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Lingvostylystic Means of Creating Psychological Effect in the Novel by Scott Fizgerald “Tender Is the Night”

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

Lingvostylystic means of creating psychological effect in the novel by Scott Fizgerald “Tender is the night”

Course paper Presented by Iryna Fedorchak A fourth-year student Of the English department

Supervised by Lozova O.Y. Associate Professor Of the English Department

- Lviv 2011 -

Contents:

1. Introduction……………………………………………………….3-4

2. Chapter I Interconnections of the stylistic means in creating characteristics…………………………………………………….....5-7

3. Chapter II

The Disintegration of the main character…………………………………………………………....8-14

4. Chapter III

Versetile roles of the main character…………………………………………………………..15-17 Conclusion……………………………………………………….,.19-20

References………………………………………………………...21-22

Introduction

Since XVII poets started paying much attention to creating images, especially to the description of new heroes, their appearances. Gradually developing and enriching their skills in translation and the ability of profound description, artists of the “word” were making up more “alive” images, which where more appealing and more understandable, so that people were able to remember them. Poets connected outer characteristics with inner world of heroes, showing that through traits, particular behavior because of the personal worries. One of the most common situations faced by people in medicine is the attachment a doctor can develop with a patient. The doctor may be psychologically empowered by the weakness and dependency of a person under his care. This impulse may be emotionally and mentally misinterpreted in a dramatic and romantic direction and the doctor may soon find himself in love with his patient, though such a situation would owe more to control than genuine affection. Clearly, this is one of the issues Dick Diver must deal with, as a psychologist, husband and main character, in Scott Fitzgerald's novel, Tender is the Night. The novel states the pleiad of stylistic means of forming portrait characteristics, thorough description of features and traits of heroes. The role of the interplay was to be determined in order to create unique images for edowing the style of the author. Fizgerald’s novel states characterstics as specific strokes that frames a hero and secondary characters. The style of the poet is not an ordinary one – it contains a pile of stylistic means, which make up a great effect when interconnected. Having selected a specific feature, Fizgerald builds up uncommon means, makes up new association, creates interconnection between the reader and the character. Indeed it can be said that Fitzgerald's finest fiction is the product of two active Symbolists. One of them is of course the novelist himself, for in his use of symbolist images to concentrate and realize what seem to be essentially naturalistic stories Fitzgerald proves himself remarkable. The objective of the present is to examine the main paculiarities of lingvostylystic means of creating psychological effect in the novel.
. The given objective presupposes the following tasks to be solved:
1) introducing the notion of “the stylistic means in creating characteristics”.
2) defining general peculiarities of the stylistic means and their application in the particular character.
3) analyzing various characters of the main hero of the novel.

Interconnections of the stylistic means in creating characteristics

Since XVII poets started paying much attention to creating images, especially to the description of new heroes, their appearances. Gradually developing and enriching their skills in translation and the ability of profound description, artists of the “word” were making up more “alive” images, which where more appealing and more understandable, so that people were able to remember them. Poets connected outer characteristics with inner world of heroes, showing that through traits, particular behavior because of the personal worries.
Fizgerald’s novel states characterstics as specific strokes that frames a hero and secondary characters. The style of the poet is not an ordinary one – it contains a pile of stylistic means, which make up a great effect when interconnected. Having selected a specific feature, Fizgerald builds up uncommon means, makes up new association, creates interconnection between the reader and the character. "Indeed it can be said that Fitzgerald's finest fiction is the product of two active Symbolists. One of them is of course the novelist himself, for in his use of symbolist images to concentrate and realize what seem to be essentially naturalistic stories Fitzgerald proves himself remarkable" [7, 68].
The aim is to observe and to examine how these different stylistic means interact in the description of charactes in the novel of S.Fizgerald.
First and foremost the author uses the epithet and its hybrid, which creat tropics. (ironic, oxymoron, hyperbole, metaphore, metaphorical epithet) These are:artificial effortless smile:” Broke into teary hysterical smile; with blazing eyes; his dead yellow eyes; the smile again – radiant blatantly artificial – convincing; alien unresponsible faces”.[5, 57]
Paralel constructions and comparisons can be found, which are strong in imagination of the characters:”Just a girl with the skin of one of Rafael's corner angels and a style that made you look back twice to see if it were something she had on; a lady who was like an egg; her lips half-open like a flower; her face shining like fire through the half darkness; she felt her face quiver like a rabbit's her arms like flying fish; three poker-faced secretaries who sat like witches; the beautiful little boy with eyes like blue stones and lashes that sprayed open from them like flower-petals”[5, 37]
While creating a portrait Fizgerald amphasized an accent on one specific trait or a feature that is connected to a particular nation and particular person in the novel:
“ She was a tall woman ... who had once possessed a fresh American loveliness...”
“She was a frail Latin blonde with fine large features and vividly sad French eyes...”
“He had a tough jaw and an Irish smile...”
“Healthy pretty English face...” [9, 28]
Distinctive means for rendering the thorough description of appearance in the novel is a metonymical epithet:
“Two pairs of eyes were regarding her: Rutherford's noncommittal und unrequiring, Michael's hungry, tragic, pleading; unsuspecting left ear; handsome earnest face; groups of waiting, hopeful, painted faces; her face was young, frightened; cool, patronizing eyes; a man with an unhappy mouth and desperate, baffled eyes”.[5, 36]
Hyperbolic epithet can be found in rendering the description of the characteristic of a particular hero:
“You have the most rememberable eyes”
“You've got an awfully kissable mouth.”[5, 35]
Fizgerald also uses simple prose to describe the portrait:
“A tanned woman with very white teeth; with that extraordinary hair; he was young and extraordinarily handsome”.[7, 77]

The Disintegration of the main character

The exact nature of Dick Diver’s descent throughout the course of Tender is the Night is difficult to discern. It is clear enough that his disintegration is occasioned by Nicole’s burgeoning independence, but why or how her transformation affects him this way is less than obvious. Moreover, it is not at all apparent what is at stake, more abstractly, in this reciprocal exchange of fates. In this paper, I will propose a reading of this change that relates Nicole’s strength to her naturalness, her identification with instinct and natural impulse, and Dick’s strength to his civilization, his identification with the curtailment of natural impulse through psychiatry and prewar American civilization. The relationship between Nicole and Dick is such that what happens to the one must happen to the other. Both Nicole and Dick turn by the novel¹s end to impulse and instinct, but while Nicole does this by gaining an independent self-consciousness, Dick achieves this only through drinking.

Throughout the novel Nicole is identified with the childish and animalistic wildness of instinct. This is most obvious in the uninhibited expression of emotion which characterizes her episodes of madness. We see, for instance, her frenzied laughter as she rides the Ferris wheel and causes her car to crash. As the car finally comes to a halt, "She was laughing hilariously, unashamed, unafraid, unconcernedŠ.She laughed as after some mild escape of childhood" . And as a patient at the clinic, after having her affection for Dick rebuffed, we are told, "Nicole’s world had fallen to pieces, but it was only a flimsy and scarcely created world; beneath it her emotions and instincts fought on" [1, 155].

As the story progresses, though, the expression of these impulses become less openly dangerous and abnormal and more linked to her growing sense of self. One more restrained way in which Nicole is identified with impulse is her use of money. Money in the story is a sort of materialized passion, the tangible expression of an appetite to possess and control. Money becomes more and more plentiful as the story moves on, such that by the beginning of book three, after Dick gives up his stake in the clinic, "the mere spending of it, the care of goods, was an absorption in itself. The style in which they traveled was fabulous" [6, 257].

Nicole¹s relation to impulse is also demonstrated by her attractions to others, culminating, of course, in her relationship with Tommy Barban. Fitzgerald tells us, for instance, that "the people she liked, rebels mostly, disturbed her and were bad for her‹she sought in them the vitality that had made them independent or creative or rugged, sought in vain‹for their secrets were buried deep in childhood struggles they had forgotten" [1, 180]. It was this raw vitality which Dick increasingly lacked‹he was far from rugged and becomes less and less creative through the course of the novel‹and that she saw in herself that became the focus of her external interest. Her search for this energy in others was an expression of her own growing awareness of this energy within herself.

I think it is noteworthy, as well, that Fitzgerald links this energy to childhood struggles. If the source of such interior strength is the experience of childhood, then perhaps Nicole’s difficulty in finding this in herself can be explained by the fact that she has not left childhood. For much of the novel, she is still Dick’s surrogate daughter and has yet to extricate herself from that role. One might also use this fact to explain her poor relation with her own children who seem, on the whole, more mature than she. How could she be a mother to children when she is a child herself?

Near the end of the novel, this identification of Nicole with instinct becomes more explicit. We are told that "Nicole had been designed for change, for flight, with money as fins and wings" [2, 280]. Freedom is her nature, but it is a freedom likened to that of animals. There is a wildness inherent in her, a unconstrained passion for movement. Fitzgerald continues in the next line, "The new state of things would be no more than if a racing chassis, concealed for years under the body of a family limousine, should be stripped to its original self". [2, 280] Again, Nicole is represented by a unruly, passionate, and impulsive object. (I might also note the subversive power of the image in its denial of Nicole’s familial role).

The culmination of Nicole’s growing awareness of the wildness of her nature is her relationship with Tommy Barban. The exchange between her and Tommy in their impulsively procured hotel room is very illuminating in this regard. Tommy asks her pointedly, "Why didn¹t they leave you in a natural state?," following up with, "You are the most dramatic person I have ever met all this taming of women."
[1, 293]. Nicole stays silent through most of this, feeling "Dick’s ghost prompting at her elbow," but refusing to pay it heed, listens instead to Tommy’s exposition of her nature. In the end she accepts his understanding of her as her own, endorsing his impulsive naturalness with her own and "welcoming the anarchy of her lover" [1, 298].

Dick’s path is decidedly different. Throughout the first half of the book, Dick is presented in a very positive light. He is handsome and charismatic, the center of his social world. We are told that "save among a few of the tough-minded and perennially suspicious, he had the power of arousing a fascinating and uncritical love" [6, 27]. Due to people¹s affection for him, he becomes the head of his social group. He is shown very much in control of his environment.

We learn later that Dick is a psychiatrist with a brilliant mind who, if he could only organize his thoughts on paper, would lead to great advances in the subject. For all the emotional attachment he engenders in others, he himself except for aspects of his relationship with Rosemary, which we know is new for him is not given to emotional excess. As a friend of his says, "You are not a romantic philosopher‹you¹re a scientist. Memory, force, character" [15, 117].

Dick¹s role as a scientist is not, however, impersonal observation. He is a clinical psychiatrist and works to bring those who are mentally disturbed back to the "normal" social world. It is in this capacity that he first meets Nicole. She is a patient, and it is his charge to alleviate her hysteria. In this regard, he must curtail the excesses of impulse and emotion that preclude her functioning according to social convention. She is wild, and he must tame her, domesticate her, bring her into the company of civilized men and women.

Aside from this professional concern with bringing the mad into civilization, Dick is also very invested in his particular conception of civilization. We read, for instance, of Dick’s early "illusions of the essential goodness of people; illusions of a nation, the lies of generations of frontier mothers who had to croon falsely, that there were no wolves outside the cabin door" [1, 117]. Further on, as Dick becomes more reflective, he begins to question dying for one¹s beliefs and of the social imperatives "to be good, brave and wise" [1, 133]. What prompts this questioning is the war, which shook Dick deeply.

We see this most clearly in the situation where he and his entourage visit an old battleground. There, Dick becomes melancholy and "his throat strains with sadness" [6, 57]. He also proclaims dolefully that "all of my beautiful lovely safe world blew itself up here with a great gust of high explosive love" [6, 57]. In this odd statement, Dick takes ownership of this world and feels a great personal loss at what has happened even though he did not directly participate. The importance of the war to Dick is further shown by the scene in which he helps the red-haired Tennessee girl looking for the grave of her brother.

In these ways, then, Dick is portrayed as the protector of civilization, mourning the disillusioning effects of the war while working to repair civilization by treating the psyche. We are told a little over half way through the novel that "Somehow Dick and Nicole had become one and equal, not opposite and complementary; she was Dick too in the marrow of his bones" [15, 190]. Given the novel¹s outcome, there is an air of paradox to this statement. Clearly Nicole and Dick end the novel in very different conditions. How can this be if they are one and the same? Does not this indicate an oppositeness or complementariness rather than a unity of identity? I think that this air can be dissipated by understanding the trajectory of Nicole and Dick’s relationship, using the identifications elucidated above, as an increasing move toward natural instinct and impulse, the effect of which is positive for Nicole and detrimental for Dick, as the only way he can handle such feelings is through alcohol.

The first decisive move in this direction is Dick’s relationship with Rosemary. We are told again and again that Dick had never done anything like this before, that the emotional whirlwind in which he is caught up is entirely new. This comes out most clearly at the end of one. In which Dick impulsively goes to visit Rosemary at her movie set: "He knew that what he was now doing marked a turning point in his life‹it was out of line with everything that preceded it" [1, 91]. And further on, "Dick’s necessity of behaving as he did was a projection of some submerged reality.Dick was paying some tribute to things unforgotten, unshriven, unexpurgated" [1, 91]. I interpret this submerged reality as the presence of natural impulse and instinct which he has hitherto repressed, the aspect of himself which it is the psychiatrist¹s job to subdue in the process of bringing someone into civilization. But, as they are aspects of him as well as of every person, they are "unforgotten" and "unexpurgated." (The inclusion of "unshriven" is interesting; as he cannot remove these aspects of himself, neither can he seek pardon for their presence. The feeling that he should need such pardon‹the idea that such instincts are wrong‹stands in stark contrast to Nicole¹s unabashed expression of impulse later in the novel).

This episode and others like it mark a breakdown in Dick¹s civilized worldview. It is this breakdown that allows Nicole to begin finally to express her own nature, first by relapses into her hysteria and then by a more consistent and holistic embrace of instinct and impulse in her relations with Tommy. The final stages of Nicole and Dick¹s break brings this out clearly.

Near the end of the novel, Nicole comes to the realization that "she had somehow given over the thinking to him.She knew that for her the greatest sin now and in the future was to delude herself.Either you think‹or else others have to think for you and take power from you, pervert and discipline your natural tastes, civilize, and sterilize you" [5, 290]. Nicole, then, awakens to her natural self, recapturing sovereignty over her own person and refusing to allow Dick to fit her into his mold as to what she should be; Dick would no longer be the father with the authority of reason. As Fitzgerald says in narrating the decisive moment of their rupture, "She achieved her victory and justified herself to herself without lie or subterfuge, cut the cord forever" [1, 302].

It is crucial to note that Dick comes to the same point, but as his natural instincts and impulses were for him a "submerged reality," he could not accept healthily this change like Nicole, for whom instinct and impulse were always much closer to the surface. The only way for Dick to handle this unearthed reality within was to turn to the bottle. There is, of course, a natural comparison to made between Dick and Tommy here. It is noteworthy that Fitzgerald explicitly tells us that "Tommy Barban was a ruler, Tommy was a heros.As a rule, he drank little; courage was his game and his companions were always afraid of him" [11, 67]. Tommy does not have to drink to deal with his passions; he is a man of passion already and, as such, is more similar to Nicole than Dick. In this way, also, the love between Tommy and Nicole could have the reciprocity which Dick and Nicole¹s hierarchical, paternal, doctor/patient relationship could never have. Tommy could love back where for Dick, "so easy to be loved‹so hard to love" [7,110].

At the novel¹s end, then, the naturalness of Nicole and Tommy has triumphed over the civilization of Dick. I should say, though, that I do not take this outcome to be an endorsement on the part of Fitzgerald of this impulsive naturalness. Rather, I read the novel as an exploration of disillusionment with the idealism of prewar America. I think Fitzgerald suggests as much when he posits the postwar years as the natural environment in which a story such as Dick¹s emerges:

"His love for Nicole and Rosemary, his friendship with Abe North and Tommy Barban in the broken universe of the war¹s endingŠthere seemed some necessity of taking all or nothing; it was as if for the remainder of his life he was condemned to carry with him the egos of certain people, early met and early loved, and to be only as complete as they were themselves" [3, 123].

This plight, this condemnation, was not Dick¹s alone; it was that of an American civilization thrust into a new world in which it, like all others, must now deal with the sins of past and present in its struggle for survival.

Versetile roles of the main character

One of the most common situations faced by people in medicine is the attachment a doctor can develop with a patient. The doctor may be psychologically empowered by the weakness and dependency of a person under his care. This impulse may be emotionally and mentally misinterpreted in a dramatic and romantic direction and “the doctor may soon find himself in love with his patient”[6, 29], though such a situation would owe more to control than genuine affection. Clearly, this is one of the issues Dick Diver must deal with, as a psychologist, husband and main character, in Scott Fitzgerald's novel, Tender is the Night.

Fitzgerald's own life certainly factored into the fruition of this particular theme in the novel. “By the time of the novel's inception in the mid-1920's, Fitzgerald's wife Zelda was beginning to show some signs of mental illness”[1, 116]. Fitzgerald realized his wife's emotionally disturbed state and sought professional help for her. “In response to her crumbling health, he began to drink heavily throughout the novel's completion”[6, 127]. Fitzgerald no doubt faced similar situations to Dick Diver's: the woman he loved was being reduced to a dependent, helpless figure in his life, not unlike a child. Thus, like Fitzgerald, Dick Diver seeks a meaningful compromise between his rapacious love for life and his careful, fatherly dedication to his ailing wife throughout the novel. “It is this duality that, as it intrigues the novel's reader, pre-eminently drives the character of Dick Diver and the life of Fitzgerald as he writes the novel”[1, 34].

The picture of Dick is initially painted for the reader by the young actress Rosemary Hoyt. He is handsome, admirable, jovial, quite a few years older, he throws great parties-all these qualities are quite appealing to Rosemary. What Rosemary doesn't know is that Dick and Nicole Diver are vacationing for the sake of Nicole's mental health. She soon falls in love with Dick, and the two have an affair, despite Dick's marriage to Nicole. One of the first textual clues we have about the eventual nature of Dick's relationship with Rosemary and women in general comes from the title of the film in which Rosemary stars: "Daddy's Girl." To find Dick becoming romantically involved in a girl so young and seemingly virginal as to be "Daddy's Girl" already leaves the reader wondering what Nabokovian twists await. This affair may be nothing more than a manifestation of the same mindset which attracts Dick to his wife Nicole: the desire to be a father figure as played out romantically. Rosemary, after all, has no father, and Dick may in fact be frustrated by his wife's recent relative independence since having left for the beach. Although the illicit affair continues off and on for some time, Nicole remains apparently unaware of Dick's infidelity, spending much time shopping and cavorting with Rosemary. It is not until the end of Book One where we get a narrated glimpse of Nicole's illness: a "verbal inhumanity that penetrated the keyholes and cracks in the doors" [2, 112]. Nicole is talking nonsensically and kneeling beside the tub, swaying. Rosemary is made shockingly aware of the truth: Nicole Diver is not well, and Dick Diver is faced with caring for her. For the first time in the novel, the Divers are taken from their pedestal.

Book Two offers some insight on the Diver's lives together. Nicole Warren, the heiress of a fortune, seeks professional assistance for her unstable mental health. Soon she meets the brilliant Dr. Dick Diver, her psychologist and future husband. This relationship is fairly autobiographical. Fitzgerald met Zelda Sayre, a wealthy southern woman, when he was in Princeton, but was unable to win her hand in marriage until after he had proven himself a success with the sales of his first novel. But the Diver's situation has been somewhat exaggerated by Fitzgerald in the interest of character development. Even after Dick and Nicole become an item, the father/daughter/doctor/patient themes are telling: "He tried honestly to divorce her from any obsession that he had stitched her together-glad to see her build up happiness and confidence apart from him; the difficulty was that, eventually, Nicole brought everything to his feet" [2,137]. Given the history of Dick and Nicole, to apply this narrative to a sexual, romantic relationship, the overtones become almost incestuous. The unsteady daughter figure/wife/patient seeks approval from her father figure/husband/doctor. This relationship is clearly based on the control Dick Diver has over Nicole, and would be considered unhealthy by any standards, but especially in the realm of marriage, where equality among spouses is, needless to say, a favorable approach. If this is a viable approach to the relationship of the Divers, it stands to reason that the only thing which might threaten the roles of Dick and Nicole is Nicole's improvement and independence. If his dominance is usurped, he would be unable to satisfy his role-playing desires. Ironically, all of this psychological melodrama is plaguing a psychologist. Is Dick Diver only in it for the money? On what level does his passion for medicine and the human mind reside? Is it safe to leave your mental health under the supervision of a doctor with an Electra complex? These are some of the questions that Fitzgerald does not directly answer, but the narrative is able to provide some additional information.

In fact, Nicole's improvement does alter Dick's state of mind. After Nicole's release from Dick Diver's care, he sees her later on an outing into the mountains. She is faring well, and Dick takes notice: "The delight in Nicole's face-to be a feather again instead of a plummet, to float and not to drag. She was a carnival to watch...sometimes the shadow fell and the dignity of old suffering flowed down into her finger tips. Dick wished himself away from her, fearing that he was a reminder of a world well left behind" [2, 149]. Dick is affected by what World War II photojournalist Robert Capa would later call "the nobility of human suffering." Nicole is a glorious, delicate animal, and her scars are just as appealing as her wounds to Dick.

Dick's methodology in female relations is by no means limited to Nicole and Rosemary. A familiar sentiment is echoed in a later passage. Dick, now practicing in Switzerland, deals with a tormented artist as she struggles to contemplate what he calls the "frontiers of consciousness", "Yet in the awful majesty of her pain he went out to her unreservedly, almost sexually. He wanted to gather her up in his arms, as he so often had Nicole, and cherish even her mistakes, so deeply were they a part of her" [Fitzgerald ,185]. The same rules apply in dealing with this woman as with Nicole: Dick's unexplained need to comfort, to appease and improve, twisted into an "almost sexual" impulse. This scene is rendered as a reminder of Dick's inability to cope with female patients on a professional level; one begins to suspect the guy has some real mental problems of his own. But what is Fitzgerald's point? Does he feel the role of the doctor should be limited to the cold, calculable world of science and measurement? Obviously not, as there are several compassionate and moving narrative accounts of Dick's behavior and actions toward the other characters, especially Nicole. Fitzgerald makes it clear that Dick is neither a defective nor a saint; he is a sublime and often confused blend of the two-in other words, human. Still, he manages to blur the lines for the reader. It is impossible to say how deeply Fitzgerald's personal situation affected the novel and its characters. Dick may be taken as a tragic hero or a heroic pervert, depending on the reader's own experiences and preferences. Fitzgerald's own considerations are apparent as Dick begins to lose faith in himself, and Nicole's life improves. Soon, Dick is alone, dissatisfied with his work, slightly crazy and unsure of his future-a semi-redemptive role reversal.

There is no resolution in Dick's life at the end of the novel, leaving the reader feeling perhaps unsatisfied, but this reinforces one of the driving themes of the novel: “certainty and control can be a catalyst for the most life-shattering of changes”[4, 103]. This goes doubly for those characters who assume more roles and responsibilities that he or she can handle, as in the case of Dick Diver.

Conclusion:

The novel states the pleiad of stylistic means of forming portrait characteristics, thorough description of features and traits of heroes. The role of the interplay was determined in order to create unique images for edowing the style of the author. Gradually developing and enriching their skills in translation and the ability of profound description, artist of the “word” made up more “alive” images, which became more appealing and more understandable, so that people are able to remember them. The author connected outer characteristics with inner world of heroes, showing that through traits, particular behavior because of the personal worries.
Fizgerald’s novel states characterstics as specific strokes that frames a hero and secondary characters. The style of the poet is not an ordinary one – it contains a pile of stylistic means, which make up a great effect when interconnected. Having selected a specific feature, Fizgerald builds up uncommon means, makes up new association, creates interconnection between the reader and the character. Indeed it can be said that Fitzgerald's finest fiction is the product of two active Symbolists. One of them is of course the novelist himself, for in his use of symbolist images to concentrate and realize what seem to be essentially naturalistic stories Fitzgerald proves himself remarkable.
. The general purpose of the paper was to analyze:
- the notion of “the stylistic means in creating characteristics”.
- general peculiarities of the stylistic means and their application in the particular character.
- various characters of the main hero of the novel.
The objective of the present was examined. The main paculiarities of lingvostylystic means of creating psychological effect in the novel were defined.

List of References:

1) Bruccoli, Matthew J. and Judith S. Baughman. Reader's Companion to F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

2) Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Tender is the Night. New York, NY: Scriber, 1933

3)Grenberg, Bruce L. "Fitzgerald's 'Figured Curtain': Personality and History in Tender Is the Night." In Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night, ed. Milton R. Stern. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986.

4) La Hood, Marvin J., ed. Tender Is the Night: Essays in Criticism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

5) Stern, Milton R. Tender Is the Night: The Broken Universe. New York: Twayne, 1994.

6) Stern, Milton R., ed. Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night. Boston: Hall, 1986.

7) Francis Scott ,Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 1896-1940

8) Wright Morris, Function of nostalgia: F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1958

9) John Aldridge, Fitzgerald: Horror and the vision of paradise, 1951

10) Edwin Fussell, Fitzgerald's brave new world, 1952

11) Andrews Wanning, Fitzgerald and his brethren, 1945

12) Malcolm Cowley, Third act and epilogue, 1945

13) Leslie Fiedler, Some notes on F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1951

14) Charles E. Shain, This side of paradise, 1962

15) http://www.shmoop.com/tender-is-the-night/literary-devices.html

16) http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20870440.html…...

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