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Kafka Analysis

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FRANZO KAFKOS ROMANAS PROCESAS
Francas Kafka (1883 m. liepos 3 d. – 1924 m. birželio 3 d.). Procesas 1925 išleistas,bet nebaigtas(8skyrius)?
Procesas - 1. įvykio ar reiškinio eiga, vyksmas 2. teis. bylos svarstymo teisme eiga, teismo byla

Ekspresionizmas (pranc. expressionisme, iš expression 'išreiškimas, išraiškingumas, išraiška') – XX a. pirmųjų 3 dešimtmečių avangardistinė Vakarų Europos dailės, literatūros, muzikos, architektūros ir teatro srovė, kuriai būdinga atviras, pabrėžtas autoriaus pasaulėjautos, emocijų, vizijų reiškimas, anarchistinės, pacifistinės ir antimiesčioniškos idėjos, apibendrinti, hiperbolizuoti, dažnai groteskiški vaizdai.

Siurrealizmas (pr. sur – virš, réalisme – tikrovės, realybės) – XX a. III–V dešimt. kultūrinis, intelektinis, artistinis, meninis judėjimas. Kilo iš dadaizmo, kuris klestėjo Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metais. Dadaistai pirmieji atkreipė dėmesį į žmogaus pasąmonę kaip įkvėpimo šaltinį. Siurrealizmas prasidėjo su Andrė Bretono siurrealizmo manifesto paskelbimu 1924 m.

1. Jozefo K. kaltė.
Per savo 30 gimtadienį atsibudęs ryte bankininkas Jozefas K. yra aplankomas dviejų vyrų, sargybinių (Vilemas ir Francas) ir suimamas. Manoma, kad Jozefas yra apšmeižtas, nes nėra padaręs nieko blogo. Lygiai po metų, per jo 31 gimtadienį , Jozefas vėl yra aplankomas dviejų vyrų, šie nusiveža Jozefą už miesto į akmenų skaldyklą ir čia jį nužudo.
Romanas apima metų ciklą, kai buvo nagrinėjama Jozefo K. byla, Jozefo kova su nematomu teismu ir susitikimai su kitais žmonėmis,bandančiaias jam padėti byloje.

Teisėje asmuo pripažįstamas kaltu padaręs teisės pažeidimą, jeigu jis yra kaltas, tai yra veiką padarė tyčia ar dėl neatsargumo. Ponas K., kuris įtraukiamas į jam reikšmingą, tačiau visai nesuvokiamą teisminį procesą, kur jis tampa kaltinamuoju. Tačiau kodėl, kieno, kuo kaltinamas, proceso raidai prasidėjus, nebeturi jokios reikšmės. Visame romane nėra užsiminta dėl ko yra suimtas Jozefas.
Romane pasakojoma apie Jozefo K. pastangas susidoroti su savo byla,o dar tiksliau apie Jozefo K. kovą prieš biurokratijos mechanizmą.

Romanas parašytas didelių politinių krizių metu (karas), lydimas skaudžių rašytojo išgyvenimų (išsiskyrimas).

2. Biurokratijos esmė.
Biurokratija – valstybės administracijos organizavimo būdas, atsiradęs Vokietijoje XIX amžiaus pabaigoje; įtakingais valdininkais, pareigūnais besiremianti valdymo sistema.
Biurokratinės sistemos bruožai: sukuriama griežta hierarchinė sistema; griežtai apibrėžiamos valdininkų funkcijos ir nustatomi instrukcijų ir statusų standartai; valstybės administracijoje tarnybos vietos užimamos pagal pasirengimą dirbti numatomą darbą.

Visame romane biurokratija įkūnija blogį, tamsą, visą griaunančią esybę. Teismas atstoja biurokratiją. Prieš biurokratiją žmogus yra bejėgis, menkavertis,silpnas, nesugebėsiantis pasipriešinti.
Susidaro paradoksas – teismas turi atstovauti gėrį, teisingumą, nubausti nusižengusiuosius ir kaltus, tačiau šiuo atveju yra baudžiami nekaltieji.

Yra išlaikomas biurokratijos(teismo) anonimiškumas – K. bendrauja tik su žemiausiais biurokratijos sluoskniais (viršininkas pirmame skyriuje, administracija ir kanceliarija). Romane nėra jokių aiškių vardų/pavardžių,tad neaišku, kas valdo biurokratiją.
Kadangi biurokratija anonimiška, beveidė, yra prilyginama besieliui, amoraliam mechanizmui, kuri žlugdo žmogų. Ji akivaizdžiai nepasirodo, bet turėdama tokią galią, sugeba visvien valdyti, kleisti blogį (5skyrius, kai egzekutorius muša Vilemą ir Francą).

Jozefas K yra artimas pačiam F.Kafkai – abu valstybės tarnautojai: K.- bankininkas, Kafka – valdininkas. Pats Kafka atsiduria tarp dviejų frontų: jis – valdininkas, turįs ginti darbininkų interesus, nei proletaras, nei tikras buržuazijos atstovas. Darbas neteikia jam džiaugsmo, juolab kad Kafka dažnai negalėdavo padėti darbininkams, jautėsi bejėgis prieš kapitalistinio išnaudojimo mašiną.

3. Moterų vaidmuo romane.
Moterys, su kuriomis susiduria Jozefas K.:
Ponia Grubach – jo buto šeimininkė, virėja. Jaučia pagarbą Jozefui.
Panelė Biurstner – Jozefo kaimynė, leidžiasi vieną naktį pabučiuojama, pasirodo vėl romano pabaigoje.
Teismo kurjerio žmona/ studento meilužė – su ja geriau susipažįsta, kai antrąkart nuvyksta į šaukimą,bet jis neįvyksta.
Panelė Montag – Biursten draugė/kambariokė, vok. kalbos mokytoja.
Lenė – advokato Huldo tarnaitė/padėjėja, Jozefo K. meilužė.
Mergaičių būrys dailininko Titorelio name.
Elza – tikroji Jozefo K. mylimoji, niekad nepasirodė romane, tik apie ją užsiminė Jozefas, Lenei rodė jos fotografiją.

My ideas: Kurjerio žmona, Lenė – labaiusiai susijusios su biurokratija ir yra jos atstovės. Bandydamos paveikti Jozefą K. į savo pusę, jos pasitelkia moteriškumą, bando suvilioti K., tačiau tai tik dar labiau žaloja Jozefą, nes tai ne tikra meilė,kurią jis jaučia Elzei. Meilužių turėjimas dar labiau atimama iš Jozefo jėgas kovoti su biurokratija.
Kaip pasakė kunigas katedroje :“tu pernelyg ieškai svetimos pagalbos. Ypač moterų. Argi nematai, kad tai netikra pagalba?“

Leni is the third woman to want Joseph K. Who are the women of The Trial? Maids, secretaries, and poor housewives, all accustomed to playing, or eager to play, the role of mistress. Kafka's biographer describes pre-World War I Prague as a place where young professionals--a banker such K., a lawyer or bureaucrat such as Kafka--would marry women of their class but habitually go to poorer women of a lower social class for sex. Prostitution was, for some women, not so clearly defined as a profession--the lines between lover, mistress, free-lancer, and professional were not so strictly drawn. Certainly, this reflects the relative powerlessness--economically, socially, politically--of women low on the social scale. Young men did not complain, and perhaps the young women with whom they consorted got more out of the bargain than was otherwise available to them within the strictly prescribed boundaries of their social world. The mores of the time and place tacitly approved of the arrangement.

4. Teismo prasmė. Įstatymo ir teismo santykis.
Teismas – institucija, kuriai pavedama spręsti (teisinį) ginčą, vykdyti teisingumą.
Įstatymas – aukščiausiųjų valstybės institucijų nustatyta tvarka priimtas norminis teisės aktas.

Throughout the book, the Court is associated with dankness, dust, staleness, suffocation; K. repeatedly suffers from the lack of fresh air. Here we have the first hints of it. In the streets, in the hallways and stairwells of this poor neighborhood there is life and vitality. K. manages just fine. The moment he steps into the Court meeting hall, K. feels the air "too thick for him" and steps out again.

The Court apparently has access to every place--it can set up shop in a company's closet, or in a tenement attic--yet it still conducts its business in dark, sealed, uncomfortable, makeshift or out-of-the-way places.

Įstatymas ir teismas yra mažai susiję - teismas nepaiso įstatymo yra apkaltinamai nenusikaltę žmonės - nėra žinoma K. kaltė, nėra žinomi nei kaltinimai,nei kaltės įrodymai, nei aukščiausioji teisminė valdžia teismas yra korumpuotas – ji neatstovauja visuomenę,kuriai turėtų tarnauti - advokatas delsia savo darbą, Titorelis paaiškina kaip galima išteisinti Jozefą. (Court is inscrutable and irredeemably corrupt. Both the lawyer and the painter would have K. believe that the only thing that really matters is good relations with subordinate officials. No one knows who the higher officials are. They are unreachable, so naturally all wheedling, supplication, and influence peddling goes through the lower courts.)
Teisybės nereikėtų tikėtis, bet kuriuo atveju kaltinamasis visvien bus nuteistas.

5. Legenda apie sodietį ir jos prasmė.
Legenda – 1.pasakojamasis mitinio ar religinio siužeto literatūros arba tautosakos kūrinys. 2. pramanas, neįtikimas dalykas.
Legenda primena Sizifo mitą – Sizifas nuolat rideno akmenį, sodietis nuolat laukė, prašydamas,kad jį įleistų.

Legenda: ateina sodietis prašomas būti įleistas į Įstatymą, tačiau durininkas sako negalįs to padaryti,nes neturi leidimo. Sodietis turi galimybę pats įeiti, nes vartai yra praverti,tačiau nusprendžia palaukti. Durininkas sodiečiui duoda suolelį, šis prasėdi keletą metų vis prašydamas būti įleistas, atiduoda visą savo turtą, tačiau durininkas nepaperkamas. Sodiečiui atrodo, kad sargas – „vienintelė kliūtis Įstatyme“. Sodietis neina – jis laukia leidimo, durininkas nekviečia – jis juk sargas, - bet ir nedraudžia įeiti: iš pradžių sako „dabar negalįs įeiti“, paskui leidžia, tik perspėja, kad kiti durininkai dar griežtesni. Žmogus lieka sėdėti.
Galiausiai paskutinę savo gyvenimo akimirką sodietis klausia durininko:“Tai kodėl per tokią daugybę metų niekas neatėjo paprašyti, kad jį įleistum?“ Durininkas atsako:“Niekas daugiau negalėjo būti pro čia įleistas,nes šis įėjimas buvo skirtas tau vienam. Dabar nueisiu ir jį užrakinsiu“.
IŠVADA: durininkas ir sodietis laikosi įstatymo: durininkas neįleidžia sodiečio be leidimo, sodietis neina jo gavęs. Tačiau sodietis galėjo pasipriešinti įstatymui ir įeiti be leidimo.
Sargas provokuoja sodietį: „jeigu taip nekantrauji, pamėgink įeiti vidun...“ Jis nedraudžia,tik perspėja – ten bet kas gali nutikti..., bet žmogus neperžiangia savo baimių. Sargo užuominos – tu dar ne viską padarei – jis [sodietis] nesupranta. Durininkas šaiposi iš senio,bandančio įeiti vidun.

Sakmė paradoksali. Kitos kunigo pateiktos teorijos: durininkas nusižengia savo pareigai (pradžioj jis negalėjo įleisti sodiečio),bet suteikia jam viltį,jog galbūt įleis, plius duoda jam suolelį – durininkas malonus sodiečiui.
Sodietis pranašesenis už durininką, nes niekas nėra privertęs jo laukti, nėra prievartos, viskas vyksta laisva valia.
IŠVADA: kunigas pateikia, kad sodietis nėra auka, jeigu jis nelauktų galėtų pasipriešinti. Susiejama su Jozefu – per ilgai laukia, o tai jį naikina ir atima per daug energijos,kaip ir sodietį.

Teismas taip „susuka“ žmogų,prailgina visą procesą, kad galiausiai pats žmogus,to nesuprasdamas, pasirenka savo žūtį. Taigi bet kuriuo atveju, ar žmogus kaltas ar ne, kiekviename procese laukia ta pati baigtis.

Kunigas/ kalėjimo kapelionas kaip ir sargas neprimeta jokios savo valios. Sakmė buvo didžiausias K. valios primetimas ir paaiškinimas, bet Jozefas neatpažįsta savęs – jis nuolankiai laukia mirties.

6. Šviesos ir tamsos santykis romane.
Šviesa - gėris, tamsa – blogis, romane tamsai atstovauja biurokratija, teismas.
TAMSA:
Romane akivaizdžiai didžiąją dalį užima tamsa: tiek fiziškai tamsa, tiek žmonių gyvenimas yra labiausiai nulemtas biurokratijos.

Fiziškai tamsa: oras romane dažniausiai niūrus, rudeniškas, lietinga, apsiniaukę (9skyrius Katedroje). Kadangi romane nuolat blogas oras, sukuriamas šalčio, slogios nuotaikos jausmas. Taip pat veikėjai dažnai aprašomi apsirgę (advokatas sergantis, šąlantis Jozefas K. katedroje) dažniausiai visi Jozefo K. ir kitų veikėjų susitikimai vyksta vėlai vakare (pvz.1skyrius K. laukia panelės Biurstner grįžtant, 8sk kai Jozefas atsisako advokato vyksta pas jį vakare, 10sk K. nužudomas išvakarėse) veiksmai vyksta vietose, kur mažai patenka dienos šviesos (palėpėse, kabinetuose, butuose, katedroje, sandėlyje – 5skyrius Egzekutorius) tamsos detalės – 6sk, kai K. ir dėdė vyksta pas advokatą, duris atidaro Lenė „Durų langelyje pasirodė dvi juodos akys)

Tamsą taip pat skleidžia biurokratija ir teismas. Kadangi teismas gali pasiekti bet kuriuos visuomenės sluosknius, jis kartu su savimi ir visuomenėje paskleidžia tamsą.

ŠVIESA:
Šviesa santykinai užima mažą dalį romane. Keletas „ryto“ pavyzdžių: 1skyrius Jozefas suimamas ryte, 2sk K. į pirmą tardymą vyksta sekmadienį ryte, 7sk prasideda „Vieną žiemos rytą...“)

Išskirtinis dėmesys šviesai:
Katedroje – virš sakyklos kabėjusi „lempa, kuris paprastai pakabinama prieš pat pamokslą“, lempos gerai apšviestas kunigas – katedra šventa vieta, iš tamsos išsiskiriantis apšviestas kunigas išlaškantis tamsą, skleidžiantis gėrį.
Paskutinis skyrius,kai K. nužudomas – skaldykloje „it šviesos blyksnis ten atsivėrė abi vieno lango pusės, ka-kosk žmogus, atrodantis silpnas ir liesas taip aukštai ir toli, staiga smarkiai pasilemkė į priekį ir dar toliau ištiesė rankas“ – užuomina į mesiją, išganytoją, Kristų (irgi buvo kankinamas, todėl silpnas).
Pažymimas sakrališkumas, tikėjimas religija išlaisvina žmogų,suteikia stiprybės.

7. Klaidžiojimo tema romane.
Pasireiškiantis klaidžiojimas:
Jozefas klaidžioja namuose/būstuose – neranda išėjimo iš kanceliarijos teismo (ilgas siauras koridorius,tvanki atmosfera primena labirintą), neranda namo, kuriame gyvena dailininkas, vėliau ieško jo buto (namas,butas kaip ir kanceliarija yra siaura,purvina, mažai langų,kad būtų įleistas grynas oras)
Jozefas nuolat susipažįsta su naujais žmonėmis, kurie turėsiantys jam padėti, tačiau realios pagalbos iš nei vieno negauna (klaidžioja tarp žmonių)
Advokatas nuolat vilkina Jozefo išteisinimo prašymą,nuolat tempia laiką (klaidžioja tarp bylos)
Jozefo kaip žmogaus/asmenybės klaidžiojimas visuomenėje. Jozefas negali rasti vietos po saule, jis nesijaučia laimingas, kadangi pats yra valstybės tarnautojas, biurokratijos atstovas – bankininkas,nors ir nekenčia biurokratijos mechanizmo, bando jam priešintis (atsiduria tarp dviejų frontų).

Literatūra: A. Camus, „Viltis ir absurdas Franzo Kafkos kūryboje“ // Rinktiniai esė. V., Baltos lankos, 1993, p. 235-247. (gali būti ir kiti A. Camus „Sizifo mito“ leidimai, nes į jį įeina paminėtas skyrius). E. Fromm. Pamiršta kalba. V., Vaga, 2013 (skyrius apie F. Kafkos „Procesą“. J. Bajarūnienė. Mįslingasis F. Kafkos pasaulis // F. Kafka. Procesas. Pilis. Novelės (Pasaulinės literatūros biblioteka). V., Vaga, 1994, p. 549-565. N. Šervenikaitė. Francas Kafka. V., Baltos lankos, 2001.…...

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