Free Essay

Local Government in Nigeria

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By abdulazeez
Words 2850
Pages 12
An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 5 (3), Serial No. 20, May, 2011 ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070-0083 (Online)

Local Government Administration and Development: A Survey of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria (Pp. 148-156)

Otoghile, Aiguosatile - Department of Political Science, and Public
Administration, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Edigin, Lambert Uyi - Department of Political Science, and Public Administration, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
E-mail: lambertedigin@yahoo.com
Abstract The need to escape conditions of underdevelopment by the provision of adequate facilities for its citizenry is the concern of any nation state. It has also been accepted that this is better done by bringing government closer to the people. This underscores the philosophy behind the creation of local governments. In Nigeria however, it is sad to note that local governments have performed far below expectations in the above direction. It is in this wise that this paper takes a survey of the opinions of people in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Using simple percentages to analyze responses to questions, the authors found out that though funds available to local governments are grossly inadequate, there is the general impression that the little money made available are directed into private pockets. It is our recommendations that local governments should increase their revenue base and also ensure proper accountability.
Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

148

Vol. 5 (3), Serial No. 20, May, 2011. Pp. 148-156

Introduction The quest for development has been a major issue of concern to both domestic and foreign scholars of Nigeria. In fact, the issue has arrested the attention of statesmen, politicians, traditional rulers and the generality of Nigerian populace. Despite the attention however, it is evident that a larger proportion of the Nigerian people are yet to see the indices of development. Majority of Nigerians still live in misery, poverty, squalor, anguish and penury. It has been argued that development has eluded Nigeria because of a plethora of reasons. This paper is not an attempt to look at all the reasons but to carve out an area. This area is the relationship between local government administration and development with particular emphasis on Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. It is generally agreed that the local government is the closest to the people. In fact, a major reason for the establishment of local government is to bring development to the people by bringing the administration closer to the people. The needs of the people at the local level can only be meant by a government that is very close to them. Unfortunately, in Nigeria over the years, these local institutions have largely failed in their responsibilities. Despite attempts to bring government closer to the people by the increase in the number of local governments in the country, the quest for development of these local areas has still not been met. The paper is an attempt to offer reasons for this trend and at the same time offer some tentative suggestions. It is divided into the following subsections. • • • • • • Local Government and Development: A Conceptual Exposition Local Government Administration in Nigeria: A Short Historical View Statement of the Problem Research Methodology Data Analysis Conclusion and Recommendations

Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

149

Local Government Administration & Development...

Local Government and Development: A Conceptual Exposition The term local government has been defined variously by different scholars. In the view of a scholar like Wraith, local government refers to locally elected councils whose main purposes is to provide or administer services with as great degree of independence as modern circumstances allow (Wraith, 1964:15-16). For Golding, local government is the management of their own affairs by the people of their locality (Golding, 1959:19). Some other scholars have attempted to expand on and perhaps give greater expression to the definitions given above. For Sorka, local government connotes the decentralization or dispersion of authoritative decision making where by the authority to make decision is displaced downwards from remote points near the top administration or outward from geographical locations, thus brining authority closer to the people affected by it (Sorka, 1978). In the same vein, Oyediran sees local government as the diffusion of political process on area basis, i.e. local self administration and inclusion of noble ideals of impartiality, protection of minority rights and integrity, all of which are considered essential to the evolution of a liberal democratic society (Oyediran, 1979:171). Whatever else that may be said, it is clear from the above definitions that a local government in any system is assumed to possess the following characteristics. • • • A given territory and population An institutional structure for legislative purpose A separate legal entity, a range of power and functions authorized by delegation from the appropriate central or intermediate legislation Within the Anglo-America tradition, autonomy is limited to common law such as the test of reasonableness (Williams, 1978:39).



For developments, over the years, it has been conceived as a process of economic and social changes with the aim of achieving better life. Only a few analysts have stopped to ask themselves if these changes could be for the worse for some sectors of society and better for others. It is very useful to retain the positive value placed on the term development and see development as first of all the escape of man out of the conditions of exploitation, poverty and oppression (Cockroft, 1970:272) and that
Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

150

Vol. 5 (3), Serial No. 20, May, 2011. Pp. 148-156

development involves changes in the basic institution and structures of society. Walter Rodney sees development in human society as many sided process. To him at the level of the individual it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self discipline, responsibility and material wellbeing. He further argued that some of these indicators are completely moral categories and are very difficult to evaluate. For him at the level of social groups it implies an increasing capacity to regulate both internal and external relationships (Rodney, 1972:9). Schumpeter disagreed with the mere use of economic indicators as recorded growth of output and income to indicate economic growth. For him the economic growth indicated by such factors or indicators are mere changes in data (quoted in Onyemeluke, 1974:2). For Todaro (1981:56), development is a multi-dimensional process involving the reorganization and re-orientation of the entire economic and social system. In addition to improvement in income and output, it typically involves radical changes in institutional, social and administrative structures as well as in particular attitude and in many cases even customs and beliefs. In Dudley Seer’s view, the questions to ask about a country’s development are: What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality? What has been happening to poverty? If all these have declined from high levels, then no doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned. If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result developments; even if per-capita income doubted (Seers, 1972:129). No matter what may be said about development, it has become clear that the concept of development has undergone profound changes over the years. The very meaning of development has been altered from an almost exclusive pre-occupation with national income to a broader interpretation that encompasses the questions of poverty, inequality and unemployment.

Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

151

Local Government Administration & Development...

Local Government Administration in Nigeria: A Short Historical View Local government in Nigeria dates back to pre-colonial era when each of the community was administered as a separate entity. The pre-colonial system administered in Nigeria was very simple and it varied from place to place. Since independence, Nigeria has tried various systems and methods of local government like: the council management system in the former Western Region. The public Service Review Commission testified to this fact when it stated that “the history of local government in Nigeria has been one long episode of trial and error (Public Service Commission Report, 1974). With the coming of the military in 1966, most of those councils in Southern Nigeria was dissolved, while in the Northern Region, local governments were completely authoritative and corrupt. In 1976, local governments in Nigeria experienced what we may regard as the biggest revolution in the area with the 1976 local government reforms. The 1976 reform brought a sort of uniformity in the structure of local government throughout the federation. It also corrected the structural defect of the former local government where some too large, others too small and were viable. Ministries were created for local government in all states. Each local government had an administrative head called secretary to the local government. Since the 1976 reform, another major reform was the 1988 local government reform that was based on the Dasuki Review Committee inaugurated in 1984. In 1988, President Ibrahim Babangida announced the abolition of local government ministries nationwide. He added that with immediate effect, federal disbursement to the local government should be made directly to them to solve the problem of a situation where state governments direct this money to their own use. The chairman of the local government became the chief executive and accounting officer. Laws and regulations were put in place to enhance full autonomy. In his 1991 budget speech, President Babangida introduced presidentialism into the local government system in Nigeria. Statement of the Problem Local governments are established to bring about developments. In Nigeria however, this has not been the case. The paper intends to unravel factors for this trend and offer tentative suggestions.
Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

152

Vol. 5 (3), Serial No. 20, May, 2011. Pp. 148-156

Research Methodology The research work used Oredo Local Government Council as a case study. The research design for this study is the survey method. For the purpose of the study the population consists of both inhabitants and workers of Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State. The sampling method was a combination of the stratified random sampling and the simple random sampling. The stratified random sampling was employed for local government works while the simple random sampling method was employed for inhabitants of the local government. On the whole a total of 200 samples were collected. The research instrument used was the questionnaire. The questionnaire had two sections. Section “A” was for background variables while section “B” contained a few questions needed to unravel the problems of local governments in Nigeria. The questionnaires were administered directly by the researchers and the simple percentage method used to analyze the data collected. The data was collected in December 2010. Data Analysis Firstly, let us present the background variables of respondents before we proceed to specific questions. Interpretation: From the table 1 it can be seen that of the 200 respondents, 110 (55%) were males while 90 (45%) were females. On age, 30 (15%) were below 20 years, 100 (50%) were between 21 and 30 years while 70 (35%) were between 31 and 40 years. On educational qualification, 20 (10%) had only primary education, 70 (35%) had secondary education and 110 (55%) had higher qualification. Finally on residence, 80 (40%) lived in the rural area while 120 (60%) are resident in the urban area. In order to achieve the aim of this paper, one major preposition was formulated namely: the local government lacks enough funds and therefore cannot meet its developmental responsibilities. In order to ascertain the above, three major questions were asked. Firstly, the respondents were asked whether they considered the present revenue allocated to local governments and other sources of finance as adequate. From table 2, it can be seen that of the 200 respondents only 24 representing 12 percent of the total sample agreed that Oredo Local Government Area had
Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

153

Local Government Administration & Development ...

enough finances. On the contrary, 160 representing 80 percent of the total respondents said the local government did not have enough finance while only 16 representing 8 percent indicated “don’t know”. Also, the respondents were asked whether the funds available to the local government can determine their ability to perform their developmental responsibilities. Their responses are tabulated below. From table 3 it can be seen that of the 200 respondents 24 answered yes that local government funds determine their ability to provide developmental facilities while 160 representing 80 percent said it does not determine their ability to provide amenities. Only 16 representing 8 percent indicated “don’t know”. Finally, respondents were asked whether they feel that local government funds are diverted into individual pockets and as such not used for amenities. Their responses are shown below. Table 4 shows that despite the opinion that local government funds are inadequate, 160 representing 80 percent of the respondents are of the view that the available funds are diverted to individual pockets, while 24 representing 12 percent disagreed to that. Only 16 representing 8 percent indicated “don’t know”. General Discussion From the data presented above, the following conclusions are germane: 1. There is the general agreement that funds made available to local government is grossly inadequate if they must effectively and efficiently perform their developmental responsibilities. That the inadequate funds is not solely responsible for the inability of local governments to perform their responsibilities. That the little funds made available to local governments is diverted to individual pockets.

2. 3.

Conclusion/Recommendations From the analysis, it is clear that Oredo Local Government Council is actually facing financial problems. This financial problem is responsible for its low level performance which hitherto is militating against the proper functioning of the local government council. However, that is not solely the problem. There is the general impression that local government officials are
Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

154

Vol. 5 (3), Serial No. 20, May, 2011. Pp. 148-156

diverting funds meant for developmental purposes to their private pockets. The following suggestions are there imperative. The local government in a bid to prudently and efficiently manage existing funds, therefore should concern itself with proper and careful feasibility studies of meaningful activities that could yield revenue for the council and investing on those activities. Care should be exercised not to invest in unprofitable or worthless projects. In addition to the above, it should be concerned actively in the generation of its internal revenue by employing more capable hands in the art of revenue collection in a bid to exhaustively uncover areas left uncovered. Finally, proper accountability should be maintained by the council as this will reduce the rate of misappropriation of funds by council officials. Regular auditing should also be maintained. References
Cockroft, J.D. (1970). Dependency and development: Latin America’s political economy, New York: Anchor Books Golding, L. (1959). Local government, London: The English University Press Ltd. Onyemaluke, C.C. (1974). Macmillan Press. Economic development: an inside view, London:

Oyediran, O. (1979). Nigerian government and politics under military rule: 19661979, London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Public Service Review Commission (1974). Main Report, Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information. Rodney, W. (1972). How Europe underdeveloped Africa, London: Overture Publications. Bougbe-L-

Seers, D (1972). The meaning of development In N.T. Uphoff and W.E. Nichman (Eds) The political economy of development, Berkely, University of California Press. Sokar, A.P. (1978). Bringing the government closer to the people, myth or reality: The military and local government in TW Land, 1966-1979. Unpublished M.Sc thesis. Todaro, M.P. (1981). Longman. Economic development in the Third World, New York:

Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

155

Local Government Administration & Development ...

Williams, A. (1978). The need for a financially stable and productive local governments In Economic and Social Studies, 120(3). Wraith, R.E. (1964). Local administration in West Africa, London: Allen and Urwin.

Table 1: Background Variables of Respondents
Gender Male Female Age Below 20 110 55% 90 45% 30 15% 100 50% 70 35% 20 10% 70 35% 110 55% 80 40% 120 60% 21-30 31-40 Educational Qualification Primary Secondary Higher Residence Rural Urban

Table 2: Is Finance Adequate for Local Government?
Number Yes No Don’t know Total 24 160 16 200 Percentage % 12 80 08 100

Table 3: Performance of Oredo Local Govenrment
Yes No Don’t know Total Number 24 160 16 200 Percentage % 12 80 08 100

Table 4: Diversion of Funds
Yes No Don’t know Total Number 160 24 16 200 Percentage % 80 12 08 100

Copyright (c) IAARR, 2011: www.afrrevjo.com Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info

156…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

State and Local Governments

..."State and Local Governments" Terence Bolt State & Local Government August 26, 2011 State and Local Governments The differences in culture of the early Americans played a significant role in shaping state government. It affected the level and type of role that its citizens participated in politics, the reach of the government governed its people and the direction of its public policy. The three aspects of the influence of culture on politics were determined by its newly formed citizenry. As the United States was being formed, immigrants from Europe and other countries with similar perspectives grouped together to form different political subcultures. Daniel Elazar, a distinguished political scientist at Temple University, has been one of the leaders in this school of thought. Elazar (1994) argues that, "... the nation has one general political culture, but that within it are three important subcultures, which he describes as individualistic, moralistic, and traditionalistic." (pg 28) The Individualistic subculture relies on the marketplace. Government's role is limited and was instituted to accomplish the demands of the people. Elazar (1994) says that, "government need not have any direct concern with questions of "the good society"; except to further economic prosperity of the market place. In other words, government should primarily be limited to, "...areas in the economic realm, that encourage private......

Words: 3940 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Importance of Information and Communication Technologies (Icts) in Making a Heathy Information Society: a Case Study of Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

...Library Philosophy and Practice 2008 ISSN 1522-0222 Importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Making a Heathy Information Society: A Case Study of Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria Monday Obaidjevwe Ogbomo Esoswo Francisca Ogbomo Department of Library and Information Science Delta State University Abraka, Nigeria Introduction There is widespread research interest in information and communication technologies (ICTs). According to Crede & Mansell (1998), ICTs are crucially important for sustainable development in developing countries. Thioune (2003) notes that for the past two decades most developed countries have witnessed significant changes that can be traced to ICTs. These multi-dimensional changes have been observed in almost all aspects of life: economics, education, communication, and travel. In a technologydriven society, getting information quickly is important for both sender and receiver. ICTs have made it possible to quickly find and distribute information. Thoiune (2003) indicates that many initiatives have taken at the international level to support Africa's efforts to develop a communication infrastructure and. These efforts are designed to enable African countries, including Nigeria, to find faster ways to achieve durable and sustainable development. Helmut (1998), cited by Akpore (1999), states that of the technological changes that have influenced our lives in recent years, information technology (IT)......

Words: 3240 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Local Government, Pakistan, Punjab, Development

...PUNJAB LOCAL GOVERNMENT BILL 2012 (A CRITICAL ANALYSIS) By: Amjad Nazeer RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY INSTITUTE (RDPI) & PRACTICAL ACTION (August 2012) Islamabad PUNJAB LOCAL GOVERNMENT BILL 2012 (A CRITICAL ANALYSIS) Theoretical Context: Believed to be an integral part of democratic system of governance, it is the third tier of local governance that is highly argued about and advocated in contemporary times. Closer to the people and representatives of their essential needs and aspirations, it holds tremendous potential for civic comfort, environmental peace, social justice and economic development. One can hardly find any progressive or progressing state in the world that is either not evolving or thriving with an efficient and autonomous system of devolved governance. Not interchangeable though, notions like deconcentration, devolution and delegation hinge around the modalities and practices of decentralization. Richard Bird (1994) defines decentralization as “the degree of independent decision making exercised at the local level.” In theory decentralization is sometimes classified into three forms of governance i.e. delegation, deconcentration and devolution (Cheema and Rodinelli 1983). If the dispensation of services is removed from the centre and delivered through representatives of the central government, this is termed as ‘deconcentration’ (Smith 1967), while ‘delegation’ stands for a case, where local government functions as an agent of the......

Words: 6870 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Teachers’ Perception of Leadership Styles and Effective Administration Among Primary School Headmasters in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

...CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study Nigerian educational system like any other country has its problems, lapses, and controversies. At the time of searching there are many problems confronting Nigeria educational system and institutions. The future achievement of our young children in primary schools depends on the foundation we help them to lay down today. Also, the future condition of our society depends on our children, who will become the leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, because of the total roles of primary school head master one can rightly regard them as important builders of our future generation. Head masters in primary schools occupy vital position in the administration of the school, and in moulding the lives of children. They are individuals who have unique ways of carrying out their job. The peculiarity of an individual human being is manifested in perception. Communication, attitude behavior and intelligence. Therefore, the leadership style of any primary school headmaster affects the working situation positively or negatively which may result in god or poor performances of the children (pupils) in the school. The degree of relationship between the headmaster and teachers determine the effectiveness of leadership of headmaster. According to (NPE 3:14) the objectives of primary education are: 1. The inculcation of permanent literacy, numeracy and ability to communicate effectively. 2. The laying of sound basis for scientific and......

Words: 6750 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Local Government

...INTRODUCTION TO LOCAL GOVERMENT IN MALAYSIA Local government is the grass-root in the government hierarchy of Malaysia. There are three branches of government in Malaysia, namely Federal, State and Local. The position of local government in Malaysia is stated in Federal Constitution. By virtue of items 4 and 5 of Ninth Schedule of Federal Constitution, local government outside the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya (latest) is a subject under the State List. All local authorities outside the Federal Territories directly under the exclusive jurisdiction of States Government. This mean local State Government have wide powers to control the local authorities and to ensure their effectiveness and efficient. 1.1 Definitions Local government can be defined as follows: Local Government is subsystem operating within or among a number of other subsystems. Higher government gave its one body handled on local issues that represent the power whether from federal government or state government, which has limited autonomy in terms of financial and administration, have power to sue and sued by others and have legal property1 Ministry of Housing and Local Government Local Government is infra. Sovereign, Geographic Sub-Division of a Sovereign nation or Quasi Sovereign Nation, exercising the power of jurisdiction in a particular area.2 Dilly M Hill 1 Government of Malaysia, 1970. Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry to Investigate into the Working of Local......

Words: 22164 - Pages: 89

Free Essay

History of Local Government in Malaysia

...history of local government, three distinct periods present themselves for consideration which are during pre- British, British and post- Merdeka period. During the pre-British period, there is no local government. The political units were divided into three which are ‘Negeri’ or State, ‘Jajahan’ or Daerah and ‘Kampong’ or Village. In State, the Head of State was the Ruler that responsible for foreign relationship, welfare and act as a leadership in external wars with the help of his kinsmen in the Royal lineage and by executive assistants . The second tier of political unit is known as ‘Jajahan’ or ‘Daerah’ that have the Chief acting as a leader for district that responsible for the local government administration such as revenue collection, defence and justice. ‘Kampong’ or ‘Village’ was the last tier of political unit. However, for ‘Kampong’ it was actually more of social and economic unit rather than political unit. The head of ‘Kampong’ was known as “Penghulu” that act as the messenger for the villagers to the district. Local government election was first initiated during the British occupation. Malaysia inherited a British legacy in terms of local government objectives and style and has been influenced deeply by the British precedent . During its formative stage, the laws governing the local authorities in Malaysia mostly were based on English laws. Local government authorities in Malaysia have developed through time. The first states to form local government were......

Words: 2024 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Local Government

...505 Local Government Local Government: Chapter 3 Typology of Local Governments Typology of Local Governments o Patronage Patronage Model The Patronage Model refers to political patronage, used in certain countries, where state resources are used to reward electoral support of certain individuals. While Whil some patronage systems are legal, others t t l l th may attribute this to corruption or favoritism in which a party in power rewards groups, families, ethnicities for their electoral support using illegal gifts or fraudulently-awarded appointments or government contracts. Model o Economic Development Model o Welfare State Model Patronage Model Political leaders often have a great deal of patronage at their disposal Patronage is recognized as a power of the e ecut ve branch. executive b a c . In most countries, the ost cou t es, t e executive has the right to make many appointments. Patronage Model In some democracies, high-level appointments are reviewed or approved by the legislature. In other countries, such as those using the Westminster system, g y this is not the case. Other types of political patronage may violate the laws or ethics codes (nepotism and cronyism). 1 7/27/2010 Patronage Model Low level political patronage, when not entangled in financial means, is not inherently unseemly. In the United States, t e U.S. Co st tut o t e U te the Constitution provides the president with the power to appoint individuals to government......

Words: 1962 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

State and Local Government

...recession. Living in Lake Charles, I didn’t see how our city was effected one way or another. I know that a lot was going on in the country just listening to the news and trying to keep up with the opinions of local, regional and state elected officials. Much of what I have read says that the stimulus cut taxes for 95% of working Americans, bailed out every state, increased unemployment benefits and other aid to families that were struggling and funded projects to upgrade roads, subways, schools, airports, military bases and much more. There are many more things to get a handle on such as a real effort in green technology, and manufacturing, green transportation a better and more developed health care system. There will always be opinions, debates and discussions for years to come about this stimulus act. No one opinion is better than another. I believe that the course of action taken was in the best interest of the country. I just do not believe that people stay up late nights trying to figure out a way that they can destroy the very essence of what built this great country in the first place and that is the ability to agree to disagree. I don’t see anything wrong with the government doing everything in its power to keep states functioning. I agree that the Federal government should have limited influence over states and the decisions made by that state for it citizens. Failing banks, to failing automakers, the Bernie Madoffs, the housing scams, all of these things......

Words: 941 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Effects of Poverty and Government Policies in Nigeria on Students Performance

..................................iv Notes on contributors...................................................v Table of contents......................................................vii Prof. (Mrs.) N.Y.S Ijaiya - Re-Engineering Educational Management for Quality Education in Kwara State, Nigeria....................................1 2. Prof. Bade A. Agboola -Current Issues in Educational management in Nigeria: The Challenges of Open and Distance Education………………………………………….........15 3. Dr. M.A. Ogunu - The Present Status of Expectancy Theory..............................................................................................31 4. Dr. (Mrs.) A,T. Alabi - Teacher Professionalism and Productivity: Management Perspective...............................................................44 5. Dr. A.A. Olaoye-- Sociological Perspective to Managing School Curriculum and Resources............................................................54 6. Yahaya, Lasiele Alabi Ph.D - Relevance of Student- Assessment and Student- Advisement/ Counselling to Teaching........................77 7. Akinsolu, Abiodun Olatoun - HIV/AIDS Scourge Implications for Educational Planners in Nigeria.....................................................89 8. S.O. Afolabi - Lecturers' and Students' Perceptions on Influence of Supervision on Examination Malpractice in Kwara State-Owned Tertiary Institutions.......................................................................108 9. B...

Words: 1630 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Local Government Code

...THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES BOOK I GENERAL PROVISIONS TITLE ONE. − BASIC PRINCIPLES CHAPTER 1. − THE CODE, POLICY AND APPLICATION SECTION 1. Title. − This Act shall be known and cited as the "Local Government Code of 1991". SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. − (a) It is hereby declared the policy of the State that the territorial and political subdivisions of the State shall enjoy genuine and meaningful local autonomy to enable them to attain their fullest development as self−reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the attainment of national goals. Toward this end, the State shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization whereby local government units shall be given more powers, authority, responsibilities, and resources. The process of decentralization shall proceed from the national government to the local government units. (b) It is also the policy of the State to ensure the accountability of local government units through the institution of effective mechanisms of recall, initiative and referendum. (c) It is likewise the policy of the State to require all national agencies and offices to conduct periodic consultations with appropriate local government units, non−governmental and people's organizations, and other concerned sectors of the community before any project or program is implemented in their respective jurisdictions. SECTION 3.......

Words: 19893 - Pages: 80

Premium Essay

State Abd Local Government

...State and Local Government Dr. U 2.2 State Constitutions: An Overview All state constitutions have a bill of rights, which are written protections for basic freedoms that mostly reflects the United States Constitution. The basic freedoms being the freedom of speech, religion, and the right to assemble. The right to bear arms is one of the rights discussed in the passage referring to Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newton, Connecticut. On December 14, 2012 a gunman entered Sandy Hook Elementary School and killed at total of 20 children and six adults. Many states include provisions that guarantee the right to bear arms. Other states hold that right for people to bear arms in self-defense. The Supreme Court resolved the meaning of the second amendment in two important cases in 2008 and 2010. The District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), the Supreme Court held that “The second amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia and to use that firearm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home.” In McDonald v. Chicago (2010), a case challenging Chicago’s complete ban on handguns. The court held that “that the Framers and ratifiers o the fourteenth Amendment counted the right to keep and bear arms among those fundamental rights necessary to our system of ordered liberty. But the opinion also stated the second amendment right is not unlimited. Following that the state of New York acts quickly and......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ra 7160: Local Government Code of 1991

...the bible for local government administration in the Philippines.Signed into law by the President of the Ph on Oct 10 1991 and took effect on Jan 1 1992The code does not apply in the ARMM, being an autonomous region, it has its own local government code.Consists of 536 sections divided into 4 books: Book 1 – policy statements, principles, processes and mechanisms for effective local governance Book 2 – taxing powers and other revenue raising powers and the corresponding administrative structures and processes necessary in the exercise of such powers Book 3 – details the local government structure and powers and duties of elective officials Book 4 – contains the transitory provisions that will effect the smooth implementation of the CodeIt sought to decentralized the Phil State. Decentralization is the transfer of power and authority from the central institution to the lower or local levels of a government system. Three main forms of Decentralization: Devolution refers to political or territorial decentralization wherein local governments are empowered for self- governance. Deconcentration is administrative decentralization and involves the delegation of responsibility of the central government agencies to the provincial, city and municipality governments and regional bodies. Debureaucratization is also the transfer of public functions and responsibilities but the transfer is made to the private sector and non-government organizations, not to local government units. | ......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Local Content Policy and Its Implication for Nigeria

...To assuage the strong concerns of oil producing communities in Nigeria’s oil rich Niger Delta, the administration of former President Olusegun Obasanjo initiated the Local Content Policy for Nigeria to increase local capacity and participation in the petroleum industry. The Obasanjo government needed to achieve the objective by ensuring that a substantial portion of the activities in the oil and gas sector, which is the mainstay of Nigerian economy, were carried out in the country by Nigerian companies and Nigerian workers. As it is currently, more than 70 percent of the jobs in the oil and gas sector are still carried out by foreigners, an action, which is contrary to the local content policy of the Nigerian government. At a time, stakeholders in the industry argued that government was not serious in attempting to stop this act of 'cheating', as it could not lobby the National Assembly to sign the Local Content Bill into law. Many described it as an aberration that such a bill that is geared towards improving indigenous participation in the oil and gas industry, after many years that it was initiated, has not been passed into law. Even the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) at a point warned that it will no longer be acceptable for oil companies that operate in Nigeria and derive enormous revenue from the country to hide under convenient excuses to export Rig Shipyard/Shut-down Repairs & Maintenance to other countries, a threat which the oil companies......

Words: 1205 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Problems Encountered in Local Government

...will serve as our guide in improving the state, more particularly, the Philippine government. First is the lacking of the facilities. This problem is usual to most government agencies. It’s about time, as we said earlier, the government to allot budget to the improvement and renewal of all the facilities used by all government agencies for the development and upgrading of the services they are rendering. Second, is the sense of responsibilities of the officials. Don’t be absent if you’re needed. Always be on time. Put first things first. Put public service over political career. Sense of responsibility is just like dignity. It is not for sale, it is a priviledge given by the people to their leader. Just like Hon. Vice Mayor Francisco “Isko Moreno” Dumagoso of the city of Manila said, “Do your homework and you can explain your stand”. You see, to all government officials, let this Q\quote serves as your guide to your political journey. Third is delay services offered. It is usual for a Philippine government set-up that what you need is given later. Let that system be abolished. We are looking forward to revoke that style of rendering public service. Legally speaking, “Justice delayed is justice denied” so logically speaking, “Public service delayed is public service denied” and no one wants to be denied on public service. The last problem we will mention is not on the part of the government, but on the part of those who really has the power in this state—the......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Role of Local Government in Disaster Management

...institution for its member countries for promotion of integrated rural development through research, action research, training and information dissemination. Amelioration of rural poverty in the Asia-Pacific region has been the prime concern of CIRDAP. The programme priorities of CIRDAP are set under four Areas of Concern: 1) Agrarian development; 2) Institutional/infrastructural development; 3) Resource development including human resources; and 4) Employment. Within these areas of concern, the thematic areas are: Poverty alleviation through participatory approaches with emphasis on social sector development (e.g. health, education and nutrition); Employment generation through microcredit support, infrastructure development and local resource mobilisation; GO-NGO collaboration; Gender issues; Governance issues; and Environmental concerns for sustainable rural development. Operating through designated Contact Ministries and Link Institutions in the member countries, CIRDAP promotes technical cooperation among nations of the region. It plays a supplementary and reinforcing role in supporting and furthering the effectiveness of integrated rural development programmes in the Asia-Pacific region. EDITORIAL BOARD Chairperson Durga P. Paudyal Editor S. K. Singh Members T. Abdullah, Development Consultant Q. K. Ahmad, Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation Momtaz Uddin Ahmed, University of Dhaka Mohammed Farashuddin, Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad Hossein......

Words: 7391 - Pages: 30