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Khalid Bin Walid

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Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (Arabic: أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎‎; 592–642) also known as Sayf Allāh al-Maslūl (Arabic: سيف الله المسلول‎; Drawn Sword of God), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is noted for his military tactics and prowess, commanding the forces of Medina under Muhammad and the forces of his immediate successors of theRashidun Caliphate; Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab.[1] It was under his military leadership that Arabia, for the first time in history, was united under a single political entity, the Caliphate. Commanding the forces of the nascent Islamic State, Khalid was victorious in over a hundred battles, against the forces of the Byzantine-Roman Empire, Sassanid-Persian Empire, and their allies, in addition to other Arab tribes. His strategic achievements include the conquest of Arabia, Persian Mesopotamia and Roman Syria within several years from 632 to 636. He is also remembered for his decisive victories at Yamamah, Ullais, and Firaz, and his tactical successes at Walaja andYarmouk.[2]
Khalid ibn al-Walid (Khalid son of al-Walid, lit. Immortal son of the Newborn) was from the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, from a clan that initially opposed Muhammad. He played a vital role in the Meccan victory at the Battle of Uhud against the Muslims. He converted toIslam, and joined Muhammad after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah and participated in various expeditions for him, such as the Battle of Mu'tah. It was the first battle between the Romans and the Muslims. Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense, that he used nine swords, which broke in the battle. Khalid took over after Zayd ibn Haritha, then Jafar ibn Abi Talib, then Abdullah ibn Rawahah were killed. After Muhammad's death, he played a key role in commanding Medinan forces for Abu Bakr in the Ridda wars, conquering central Arabia and subduing Arab tribes. He captured the Sassanid Arab client Kingdom of Al-Hirah, and defeated the Sassanid Persian forcesduring his conquest of Iraq (Mesopotamia). He was later transferred to the western front to capture Roman Syria and the Byzantine Arab client state of the Ghassanids.
Although Umar later relieved him of high command, he nevertheless remained the effective leader of the forces arrayed against the Byzantines during the early stages of the Byzantine–Arab Wars.[1] Under his command, Damascus was captured in 634 and the key Arab victory against the Byzantine forces was achieved at the Battle of Yarmouk (636),[1] which led to the conquest of the Bilad al-Sham(Levant). In 638, at the zenith of his career, he was dismissed from military services.
In 2013, the Syrian army destroyed Khalid ibn al Walid's grave during their bombardment and siege of the rebel city of Homs.[3]
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Early life
• 2 Muhammad's era (610–632) o 2.1 Conversion to Islam o 2.2 Military Campaigns during Muhammad's era
 2.2.1 Battle of Mutah
 2.2.2 Later military campaigns
 2.2.3 Military campaigns as commander
• 3 Abu Bakr's era (632–634) o 3.1 Conquest of Arabia o 3.2 Invasion of Persian Empire o 3.3 Invasion of Eastern Roman Empire
• 4 Caliph Umar's era (634–642) o 4.1 Dismissal of Khalid from command o 4.2 Conquest of Central Levant o 4.3 Battle for Emesa and 2nd Battle of Damascus o 4.4 Battle of Yarmouk o 4.5 Capturing Jerusalem o 4.6 Conquest of Northern Syria o 4.7 Campaigns in Armenia and Anatolia o 4.8 Dismissal from army o 4.9 Death
• 5 Legacy o 5.1 Military o 5.2 Political o 5.3 Religious standing o 5.4 In popular culture
• 6 Family
• 7 See also
• 8 Notes
• 9 Bibliography o 9.1 Primary sources o 9.2 Secondary sources
• 10 External links
Early life[edit]
Khalid was born c. 592 in Mecca. His father was Walid ibn al-Mughira, the chief of the Banu Makhzum, a clan of the Arab tribe of Quraysh. Walid was known in Mecca by the title of Al-Waheed - "the One".[4] Khalid's mother was Lubaba al-Sughra bint Al-Harith, a paternal sister of Maymuna bint al-Harith.[5]
Soon after his birth, in accordance with the traditions of the Quraysh, Khalid was sent to a Bedouin tribe in the desert, where a foster mother nursed him and brought him up in the clear, dry and unpolluted air of the desert. At the age of five or six, he returned to his parents in Mecca. During his childhood Khalid suffered a mild attack of smallpox, which he survived, but it left somepockmarks on his left cheek.[6]
The three leading clans of Quraysh at that time were Banu Hashim, Banu Abd-al-dar and Banu Makhzum, the latter clan being responsible for the matters of war. As a member of the Makhzum clan, who were amongst the best horsemen in Arabia, Khalid learned to ride and use such weapons as the spear, the lance, the bow and the sword. The lance was said to be his favorite among the weapons. In youth he was admired as a renowned warrior and wrestler among the Quraysh.[7] Khalid was a cousin of Umar, the future second Caliph, and they looked very similar. Both were very tall; Khalid had a well-built body with broad shoulders, and his beard appeared full and thick on his face.[8]…...

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