重实用,消费者习惯于翘首企盼直至新品高峰价

正如网络杂志Brandchannel评选出了全球最具影响力的五

过后的“缩水”期再蜂拥而上,或是待某类产品服务有口皆

大品牌,最终苹果凭借着全球热销的iPod和iPhone排名首

碑后才“痛下决心”购买。因此,对中国消费者而言,苹果

位,而可口可乐、Google、索尼或者诺基亚都排在苹果的

iPhone遭遇的头道门槛正是消费大众的心理关。另外,为

后面。当然,在这项调查中,要求反馈者评估某一品牌对于

获得良好应用体验而付出的消费能力也存在很大差别。据

人类生活所产生的影响,而不是量化该品牌的实际价值,亦

了解,在美国购买一部顶级配置的iPhone,捆绑每月70美

即仅反映了品牌的口碑和影响力。在2009年美国《财富》

元的套餐服务,消费者使用iPhone两年的最低成本也不过

杂志评选出炉的全球50大最值得称赞企业的排行榜中,苹

1980美元,这对一般美国消费者皆可接受。但将上述消费

果也位居首位。可想而知,当苹果iPhone乘上中国联通的

成本放在中国市场,按当前汇率比价折合约13500多元人民

“列车”驶入中国巨大的市场中,受到欢呼和追捧的一定是

币,就远远超过大多数消费者的承受力。如果不选择捆绑服

乘坐在“列车”上光彩照人的苹果iPhone,而中国联通却

务,一部iPhone裸机价要增至700美元左右,约合4800元人

可能变为成人之美的“无名英雄”。

民币,会令很多中国消费者望而止步。当然,如果运营商给

特别是在中国联通与苹果的排他合作中,虽然可能否定

予巨额补贴,可能缓解用户购机的犹豫,但是却要在业务套

了苹果业务分成的条件,但中国联通采购并销售iPhone以

餐中不断给苹果和运营商掏钱,精打细算的中国消费者难免

及引入App Store软件商店可能成为最现实的操作模式。由

会犹豫或退却。因此,中国联通在得到引进iPhone初期市

于苹果App store 的核心是终端封闭的模式,即平台上提供

场的火爆后,可能会由于消费文化和消费能力的差异而归于

的服务是针对iphone开发的,其他品牌的手机无法进入,

沉寂。

中国联通必然要同时运行App Store软件平台和先前己声称

移动互联网时代,优秀品牌是运营商的核心竞争力,

的自己开发的开放式UniPlus手机平台。难道中国联通忘了

中国联通也为品牌塑造倾尽全力。比如中国联通推出的3G

早年间G网与C网双网互搏的教训,今日又要重蹈两个截然

全业务品牌标识,由英文“WO”和中文“沃”搭配组成,

不同手机操作平台互相比拼?如此一来,中国联通的品牌与

44

2009年9月(上)

责任编辑:林 菊 linju@mbcom.cn

3G品牌

iPhone引入中国:文化与品牌的碰撞

苹果品牌会成为“窝里斗”,而且会从实力、口碑、影响力
方面,进一步降低自己的品牌形象。

【作者简介】
何廷润:高级工程师,国家无线电频
谱管理研究所高级顾问,长期从事无线

5 结束语

通信技术开发研究和技术、计划、工

不可否认,苹果iPhone的产品、技术和经营模式是先
进的,但并非放之四海皆准,尤其是在全球化和本地化如何

程、经营等管理工作,参与和组织多
项通信项目的开发、生产、工程的具
体实施,在无线电频谱管理和监测及

实现差异竞争的时代,更应从本国的实际出发决定取舍。当

无线通信技术和市场发展领域发表数

然,苹果iPhone入华之热,也从侧面反映出3G时代国内电

十篇文章。

信运营商对于3G市场的渴望和应用匮乏的焦灼,但是需要
谨防走上“南橘北枳”之路。 ★

安捷伦科技推出针对OEM应用且具备实时数据处理能力的
高速PCIe数字化仪
安捷伦科技日前宣布推出新的PCI Express(PCIe)高速数据采集卡并配有FPGA用于实时数据处理。这一新
平台在继续保持高精度和高性价比的同时,为OEM厂商和众多测试和测量工程师提供更高的采样率、更大的测量
吞吐率和更好的灵活性。安捷伦U1084A Acqiris高速数据转换器(数字化仪)适合用于医学影像、科学仪器、无损
测试(NDT),甚至还可用于验证自动测试设备中的混合信号半导体器件。该数字化仪的优异性能也适用于高能物
理、核物理和天体物理的高级研发工作。
U1084A 是双通道、8bit的PCIe数字化仪,具有高达4GS/s采样率,1.5GHz带宽,并配备15ps触发时间内插
值器(TTI)专门用于精确定时测量。板上FPGA提供的实时信号处理(能力)由所选处理固件来定义。U1084A 的
第一个实用固件是实时信号平均处理,它可用于减小随机噪声,改进信噪比,以及提高分辨率和动态范围。这一平
均处理固件还包括可用于降低同步噪声的噪声抑制算法。作为PCI-e x4板卡,U1084A数字化仪的数据吞吐率可高
达650Mbps。利用基于Windows和Linux的软件驱动程序可轻松地将U1084A高速数据转换器集成到现有测量系统
中,并实现与其它Acqiris高速数据转换器的互换、更替或升级。 ☆

沃达康使用安德鲁方案
安德鲁近日赢得了沃达康的一项合约,根据该合约内容,安德鲁将为十座用于2010年南非世界杯足球赛场馆
中的五座,提供室内无线覆盖和容量系统解决方案,搭建其ION智能光分布系统网络。此次安德鲁成为沃达康的指
定供应商,是因为根据以往案例,安德鲁在极富挑战性的环境中具有丰富的无限通信设计经验,且硕果累累。尤其
在观众众多的体育赛事中,庞大的移动用户势必引起容量问题,但是安德鲁都能应对自如。 ☆

责任编辑:林 菊 linju@mbcom.cn

2009年9月(上)

45…...

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...Boeing Management Planning Heather Oetzel MGT 330 October 22, 2012 Joe Cheng Abstract Boeing is known as “the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliner and military aircraft combined ("The Boeing Company: About Us", 2012). Every company uses different types of management techniques including how the planning function of management is used. Planning allows organizations to develop how the customers’ needs can be met, what is expected out of the company, and the environment. The structure of management helps accommodate the need for experience and expertise on important factors. Some of these factors are legal issues, ethics, and corporate social responsibility instead of just focusing on the profits. This paper covers the planning function of management, the influences of legal issues, ethics, and corporate social responsibility on management planning, and factors that influence the company’s strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. Boeing Management Planning Boeing is known as “the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliner and military aircraft combined ("The Boeing Company: About Us," 2012). Every company uses different types of management techniques including how the planning function of management is used. Planning allows organizations to develop how the customers’ needs can be met, what is expected out of the company, and the environment. The structure......

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...------------------------------------------------- Principles of Management Unit 1 Ch 1: Management: An Introduction * Management is that function of an enterprise which concern itself with the direction and control of the various activities to attain the business objective.[Def by William Spriegel] * A distinct on going process of allocating inputs of an organisation by typical managerial functions for the purpose of acheving stated objectives namely – output of goods and services desired by its customer. In the process, work is done with and through the persons of the organisation in an ever changing business environment Characteristics of Management 1. Management aims at reaping rich results in economic terms: a. Primary task is to secure production performance b. Management is expected to bring in the desired results. c. Maximisation of profits while utilising the the available resources. 2. Management also implies skill and experience in getting things done through people: d. Enlisting co-operation and securing positive responsefrom people is the economic function of eaning a profitable return. e. Getting the suitable type of people for executing the operation is the signficant aspect of management. 3. Management is process: f. It is a process, function or activity g. It continues till the set objectives of the organisation is achieved. 4. Management is a Universal Activity: h.......

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...Discussion Questions Week 1 Select a small business that you may want to start. What is strategic management and planning? Why would a strategic plan be important to the success of this business? How are the four functions of management relative to creating and implementing a strategic plan? • Select a small business that you may want to start. The small business that was select is Day Spa Spa is an oasis of tranquility, and relaxation, and offers a complete day spa experiences. • What is strategic management and planning? Strategic management is the groundwork for a company’s vision and allows a company to be ready to capitalize on opportunities. Strategic management is a process of evaluating a company’s mission, establishing the company’s design, developing the company’s organization and relationships, and guiding the company’s plan to execution to ensure that the management is consistent with the company’s strategy (Pearce & Robinson, 2009). Strategic planning is the process of determining a company’s long-term goals and determines the best approach to achieve the goals. Strategic planning is matching the strengths of the business to available opportunities. Understanding the business strengths and weaknesses and develop a clear mission, goals, and objectives. • Why would a strategic plan be important to the success of this business? Strategic planning plays an important role in Day Spa because it can make the difference between the success and failure of the......

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...informational role. The purpose is to identify and discuss the importance of informational role that are required to perform. Experts find that informational role have some relationship with interpersonal role, decisional role. Besides, experts believe that informational role play part in external environment and important for every level of managers. In addition, some experts argue that Mintzberg’s theory have some limitation in some area. Therefore, this essay will discuss several parts of informational roles: what informational roles are, the importance of informational roles, how informational roles affect in different levels management, and the limitation of Mintzberg’s theory among CEOs. Management role is the different behaviours that managers are expected to play in different situations. Mintzberg(1973) conclude that managers perform 10 different management roles. The 10 roles can be grouped into 3 categories: Interpersonal role(figurehead, lead, liaison),Informational role(monitor, disseminator, spokesperson) and decisional role(entrepreneaur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator). Before discuss the importance of informational role, it is necessary to define monitor, disseminator and spokesperson. According to Mintzberg(1973), the managers act as monitor is responsible for seeking and collecting internal or external information to understand organization’s and public’s situation. For example, a marketing manager read magazines and communicate with......

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...scope of management Management has different definitions, from different theorists. There are various ways of describing management, so in this assignment the different definitions of management would be discussed and we would also see how most of the definitions are similar, along with their functions. We should consider management look at why management is very relevant. We should see how the various views of these management theorists are similar and also if they contrast. Management, as defined, “is the activity of getting things done with the aid of people and other resources efficiently and effectively, it is a feature of most human circumstances; domestic, social and political, as well as in formally established organisations”(David Boddy, 2008, ps.10). We human beings perform different activities everyday such as; eating, drinking, playing and they are related to management etc. According to Mary Parket Follet, “Management is the act of getting things done through people. So management is an activity because a manager accomplishes his task or objective with the help of others and also directs these people in order to obtain his objective, so management achieves its objectives through people, so management is quite useful to people. In management there are various activities that are carried out. These include informational activities, decisional activities and inter-personal activities and all these activities are to be done by a manager. Management......

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...Schools of Management Thought SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Structure 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Historical Perspective 4.3 Theory in Management 4.4 Classification of Management Theories 4.5 Classical Management Theory 4.5.1 Scientific Management 4.5.2 Administrative Management 4.5.3 Bureaucratic Organization 4.5.4 Criticisms on Classical Management Theory 4.6 Neo-Classical Theory 4.6.1 Human-Relations School 4.6.2 Behavioural Schools 4.7 Modem Management Theory 4.7.1 Systems Theory 4.1.2 Contingency Theory 4.7.3 Organizational Humanism 4.7.4 Management Science 4.8 Other Schools of Thoughts, Styles and Approaches 4.9 Problems and Conflicts in Management Theories 4.10 Summary 4.11 Key Words 4.12 References and Further Reading 4.0 OBJECTIVES After reading this Unit, you will be able to • know the historical development of schools of management thought; • explain what a theory in management is; • outline the classification of management theories; • describe important schools of management, their contributions and limitations; • elaborate problems and conflicting issues in management theory; and 4.1 INTRODUCTION In the preceding three units of this block you have learnt various scientific principles of management, management functions and what constitutes managerial quality and leadership as propounded by management experts. In this Unit you will have a historical perspective of management approaches or thoughts. The block in toto will......

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...Material management department is typically responsible for directing the supply chain. Material management is an umbrella department that has many other functions (e.g., central store, laundry and linen operations, and sterile processing). The core purpose of material management is to direct and control the movements of goods in an efficient manner through a hospital system (Langabeer, 2008). This material management proposal document will elaborate on the role materials management plays within a hospital and the role of operations managers in this process. This document will further identify possible constraints a hospital may experience in its supply chain, the potential effects and justification on implementing a new collaborative planning process, and provide suggestions on how to manage a hospital supplied during a disaster. Role of Materials and Operations Management The role of materials and operations management plays within a hospital system is vital to the success of any health care organization. According to Langabeer (2008) material management controls significant resources and have total expenditures, or spending at 50% of a hospital budget. Materials management not only directs and controls the supply chain of a health care organization it is responsible for managing the flow of goods throughout the hospital and carry out supply and resource logistics. Materials management has numerous meanings and some hospitals view material management as an umbrella......

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...informational meeting SumMer Study Abroad Program February 6th at 2 pm STellar Building, Room 215 We’ll have snacks, so bring your appetite! Management is a necessary evil of any business. It provides the leadership and administration that will ensure that the organization runs the way that it should. According to the online business dictionary (2011), management is defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of defined objectives. It is the process of using organizational resources to achieve organizational objectives through planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and controlling. Management is an essential factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. As a discipline, management consists of the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization's resources to achieve the policy's objectives. Management can also imply the directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise.Management is a necessary evil of any business. It provides the leadership and administration that will ensure that the organization runs the way that it should. According to the online business dictionary (2011), management is defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of......

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...Ref: Management , Seventh Edition By Stephen P. Robbins &Mary Coulter INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT CONTENT Who Are Managers?  What Is Management?  Management Functions and Process  Management Role and Skills  How is the manager’s job changing?  Rewards and Challenges of Being a Manager  Summary  WHO ARE MANAGERS?     Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals Coordinating the work of a departmental group / supervising a single person Coordinating the work activities of a team composed of people from several different departments People outside the organization such as temporary employees or employees who work for the organization's suppliers. Levels of Management WHAT IS MANAGEMENT ?  The process of coordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.  The process represents the ongoing functions or primary activities engaged in by managers.  These functions are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. (POLCA) EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Efficiency refers to getting the most output from the least amount of inputs.  Effectiveness is described as "doing the right things"  Efficiency (Means) Resource Usage Low Waste Effectiveness (Ends) Goal Attainment High Attainment Management Strives for ; Low Resource Waste (high efficiency) High Goal Attainment (high......

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...Kristian Kenn D Limsipson BSBA-BM 1A PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT Management in businesses and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management is the act or skill of controlling and making decisions about a business. Management is the way of something is handled, careful treatment, supervising skills, or those in charge of a business or a group. Manager a person who controls the activities, business dealings and other aspects of the career of an entertaines. Manager is a person responsible for supervising and motivating people. *What are the task, roles, skills of the manager* Management Task #1: Coaching One of the most important management task is coaching. Managers must be the persons who will show to their subordinate or team members the right direction where the organization will need to go. They are simply instructors and trainers. Management Task #3: Change Agent The whole change process must be planned and managed if you want to bring desired results. Managers in the same time must ensure that the company will continue with the current level of success and prepare to implement change that will bring future success. Management Task #4: Forecasting the Future Forecasting is another managerial task that will provide a picture of how the future will look like from......

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...Lahore School of Economics Course: Management: Policy and Practice (MGT 503) Semester: Winter Semester 2012 Part- I Class: MBA for Professionals I Sec B Course Instructor: Usamah Iyyaz Billah (email: usamahbillah@yahoo.com ) Class Day & Timings: Sunday: 12:45 PM - 02:45 PM + 3.00PM - 5.00PM SYLLABUS 1. Introduction to Case Study Method: The case study method is radically different from traditional teaching methods. Students will learn the basic rules of an Oral Case Analysis Presentations as well as how to prepare and present Written Analysis for comprehensive management cases. 2. Defining the Managers Terrain: What is a management function, roles and kills? Universality of Management. A brief History of Management. Organizational Culture and Environment. Classifying managers and nominal employees. How the work done by managers is important for the organizations and how difficult it is to be a good manager who carries Social Responsibility and Good Ethics. 3. Planning: Managers as Decision makes, Decision making Process. Classifying decisions and decision making conditions. Techniques for effective decision making. Foundation of Planning. Setting goals/objectives and developing plans. Strategic management and planning. 4. Organizing: Organizational structure and design. Functional, geographic, product, process, customer departmentalization. Chain of command and span of control. Decisions......

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...Scientific management is a theory of systematic study with great influence that attempts to apply science to the process of management with the main objective to improve economic efficiency. The theory was first introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1912 and has been altered and developed for several times. (Freeman, 1996, P35) Is scientific management still relevant to a predominantly service economy is debatable. The aim of this essay is to discuss the supporting viewpoints. Several reasons are provided to support the relevance of scientific management and the current service economy which are listed as followings: firstly, applying science for each element of work to create best way to perform the task; secondly, division of labor, specialization and total quality management system are used to increase efficiency of the production; finally, piece-rate as one of the reward systems of scientific management is widely used till nowadays. At first, Taylor stated the measurement of scientific management is to develop a science for each element of a work which includes discovering one best way to perform the task, planning each task in advance with instructions describing in details and determining the correct time to complete each task. (Aguiar, 2001, P257) For instance, Aguiar identifies how scientific management is applying to the measurement of cleaning work in the new building workplace, which is one example of service economy. Science is used to calculate the size......

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