Premium Essay

Involvement Theory

In: Business and Management

Submitted By epochherald
Words 1285
Pages 6
Question 2: “High involvement products are always high risk and always expensive”. Using examples, discuss the validity of this statement and reflect upon strategies that marketers might employ to reduce level of risk in a purchase decision situation.

Involvement is defined as a person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values and interest (Solomon et al., 2006). It has a major influence on consumers’ decision-making and communication behaviors (Michaelidou and Dibb, 2006). There are two types of involvement that consumers would have when purchasing for a product/ service: enduring involvement (Zaischkowsky, 1985), which refers to the importance of the product to the consumer’s self-concept and situational involvement (Dholakia, 1997), which refers as a term suggests, occurs only in specific situations.

Risk has been linked directly with the level of involvement. There are 6 types of risks (Jacoby & Kaplan, 1972) including monetary, social, psychological, functional, physical and time.

In this essay, the link between “high involvement products” and “high risk” would be examined. Then the implication for marketers to reduce the level of risk in a purchase decision situation would be mentioned.

First of all, the decision making process would be used as the primary key to access this issue. It is the process that consumers go through when purchasing for a product/ service with 5 stages including problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, product choice and outcome (adapted from Fill, 2010).

In the first stage, when customers realize their needs as the problem that they need to solve, they would categories it into different criteria. They could classify their needs according to the hierarchy of need (Maslow, 1943) by considering which stage their need belongs including solving basic/ physical need…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

American Involvement in the Vietnam War

...American Involvement in the Vietnam War Late 1940’s: America began sending aid to the French fighting in Vietnam and the rest of Indochina. France was fighting the Communist rebels led by Ho Chi Minh. 1954: Ho Chi Minh defeated the French. America became officially involved trying to stop Communists in Vietnam. Financial aid and military advisors were sent to help the South Vietnamese fight Northern Communists as they fighting in the South. The U.S. worked with Ngo Dinh Diem and other leaders to set up a separate government in the South. The U.S. worked with Ngo Dinh Diem, the South Vietnamese Premiere, to create separate governments in the South. President Dwight Eisenhower expressed concerns over Domino Theory. He believed that if Vietnam fell completely to Communism, then Communism would spread elsewhere, like how if the first domino falls, the rest follow. The Domino Theory is the central reason for America’s involvement in Vietnam. 1954-1964: U.S. involvement in Vietnam continued to increase. Eisenhower sends military advisors to South Vietnam to train South Vietnamese Army. 1964: August: North Vietnam attacked the USS Maddox in international waters. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that allowed President Johnson to increase America’s military involvement. It allowed him to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack...and to prevent further aggression." 1965: Pleiku Raid: Viet Cong attacked a Marine barracks killing eight and injuring over......

Words: 472 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Father Involvement

...Father Involvement Father Involvement Parent involvement makes a drastic difference in their child’s educational experience. Until recently fathers have played a backseat role to the mothers part in the child’s upbringing and education. However, research shows that a father’s involvement, no matter the father’s background or income, plays a critical part in the education of a child. Fathers that are part of a two-parent family are less likely to be highly involved in the education of a child. Surprisingly, a single-father is more likely to be highly involved in school activities or child education. When a father is involved in the education process their children become better learners, perform better, and have better behavior. Fathers tend to get involved in activities that are more likely to be outside of normal business or work hours such as plays, science fairs, or sports events. A father’s role can also have great positive affects on the way a child problem solves to emotional, mental, and spiritual development. A father’s involvement even shows in their child’s increase in curiosity and encourages children to be confident in their abilities. Both parents need to model behavior, but the added model of the father shows great improvement in all areas of educational experience in those children who have a father involved in school and other areas of their lives. Fathers are often seen as the sole providers and the mother should take of the rest. However, it is......

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Family Involvement

...Family Involvement 3 A parents' and/or family members' impact on children's learning and development are lasting and probably carries the most impact. When parents are involved in their child's learning process the child senses the importance of education. Early childhood educators need to reach out to families in order to engage them in their children's education. In order to do this, educators must first understand the challenges modern families face. Family dynamics have had drastic changes over the last several decades. “These changes include: Families are more diverse in structure and style, spend less time together, are poorer, need more schooling than ever in history, are more likely to be single, and have shifted their value base to be more protective of their children (Knopf & Swick 2008 pg 419). Families are also faced with other aspects including multi-generation households, higher economy, greater demands and longer hours at work, technological advances and society's changes. Longer life spans have created the condition of parents caring for their parents and their children, sometimes causing financial and time constraints that didn't exist in society before. The work force is also more demanding of it's workers requiring more education and training than ever before (Knopf & Swick 2008 pg 420 as cited in Coontz 1997). Parents feel a tug between providing for their families in this tough economy by working long demanding hours and spending......

Words: 1304 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Parental Involvement

...Parental Involvement Presented By: Edwina Tillman Presented To: Professor Steven Brown Class: RES 531 Date: April 15, 2012 The topic that I chose to do is Parental Involvement. I changed my topic from the aging of the federal workplace. I feel that my new topic fits me more since I am a teacher and work with all types of families on a daily basis. This topic is important to me because it disturbs me to see how some parents do not care or try to be involved in what is going on with their child and their child/children’s education. There are many parents in the United States who are not active or supportive members of helping their child to succeed in getting a good education. Parents must be on the same level with the teacher and the student in order for the parental involvement program to become a success. Parental involvement ensures that the teachers, principals, and students will work cooperatively to get total satisfaction on standardized test, homework, and many other school activities. Parental involvement will make a big difference in the community and in our children’s future. Parental involvement is a problem in the school and a problem in the home. It becomes a problem in the classroom when parents are not coming to the classroom to visit the teacher or peep through the door to see how their child is behaving in class and progressing in their school work. It becomes a problem at home when the child is having difficulty with their homework and they ask their...

Words: 441 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Consumer Fashion Involvement

...bs_bs_banner International Journal of Consumer Studies ISSN 1470-6423 Beyond the fad: a critical review of consumer fashion involvement ijcs_1041 84..104 Iman Naderi Department of Marketing and Logistics, College of Business, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA Keywords Consumer involvement, content analysis, fashion, literature review. Correspondence Iman Naderi, Department of Marketing and Logistics, College of Business, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle 311396, Denton, Texas 76203-5017, USA. E-mail: doi: 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01041.x Abstract Fashion involvement has been regarded as an important research topic in consumer research. Despite the importance of this topic, no attempt has been made in the past to review, assess and consolidate extant research on fashion involvement. This study presents a comprehensive and critical review and analysis of the recent studies on involvement in the context of fashion clothing to indicate the current state and identify possible gaps. A content analysis of the current peer-reviewed journal articles published on this research topic reveals a paucity of research on a number of antecedents and consequences of involvement. Further, the findings show that the research method is biased towards the survey method as opposed to experimentation. In this paper, the results of the content analysis outlining methodologies, sample characteristics, variables and major findings are provided......

Words: 12660 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Parent Involvement

...significant research on how parental involvement affects students, explanations for why parents do not get involved, and what role both schools and teachers play in creating an atmosphere conducive to parents becoming actively involved in the educational process. Parental involvement refers to a parent or family members' participation and contribution to their child's schooling. These contributions can take place in or outside of the school, with the objective of improving a child’s learning. Parental involvement at home can include activities such as helping with homework or reading with the child. Involvement at school may include parents volunteering in the classroom or attending workshops. Parental involvement is vital to school reform. Although current educational policies and practices show a widespread support for parental involvement, how parents can become involved and the extent to which they should be involved has not always been made clear. However, one fact has remained certain; research on the effects of parental involvement has shown a consistent, positive relationship between parents' engagement in their child's education and student outcomes. Parental Involvement in Education Effects of Parental Involvement There are literally hundreds of books and journal articles available on the subject of parental involvement and the impact it has on a child’s education. I chose the issue of the effects of parent involvement on student achievement......

Words: 2703 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Commuunity Involvement

...Community Involvement Increasing community capacity to work with youth at risk for incarceration is the key to sustaining systemic reform of the juvenile justice system (OJJDP, 2010). However, there still remains to have a disconnection between the juvenile justice system and the local community (OJJDP, 2010). Community justice seeks to engage citizens and community groups both as clients and as resources of juvenile justice systems, while promoting a more effective response to prevent crime and prompt restorative activities when a crime occurs (OJJDP, 2010). Its mission attempts to ensure that juvenile justice intervention is focused on basic community needs and expectations (OJJDP, 2010). Communities expect justice systems to improve public safety, sanction juvenile crime, and habilitate and reintegrate offenders (OJJDP, 2010). Juvenile justice professionals balance these needs and goals in each case and equally allocate its resources to meeting each need (OJJDP, 2010). Community justice can be described as a process that repairs harm, reduces risk, and empowers community. Its emphasis is on a mutually coordinated response through crime prevention, remediation of criminal activity, and determination of short- and long-term needs of community members affected by the consequences of a criminal act (OJJDP, 2010). Ultimately, community justice is realized when equal consideration and resources are provided to crime prevention, the reduced risk to public safety by......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Family Involvement

...She has an exemplary teacher, which is beneficial to her because she is learning from good examples. Sara is in kindergarten at an elementary school. Her teacher encourages physical development will impacts developmental skills. Providing ample outdoor playtime will permit the child to develop gross motor skills. The teacher’s common use of indoor arts and crafts are also a great way of promoting fine motor skills. * Mesosystems – Sara’s parents had a birthday party for her and invited all of her cousins and friends. This party would combine Sara's family microsystem with her peer microsystem. This situation could have a positive effect on Sara’s development due to the fact that the microsystems are working together. The positive involvement of a parent or external activities such as sports days can play a very positive role in the child's overall growth. Sara’s teachers have an active role in her school by setting up parent-teacher conferences and watching their child's soccer games, which is what help ensure the child's overall growth. * Exosystems – Her mother just finished school to become a Nurse and just got her first job. This is great for Sara because now she has two working parents instead of just her father. Her parents were very happy about this because they feel like they will be able to provide a better future for their children and are much more comfortable with being able to support their future than they were before. * Macrosystems – Sara’s parents...

Words: 1596 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Parental Involvement

...Running head: PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT INTERVIEW Parental Involvement Interview Roseann Mazik Grand Canyon University Parental Involvement Interview Parental involvement includes a wide range of behaviors but generally refers to parents' and family members' use and investment of resources in their children's schooling. These investments can take place in or outside of school, with the intention of improving children's learning. Parental involvement at home can include activities such as discussions about school, helping with homework, and reading with children. Involvement at school may include parents volunteering in the classroom, attending workshops, or attending school plays and sporting events. Parental involvement is linked to lower dropout and truancy rates. School, family and community involvement create a positive influence in the lives of children. And the child’s educational development is enhanced when these three environments work collaboratively toward positive goals ( Parental involvement includes child interactions that communicate positive behaviors about school and the importance of education. Cognitive involvement promotes the child’s skill development such as reading books. Parents must build a relationship with their child’s teacher founded on mutual respect, trust and understanding. By doing do they are ensuring that their child’s educational and emotional needs are met (McCarthy). This is especially true when a...

Words: 1271 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Church Involvement

...18 March 2014 REED Church Involvement (Discovery, Insights, and Learning Experience) “Being involved is being enlightened”. There are so many to learn and discover when one takes time to be a part of the church, not only during mass on a Sunday, but also the programs and activities the church have that involves reaching-out to the society and spreading the good news of the lord, including support for those who are in need. I have been keen on initiating a part of my personal time to get involved. Each day, I discover a lot of fruitful knowledge from a simple conversation with a priest and group reading of the Bible. We share ideas and information not only about the history of the Catholic Church but also its main core of existence. This is beneficial for me, as life moves on, I am able to adapt to the morality of my existence. I also experienced getting involved with our local church during times of calamity where we volunteer to assist the church programs on collection of goods, working shoulder to shoulder with friends, sorting offerings from kind heart. The experience is quite dramatic and enriching, as I have witness our society share and help each other when in need. By being an active part of the church, I gained friends and acquaintances, I learn from their ideas and experience. Moreover, I have observed different perspective of people with regards to their faith and life in general. This learning experience can be used as my reference when dealing with my......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Parental Involvement

...Running head: Parental Involvement Parental Involvement Interview Bridgette W. Darden Grand Canyon University: SPE 522 February 9, 2011 Parental Involvement Interview I interviewed Mr. Ken Robinson. Ken is the parent of a student in the self-contained class to which I am assigned as a substitute paraprofessional. Mr. Robinson is a divorced, single parent. He is employed outside of the home as a civil engineer. Originally from Zionsville, Indiana, his family relocated to Stone Mountain, Georgia about three years ago. Their immediate family consists of himself, three sons and their paternal grandmother. Mr. Robinson’s youngest son was diagnosed as Severely Autistic with a language and speech impairment at the age of three. This paper describes an interview with Ken Robinson and will summarize views of his parental involvement in regards to a special needs child, his opinions on the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), involvement in his child’s education, the schools role in the educational process, parental rights and building a reliable alliance with his teacher/school will be discussed. Mr. Robinson stated that the No Child Left Behind Act did affect his relationship with the teachers, because although Kevin is a special needs student, he is held accountable for standardized testing equivalency under a different set of standards and testing than the general education students called the Georgia Alternative Assessment (GAA). The GAA is a portfolio of special......

Words: 898 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...without the latest iPhone while another is perfectly happy with three year old LG. Involvement is defined as a person perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs and values and interest. Consumers can find involvement in these objects. Involvement can be viewed as the motivation to process information. The type of information processing that will occur depends on the consumer’s level of involvement. it can range from simple processing where only the basic features of a message are considered all the way to elaboration with incoming information is linked to one’s pre-existing knowledge system. A person’s degree of involvement seen as a continuum ranging from absolute lack of interest to obsession on another. Consumption at the low end of involvement is inertia where decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks motivation to consider alternatives related to habitual decision making. At the high end of involvement, a passionate intensity for people and objects that carries great meaning for them mostly for extensive problem solving decisions. Whether a decision is low, high, or limited, involvement varies by consumer, not by product, although some products such as purchasing a house typically require a high-involvement for all consumers. Consumers with no experience purchasing a product may have more involvement than someone who is replacing a product. High-involvement decisions carry a higher risk to buyers if they fail, are complex, and/or......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Parntal Involvement

...Children’s Study Habits and Parental Involvement of Leon A. Garcia Sr. Elementary School Ginaliza M. Nomio Master Teacher 1 Leon A. Garcia Sr. Elementary School Introduction Childrens study habits and the degree of parental involvement in studying seem to show differences in how they learn and how serious they are about learning. Luster and McAdoo (2006) believe that parents influence what a child brings to school and how well a child acquires school related skill throughout the school years such as working with a child on homework and this can influence other behaviors such as study habits that will affect the childrens achievement. Parent training interventions are highly promising for young children (Webster-Stratton, 2003). Parents have many different influences on their children and parents are needing more intervention programs because of all the problems children are faced with today. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing .While poor study habits include skipping class, not doing your work, watching TV or playing video games instead of studying, and losing your work. For students of any age, studying is the factuality of life, with tests and exams commonly raising stress levels and daily workloads many students given account that they fret about burnout due to the pressures of achieving good grades. Some adopt a very......

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Emplyee Involvement

...LIR 858 Alsadeg 1 Hussain Alsadeg Labor Relations Practice in Business and Employee Involvement The Industrial Relations approach to managing the employee/employer relationship has been losing the battle against the Personnel Management school practices. Most integral to the recent personnel management approaches is Employee Involvement. “Fifty-two percent of employees in the Workplace Representation and Participation Survey reported that some form of employee participation program operates in their workplace and 31 percent indicate that they participate in an employee involvement program” (Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations). Employee Involvement and empowerment practices are thought to weaken labor unions; as the approach to rewards and empowerment is distributed to individuals instead of being collectively bargained. While employee involvement has demonstrated to bring enhanced productivity and effectiveness, there is concern that employee involvement programs violate Section 8(a)(2) of the NLRA; this section of the law states: “Sec. 8. [§ 158.] (a) [Unfair labor practices by employer] It shall be an unfair labor practice for an employer--(2) to dominate or interfere with the formation or administration of any labor organization or contribute financial or other support to it: Provided, That subject to rules and regulations made and published by the Board pursuant to section 6 [section 156 of this title], an employer shall not......

Words: 3155 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Effect of Involvement on Visual Attention

...See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: The effect of involvement on visual attention and product choice ARTICLE in JOURNAL OF RETAILING AND CONSUMER SERVICES · MAY 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.01.002 CITATIONS READS 3 143 4 AUTHORS, INCLUDING: Bridget K. Behe Patricia Huddleston Michigan State University Michigan State University 133 PUBLICATIONS 578 CITATIONS 46 PUBLICATIONS 748 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE Lynnell Sage Michigan State University 8 PUBLICATIONS 7 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately. Available from: Bridget K. Behe Retrieved on: 07 February 2016 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 24 (2015) 10–21 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services journal homepage: The effect of involvement on visual attention and product choice Bridget K. Behe a, Mikyeung Bae b,n, Patricia T. Huddleston b, Lynnell Sage a a Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; Department of Advertising and Public Relations, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA b art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 28 March 2014 Received in......

Words: 12571 - Pages: 51