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Journalism entails a high degree of public trust. To earn and maintain this trust, it is morally imperative for every journalist and every news medium to observe the highest professional and ethical standards. In the exercise of these duties, a journalist should always have a healthy regard for the public interest.

Truth is the cornerstone of journalism and every journalist should strive diligently to ascertain the truth of every event.

Conscious of the responsibilities and duties of journalists as purveyors of information, we, Nigerian journalist, give to ourselves this Code of Ethics. It is the duty of every journalist to observe its provisions.


Decisions concerning the content of news should be the responsibility of a professional journalist.


i. The public has a right to know. Factual, accurate balance and fair reporting is the ultimate objective of good journalism and the basis of earning public trust and confidence.

ii. A journalist should refrain from publishing inaccurate and misleading information. Where such information has been inadvertently published, prompt correction should be made. A journalist must hold the right of reply as a cardinal rule of practice.

iii. In the course of his duties a journalist should strive to separate facts from conjecture and comment.


As a general rule, a journalist should respect the privacy of individuals and their families unless it affects public interest.

A. Information on the private life of an individual or his family should only be published if it impinges on public interest.

B. Publishing of such information about an individual as mentioned above should be deemed justifiable only if it is directed at:

i. Exposing crime or serious misdemeanor;

ii. Exposing anti-social conduct;

iii. Protecting public health, morality and safety;

iv. Preventing the public from being misled by some statement or action of the individual concerned.


i. A journalist should observe the universally accepted principle of confidentiality and should not disclose the source of information obtained in confidence.

ii. A journalist should not breach an agreement with a source of information obtained as "off- the-record" or as "back ground information.


i. A journalist should dress and comport himself in a manner that conforms with public taste.

ii.A journalist should refrain from using offensive, abusive or vulgar language.

iii.A journalist should not present lurid details, either in words or picture, of violence, sexual acts, abhorrent or horrid scenes.

iv. In case involving personal grief or shock, enquiries should be carried out and approaches made with sympathy and discretion.

v. Unless it is in the furtherance of the public's right to know, a journalist should generally avoid identifying relatives or friends of persons convicted or accused of crime.


A journalist should refrain from making pejorative reference to a person's ethnic group, religion, sex or to any physical or mental illness or handicap.


i. A journalist should neither solicit nor accept bribe, gratification or patronage to suppress or publish information.

ii. To demand payment for the publication of news is inimical to the notion of news as a fair, accurate, unbiased and factual report of an event.


A journalist should not present or report acts of violence, armed robberies, terrorist activities or vulgar display of wealth in a manner that glorifies such acts in the eyes of the public.


A journalist should not identify, either by name or picture, or interview children under the age of 16 who are involved in cases concerning sexual offences, crimes and rituals or witchcraft either as victims, witnesses or defendants.


A journalist should strive to employ open and honest means in the gathering of information. Exceptional methods may be employed only when the public interest is at stake.


A journalist should strive to enhance national unity and public good.


A journalist should promote universal principles of human rights, democracy, justice, equity, peace and international understanding.


A journalist should not copy, wholesale or in part, other people's work without attribution and/or consent.


i. Where a journalist reproduces a work, be it in print, broadcast, art work or design, proper acknowledgement should be accorded the author.

ii. A journalist should abide by all rules of copyright, established by national and international laws and conventions.


A journalist should strive at all-times to enhance press freedom and responsibility.…...

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