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Kremlin

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The Moscow Kremlin | | The Moscow Kremlin is one of the most famous landmarks of Russia and the symbol of former Soviet authority. It is a long red brick wall with 20 towers, which were built at the end of the 15th century on the order of Ivan the Great. The most renowned and important tower is the Spasskaya Tower, which leads to Red Square. The tower was put up in 1491 by an Italian architect Pietro Solario. It has a belfry, a ruby star and the chimes, which are broadcast by radio as a time signal to the whole nation. Other famous towers are the Nikolskaya, Troitskaya, Kutafya and Borovitskaya. The name Kremlin means “fortress”. This historic fortified complex is situated at the heart of Moscow and overlooks the Moskva River and Red Square. It is the best known kremlin of Russia. Apart from the walls and towers it includes five strikingly beautiful palaces and four cathedrals. All of them are open to public. The heart of the Kremlin is the Cathedral Square with the main church of Moscow – the Cathedral of Dormition, where all the tsars were once crowned. The church has a massive limestone facade and five golden domes. Other notable structures include two domestic churches and the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great. The largest bell in the world is also situated here. It’s called the Tsar Bell. The oldest structure within the Kremlin walls is the Palace of Facets, which holds the imperial thrones. The other old building is the house of the royal family – the Terem Palace. Both these palaces are linked by the Grand Kremlin Palace. There are also several interesting museums inside the Kremlin walls. For example, the Arsenal, which was originally built for Peter the Great, and the Armoury building, which houses Russian state regalia and Diamond fund. At the moment, the complex of Kremlin serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation | |
The existing Kremlin walls and towers were built by Italian masters over the years 1485 to 1495. The irregular triangle of the Kremlin wall encloses an area of 275,000 square metres (68 acres). Its overall length is 2,235 metres (2,444 yards), but the height ranges from 5 to 19 metres, depending on the terrain. The wall's thickness is between 3.5 and 6.5 metres.
Originally there were eighteen Kremlin towers, but their number increased to twenty in the 17th century. All but three of the towers are square in plan. The highest tower is the Troizkaya, which was built up to its present height of 73,9 metres in 1495. Most towers were originally crowned with wooden tents; the extant brick tents with strips of colored tiles go back to the 1680s.
Cathedral Square is the heart of the Kremlin. It is surrounded by six buildings, including three cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Dormition was completed in 1479 to be the main church of Moscow and where all the Tsars were crowned. The massive limestone facade, capped with its five golden cupolas was the design of Aristotele Fioravanti. Several important metropolitans and patriarchs are buried there, including Peter and Makarii. The gilded, three-domed Cathedral of the Annunciation was completed next in 1489, only to be reconstructed to a nine-domed design a century later. On the south-east of the square is the much larger Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (1508), where almost all the Muscovite monarchs from Ivan Kalita to Alexis I of Russiaare interred. (Boris Godunov was originally buried there, but was moved to the Trinity Monastery.)
There are two domestic churches of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the Church of the Twelve Apostles (1653–56) and the exquisite one-domed Church of the Deposition of the Virgin's Robe, built by Pskov artisans over the years 1484–88 and featuring superb icons and frescoes from 1627 and 1644.
The other notable structure is the Ivan the Great Bell Tower on the north-east corner of the square, which is said to mark the exact centre of Moscow and resemble a burning candle. Completed in 1600, it is 81 metres (266 feet) high. Until the Russian Revolution, it was the tallest structure in the city, as construction of buildings taller than that was forbidden. Its 21 bells would sound the alarm if any enemy was approaching. The upper part of the structure was destroyed by the French during the Napoleonic Invasion and has, of course, been rebuilt. The Tsar bell, the largest bell in the world, stands on a pedestal next to the tower.

The oldest secular structure still standing is Ivan III's Palace of Facets (1491), which holds the imperial thrones. The next oldest is the first home of the royal family, the Terem Palace. The original Terem Palace was also commissioned by Ivan III, but most of the existing palace was built in the 17th century. The Terem Palace and the Palace of Facets are linked by the Grand Kremlin Palace. This was commissioned by Nicholas I in 1838. The largest structure in the Kremlin, it cost an exorbitant sum of eleven million rubles to build and more than one billion dollars to renovate in the 1990s. It contains dazzling reception halls, a ceremonial red staircase, private apartments of the tsars, and the lower storey of the Resurrection of Lazarus church (1393), which is the oldest extant structure in the Kremlin and the whole of Moscow.
The northern corner of the Kremlin is occupied by the Arsenal, which was originally built forPeter the Great in 1701. The southwestern section of the Kremlin holds the Armoury building. Built in 1851 to a Renaissance Revival design, it is currently a museum housing Russian state regalia and Diamond fund.
The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata was first isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin

Московский Кремль
Московский Кремль является одним из самых известных достопримечательностей России и символом бывшей советской власти. Это длинная красная кирпичная стена с 20 башнями, которые были построены в конце 15-го века по заказу Ивана Великого. Наиболее известной и важной башней является Спасская башня, выходящая на Красную площадь. Башня была построена в 1491 году итальянским архитектором Пьетро Солари. Она оснащена колокольней, рубиновой звездой и курантами, которые транслируются по радио как сигнал времени всей нации. Другие известные башни – это Никольская, Троицкая, Кутафья и Боровицкая. Название «Кремль» означает «крепость». Этот исторический укрепленный комплекс расположен в самом центре Москвы с видом на Москву-реку и Красную площадь. Он является самым известным кремлем России. Помимо стен и башен он включает в себя пять поразительно красивых дворцов и четыре собора. Все они открыты для посетителей. Сердце Кремля – это Соборная площадь с главной церковью Москвы – Успенским собором, где все цари были когда-то коронованы. Церковь имеет массивный известняковый фасад и пять золотых куполов. К другим известным зданиям относятся две внутренне церкви и колокольня Ивана Великого. Самый большой колокол в мире также находится здесь. Она называется Царь-колокол. Самая старая постройка в стенах Кремля – это Грановитая палата, в которой императорские троны. Другим старым зданием является дом королевской семьи – Теремной дворец. Оба эти дворцы связаны Большим Кремлевским дворцом. В стенах Кремля есть также несколько интересных музеев. Например, Арсенал, который первоначально был построен для Петра Великого, и Оружейная Палата, в которой находится русские государственные регалии и Алмазный фонд. На данный момент комплекс Кремля служит официальной резиденцией президента России.
Существующие стены и башни были построены в 1485—1516 годах. Общая протяжённость стен — 2235 м, высота от 5 до 19 м, толщина — от 3,5 до 6,5 м.[12] В плане стены образуют собой неправильный треугольник. Верх стены украшен зубцами в форме ласточкиного хвоста, всего зубцов по верху стены — 1045. Большинство зубцов имеет щелевидные бойницы. В стенах устроены широкие, перекрытые арками амбразуры. С наружной стороны стены гладкие, с внутренней — оформлены арочными нишами — традиционный приём, призванный облегчить и упрочнить конструкцию сооружения.[12]
Вдоль стен расположено 20 башен. 3 башни, стоящие в углах треугольника, имеют круглое сечение, остальные — квадратное. Самая высокая башня — Троицкая, она имеет высоту 79,3 м.

Словарь Thickness-толщина
Fortress-крепость
Royal-королевский
Century-век
Alarm-сирена
Contain-содержать
Diamond-алмаз
Rebuilt-перестроен…...

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