...Leadership…changing over the years.
The study of leadership and its styles over the years has proven to be quite a challenge owing to its abstract nature and differences in perception, making an objective discourse rather difficult. Over the years, different researchers have come up with models of their own, as they attempted to explain leadership and the various roles it encompasses. It is therefore a fruitful approach to first consider the major theories on the topic. This would help us better comprehend the evolution of perceptions on leadership, and help us explain the connection between leadership and motivation as we proceed through the report.
* Trait studies of leadership
Early studies on leadership focused on identifying the personality traits that contributed to success as a leader (Argyris, 1955; Mahoney et al., 1960). The underlying assumption in these studies, known as trait studies, was that successful leaders had innate qualities that could not be ‘learnt’, which made them different from non-leaders. In short, successful leaders were born, not made.
Discussions of leadership in the 20th century essentially began with the trait approach. While this perspective is now seen as incomplete, there has been recent renewed interest in characteristics of effective leaders. In spite of the questionable premise of trait theory as originally conceived, recent research has identified some traits associated with effective leaders: intelligence, self-confidence,......
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...active world lot of attention have been shed on leaders and various notions of leadership linked with them.
Peter Drucker, in his work in 1954 pointed out that “Leadership is of utmost importance. Indeed there is no substitute for it. But leadership cannot be created or promoted. It cannot be taught or learned”. In an orthodox composition on ‘Kantian theory of Leadership’, Bowie mentioned that “leader has a hierarchical and even elitist connotation, opposite to Kant’s moral (basically egalitarian) philosophy” (Bowie, N, 2000).As per Machaivelli “power was seen as the sole purpose of leadership”. (Machiavelli, N, 1952). Were as academicians like Schiro, J. B. (1999) whose view is more vigorous; “Leadership is an elusive concept, so there are many definitions of leadership and many ways to view leadership”.
Leadership is not something that executives do, for leadership requires a willingness to sacrifice for others. (Maxwell, 2003)
Leadership and management are crucial for success. Leadership is a quality hidden in the personality of a human being. Human personality is very complex and it is very difficult to grade individuals according to one’s personality. Leadership, on the other hand, depends on the organic structure of the personality which includes experience, skill, responsibility, intelligence, power of organizing people and social interaction. Leadership is an indispensable activity, which every leader has to perform for......
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Academy of Management Perspectives
Leadership and Neuroscience:
Can We Revolutionize the Way That Inspirational Leaders Are Identiﬁed and Developed?
by David A. Waldman, Pierre A. Balthazard, and Suzanne J. Peterson
Recent advances in the field of neuroscience can significantly add to our understanding of leadership and its development. Specifically, we are interested in what neuroscience can tell us about inspirational leadership. Based on our findings, we discuss how future research in leadership can be combined with neuroscience, as well as potential neurofeedback interventions for the purpose of leadership development. We also consider ethical implications and applications to management-related areas beyond leadership.
eadership development is a multibillion-dollar industry, with in-house as well as external consulting groups offering leadership development techniques and programs for their clients. The efficacy of traditional leadership development methods, however, has recently been called into question (Haines, 2009), with many researchers recognizing the need to go beyond traditional leadership assessment methods, which typically involve evaluating leader behaviors and qualities through some sort of survey process through which followers or peers rate a leader’s effectiveness. In particular, recent advances in neuroscience are expanding our understanding of behavior and......
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Tamethea C. Willis
Leadership and Management
“Effective leaders bring out the best in people by stimulating them to achieve what they thought was impossible” (Leadership Education and Development INC. [LED], 2007, expression 17). It is often heard that an organizations success is based on the strength and effectiveness of its leaders. As concepts and theory’s of leadership continue to evolve, it is paramount that the proper leader is chosen to be the change agent in today’s workforce. In the context of this paper, I will define leadership; assess my own leadership style and my peer’s perception of my style, distinguish what type of leadership I work best under, and the style of leadership of my current manager.
When choosing a leader, there are three aspects that should be considered: people, influence and goals. In the words of Richard L Daft, Jr. Professor of Management at Vanderbilt graduate school of management, “Leadership occurs among people, involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals…Thus, leadership as defined here is the ability to influence people towards the attainment of goals” (Daft, 2000, p. 502). However, other theorist and researches have not come into agreement on what the definition of a leader should be. Early leadership definitions placed emphasis on the leader’s behavior or traits, while contemporary definitions of leadership places greater focus on......
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...Transformational leadership in the South African public service after the April 2009 national elections
Authors: Manasseh M. Mokgolo1 Patricia Mokgolo2 Mike Modiba3 Affiliations: 1 Department of Human Resources Management, University of South Africa, South Africa Learning and Development Unit, Tromso Management Consultants CC, Boyne, South Africa
Orientation: The implementation of transformational leadership in public services after national elections has been well recorded in other parts of the world. However, this is not the case in South Africa. Research purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine whether transformational leadership has a beneficial relationship with subordinate leadership acceptance, job performance and job satisfaction. Motivation for the study: Leadership is a critical issue that the public sector needs to address in order to survive and succeed in today’s unstable environment. According to Groenewald and Ashfield (2008), transformational leadership could reduce the effects of uncertainty and change that comes with new leaders and help employees to achieve their objectives. Research design, approach and method: The sample comprised 1050 full-time employees in the public sector based in head offices. The measuring instruments included the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), the Leadership Acceptance Scale (LAS), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and the Job Performance Survey (JPS). Main findings: Transformational leadership had a......
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...Meaning of Leadership
The word leadership is a sophiscated, modern concept. In earlier times, words meaning “head of state”, “military commander”, “princeps”, “proconsul”, “chief”, or “king” were common in societies. There are many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept. There are 12 definitions about leadership.
Leadership as a Focus of Group Processes, leader as a focus of group change, activity, and process. Leader are influenced by the needs and wishes of the group members; in turn, they focus the attention and release the energies of group members in a desired direction. The leader may not be separated from the group, but may be treated as a position of high potential in the field. When conceived in terms of the dynamics of human social behavior, leadership is a function of needs existing within a given situation, and consists of a relationship between an individual and a group. This emphasis on the leader as the center, or focus, of group activity directs attention to group structure and group processes in studying leadership. Leadership as Personality and Its Effects, a leader as a person who possesses the greatest number of desirable traits of personality and character. Any person who is more than ordinarily efficient in carrying psychosocial stimuli to others and is thus effective in conditioning collective responses may be called a leader. Leadership as the Art of Inducing Compliance, leadership as the......
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LEADERSHIP –THEORY AND PRACTICE
This essay will review the theory of leadership from early in the last century and critically assess the most relevant areas under debate.
What is leadership?
Leadership is of itself constantly in debate, what is it, do we need it and how does it work are just some of the questions in what remains a live and ongoing debate. Whilst there are many definitions available in the wide array of literature the one selected here is that of Rost who said” leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes” having analysed the definitions of leadership used in the literature from 1900-1979 . At its most fundamental level there is a great deal of discussions about what is leadership and what is management with authors such as Kotter who describes a leader as someone who creates an agenda through the establishment of a vision and gives direction to help align the followers to achieve a successful outcome , compared to his arguably less positive description of a manager as someone who prepares plans and budgets, organizes and staffs the team and monitors the results against a plan, hence the manager is seen to provide order, consistency and predictability. Rost on the other hand argues against this “up with leaders and down with management” approach which he suggests Kotter’s approach describes and concludes this obsession with leadership is not......
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...Strategic leadership – what does it mean?
Defining strategic leadership has proven a difficult task, due to the complex nature of the term, and also vast amount of literature to date. Davies et al (2003:303) argues that a strategic leader “can see the future, bigger picture for organisation as well as understand the current contextual setting of the organisation”. However, Rowe (2001:81) describes strategic leadership “as the ability to influence others to voluntarily make day-to-day decisions that enhance long-term viability of the organisation while maintaining its short-term financial stability”. Consequently, strategic leadership was quantified as the “ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically” (Hitt et al. 2003, cited in Rowe 2001:83). In light of the above, strategic leadership can be seen as the direct influence on organisational processes that achieves performance outcomes. It requires both flexible, adaptive capabilities and the need to engage in managerial ethos; essential features according to Boal and Hooijberg (2001).
The need for strategic leadership
The global economy can be seen as a fluid entity, constantly changing and moving in different directions. With this comes uncertainty and the need for leaders to think strategically in today’s organisations. “Mobilising an organisation to adapt its behaviours in order to thrive in new business environments is critical” (Laurie 1997:124). This was an early opinion about......
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...Table of Contents
2.0 Literature review
2.2 Leadership Theories
2.3 Leadership Styles
2.4 Impact of Leadership on Organizations
3.0 Analysis and Findings
Over the past decades the study of leadership has been carried out by a number of different scholars. The study of leadership has been faced with challenges of a number of definitions. However, these definitions have shown the significance of leadership among a group of individuals, and organisations. Three contemporary views on leadership have been provided by known scholars, such as transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and charismatic leadership views. In the globe today, people witness or work with several leaders with different types of leadership styles in their organisations. However, there are two major leadership theories that define or assume there is a particular personality or behavioural characteristics that leaders share. Leadership has been one of the most discussed and debated topics in social sciences. These debates and discussions have shown how vital and important leadership is regarded.
The objective of this paper is to discuss the importance of leadership. The following section would provide a literature review. Thereby defining leadership and its importance, the impact of leadership in organizations.
2.0 Literature review
Leadership in the past decades has been one of the most debated and......
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3.1 Strategic leadership 4
3.2 Transformational leadership 4
3.3 Transactional leadership 5
4.0 Issues 5
4.0.1 Corporate vision and mission 5
4.0.2 Cultural diversity 6
4.0.3 Nurturing and delegation 6
4.0.4 Teamwork 6
5.0 Impacts 7
5.0.1 Unity of working teams 7
5.0.2 Setting organizational tone, strategy and right culture 8
5.0.3 Improved individual employee personal performance 8
6. 0 Conclusion 9
1.0 Executive summary
The hospitality industry has had great evolution over ages especially so in the aspect of leadership and management. It is one of the most dynamic industries across the globe in the modern day context with so much differentiation of products and embracing varying leadership styles in order to cope with the ever-increasing pressure in competition. It is in this understanding that this paper intends to critically analyze the leadership style upheld by the Hilton global hotel with special attention to the leadership of the serving CEO, Christopher J Nassetta.
Leadership is the art of imparting influence to people and making them willingly cooperate towards realizing an organizations purpose. In our analysis, Christopher, the CEO to Hilton Hotels exhibits great aspects of a leader and practices a range of leadership styles. In particular, he practices strategic leadership styles which entails......
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September 8, 2013
Instructor: Sandi Wakefield
Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals. Leadership involves establishing a vision that is clear to others so that they will follow specific goals willingly. In leadership this person will guide and or direct a group of people. A person that has leadership skills always steps up in crisis, and has the ability to act and think in difficult crisis. Leadership cannot be taught like management can, it may be learned and improved through mentoring and instruction. Whereas, with management one act as a boss and a implementer. In management a person produces order, stability, and expectedness. As oppose to leadership this person produces change and adaptability to new products, new markets, new customers, and new work processes. (DuBrin, The Nature and Importance of Leadership, 2010)
According to Ernie DiMattia in the Library Journal, leadership and management are two related terms related to the operation of any successful organization. He states that leadership refers to someone who guides or influences others while management is the process of directing or administering. Motivating different level of staff members encouraging them and organizing them, maintaining stability, and balancing external change with internal culture, are some of the ways leadership and management are internally linked. Not all leaders manage and...
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...Title: Effective Leadership
Introduction: Leadership is "the conduct of an individual when he is guiding the activities of a group towards a collective goal". A leader is described as someone who sets supervision in an effort and influences people to pursue that direction. How they establish that direction and influence individuals depends on a variety of factors.
Before I get started, let me characterize leadership according to all the books and academic journals I have read. Leadership is a course of action by which a person inspires others to accomplish a purpose and manages the organization in a way that makes it more systematic, coherent and run like an excellent tuned engine. Leaders carry out this practice by applying their leadership characteristics, such as vision, attitude, values, ethics, character, intelligence and skills. “Effective leaders rely more on personal power than on position power,” albeit your position in an organization as a manager, administrator, lead, etc. gives you the power by virtue of the position to accomplish specific tasks and objectives in the organization, this authority does not make you a leader...it merely makes you the person in charge by the position. Leadership varies in that it makes the followers want to accomplish high goals, rather than merely bossing or dictating people around.
Leadership is said to be a whole lot and nothing. It is everything because it can be established at all levels in organizations, not just at the......
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...Evaluation of Leadership in private sector organizations in Aruba
Faculty of Hospitality & Tourism Management
Leadership and Management
This paper brings forward the key aspects of the Aruban Entrepreneur. These would be discussed and related to different theories. To obtain these aspects of entrepreneurial activity two local entrepreneurs were interviewed and their philosophies were put into this paper. Beside the key aspects this paper would also discuss entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth and the common traits and skills of the Aruban entrepreneur.
Introduction to the organization
Scientific analysis and diagnosis of leadership
Areas of improvements
As part of the Master’s program at the University of Aruba, in the Faculty of Hospitality & Tourism Management Studies, in the course “Leadership & Management”, it is required to submit a paper on the “Evaluation of leadership in private organizations in Aruba”. More specifically, this paper will have an in depth look at the leadership styles within the Aruban businesses and analyze and explained the findings/ observations based on leadership theories. More particular, we will try to uncover the different leadership models that can be applied in order to improve effectiveness and efficiency, overall......
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MATRIC NUMBER: PG/SMS/014/14495
COURSE CODE: BUS 838
COURSE TITLE: MANAGEMENT THEORY.
DATE: AUGUST, 2015
An Assignment Submitted To Prof. J.O. Adetayo
B. The Concept of Leadership
There is nothing elusive about leadership. Although great leaders may be rare as great runners great partners or great actors, everyone has leadership potential just as everyone has some ability at running painting and acting. (The management bible leadership is about knowing what the next step is (John Adair).
Ref: Neil Flamaga & Jaruis Finger (2004): The management bible cape town Zebra Press.
Leadership is not an exclusive club for those who are born with it.
Employees generally follows their leaders. They are therefore much likely to comply with laws and guidelines when leaders show high commitment to compliance. Leaders must set a good example and clearly communicate their expectations. Compliance with regulations much more likely when leaders develop and carry out programs that emphasize the goals of regulation such as diversity and safety. Various programme should be carefully developed and communicated to increase employees knowledge and motivation (Stewart & Brown, 2009).
The Black ants filled out aimlessly without a leader. (French Proverb) a lot leadership has a lot to should in the direction of the human efforts towards organisational goal achievement.......
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http://jom.sagepub.com/ Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis
Dirk van Dierendonck Journal of Management 2011 37: 1228 originally published online 2 September 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310380462 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/37/4/1228
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Southern Management Association
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Journal of Management Vol. 37 No. 4, July 2011 1228-1261 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310380462 © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav
Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis
Dirk van Dierendonck
Servant leadership is positioned as a new field of research for leadership scholars. This review deals with the historical background of servant leadership, its key characteristics, the available measurement tools, and the results of relevant studies that have been conducted so far. An overall conceptual model of servant leadership is presented. It is argued......
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