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Introduction to Policing

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Courtroom [Make sure paragraph indentation is five to seven spaces or one tab stop] Work Group Mary C. Thomas CJ\204 October 15, 2012 Kimberly Haney

Courtroom Work Group This paper will [Doctoral-level comment (but recommended for any collegiate writer)--Avoid anthropomorphisms (attributing human characteristics to nonhuman or inanimate objects). Consider that no paper can "discuss."] and evaluate the roles of the courtroom workgroup. [Insert comma here to set off the adjective phrase beginning with "according to" (unless it is a dependent phrase)]" According to Schmalleger the courtroom work group is a group of professional ". actors (p.302 [Leave a space before the number] ). The key actors in the courtroom group are judges, prosecuting attorneys, defense counsels, witness, and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] jurors. This same workgroup completes the same task day after day. The only things may change would be the victim or victims, witness or [Insert a comma before this word if this is the last in a list of more than two -- or if it begins a new clause] witnesses, and the defendants. There are no changes [Avoid use of the first person (I, me, my) in academic writing unless writing about a personal experience. First person use may be allowed by the instructor. ] needed for this workgroup. The requirements of becoming a judge is graduate from an undergraduate program, attend law school, pass the bar examination, ["Exam" is short for "examination." Avoid slang in academic writing`] and work as an attorney. The role of judges is to serve justice in a manner that the defendants’ rights are not [Contractions are inappropriate in academic writing--write it out] violated. Sentence the defendant accordingly to the crime that is [A contraction ending in "s" (meaning "is") is inappropriate in academic writing--write it out] [A contraction ending in "s" (meaning "is") is inappropriate in academic writing--write out "that is"] committed. [The passive voice is a form of "be" (been) and a participle (committed). Over-use of the passive voice can make paragraphs officious and tedious to read. Prefer the active voice. For example, passive voice = The paper was completed on time. Active voice = the student completed the paper on time. See Center for Writing Excellence > Tutorials & Guides > Grammar & Writing Guides > Active & passive voice] and found For example individual was charged [Passive voice ] with aggravated robbery and reckless endangerment both charges carry lengthy sentences. Instead of acquring ["having" as a transitive verb is vague. Reconsider the sentence using "possessing," "acquiring," "developing," etc. Often "having" can be deleted] a trial the Prosecutor offers the defendant a plea of nine years at 30 [Express numbers higher than nine in digits (when not the first word in the sentence)] percent. Prosecuting attorney is to determine if or not to charge the offender with the crime in question. Schedule cases, decide which cases to try and [correct usage is "try to"] offer plea bargains. Prosecuting attorneys chooses cases on if [Use "whether" when the situation has more than one possible outcome. If there is just one result, prefer "if" ] there is [A contraction ending in "s" (meaning "is") is inappropriate in academic writing--write out "there is"] [A contraction ending in "s" (meaning "is") is inappropriate in academic writing--write it out] enough evidence to obtain a conviction, and creditable witnesses. Criterions’ taking a more stringent case versus[Check spelling--"verses" are parts of a poem, song, or religious scripture; "versus" is Latin: "in opposition to" (often abbreviated vs.)] a lessor one is that the crime may not be heard before the court of law. On the other hand a lessor stringent case the prosecutor may present the case to the courts to allow the jurors to decide the verdict. The defense counsel has two parts criminal and trail lawyer. They are to communicate with the defendant about what is happening in his case and his legal rights. Prepare a defense for the defendant who [Check word usage--If this word refers to a human being, people are never "that" or "which," they are "who"] has been charged [Passive voice ] with a crime. Subpoena witness and gather information that could help the defendant in his case. The prosecutor and defense attorneys use witness to help convict defendant or prove his innocence. There are two types of witnesses lay and expert. Lay witness is someone who saw exactly what happen and can give acquired details pertaining to the case . [do not leave a space before a period] Expert [Attach the period to the last word of the sentence, not the first] witness consists of medical examiner, psychologist, ballistic, and crime scene investigator. The medical examiner and ballistic can provide information in a murder case or at a shooting. Psychologist determine the competency the defendant to stand trial. Jury is made [Passive voice ] of one’s peers. [Run-on sentence: requires a comma before "and" (or other conjunction) if linking main clauses`] and [Grammar: A run-on sentence requires a comma before "and" (or other conjunction) linking main clauses] [Run-on sentence: Insert comma before "and" if the following is an independent clause (not part of a series)] They are given [Passive voice ] specific instructions by the judge in certain cases. To be considered [Check spelling--should this word end with "ed"?--the participle form of "consider" is "considered"] for jury duty they [Eliminate second person (you, your) in academic documents and avoid addressing the reader directly. Prefer third-person pronouns (he, she, they, it)] have to be the age of 18, [Express numbers higher than nine in digits (when not the first word in the sentence)] residence in their [second person] county, understand of language whether if its Spanish or English ,and in good mental and physical condition. Jurors are to pay close attention to the case and take notes if necessary. With the testimony from witnesses, defendant, and [Insert a comma before this word if this is the last in a list of more than two -- or if it begins a new clause] [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] the evidence presented in the trial. The jurors are to deliberate to determine the faith of the defendant. A supervisor [avoid gender-specific terms; use "supervisor"] [Passive voice ] delivers the verdict to the judge. The defendant is also key player in the professional courtroom group without him there would not [Write out contractions] be a case nor a trial. A defendant is a person or persons that was [Writing suggestion: rewrite the sentence to remove "who were"] involved [Passive voice ] in crimes that result into an arrest, charge, and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] appearance before the court. The defendant role is to cooperate with the attorney, testify in its best of interest, and choose to accept a plea bargain or take it to trail. If the defendant is found guilty he made ask to file an appeal with the help of the attorney through the courts. There are other professional actors that are the back bone [Check spelling: in most cases the preceding two words should be spelled as one word] [These two words are spelled as one word] of the courtroom; the bailiff, courtroom reporter, courtroom clerk, spectators, and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] media. The bailiff role is to maintain safety and order in the courtroom along with giving instructions when the judge is about to enter. Courtroom reporter is also known as a stenograph who records the activity of the courtroom and communicates it the judge. Courtroom clerk is responsible for keeping track of courtroom activities, documents, and judge’s decision. Organize courtroom documents and keep track of criminal cases. Spectators and media is also part of the courtroom actors. There are people who [Check word usage--If this word refers to a human being, people are never "that" or "which," they are "who"] are [Writing suggestion: rewrite the sentence to remove "that are"] interested [Passive voice ] in court proceeding. and [Grammar: A run-on sentence requires a comma before "and" (or other conjunction) linking main clauses] perhaps a [Check spelling: "maybe" means "perhaps." The verb is "may be" `] student studying criminal justice. The media broadcast high profile trials [Check spelling--if used as an adjective, the preceding two words are spelled as one hyphenated word] ; such as Ojay Simpson and. Funnel cases are cases that is [Wordiness: see if you can remove "that" or "that is"] pushed [Passive voice ] through the system never makes it to the courtroom. Adult cases are not the only cases funneled through the system; juvenile cases are also funneled through the system by giving a slap on the wrist or wanting to hold the parents accountable. A juvenile can commit crimes that we [Use "we," "us," or "our" to mean yourself and coauthors, not general humanity (or yourself and the reader)] may feel [Style suggestion: if "felt" is used in the sense of "to believe or think," it is a cliché and vague; use a form of "believe" or "think"] the individual should be incarcerated [Passive voice ] but because the Juvenile system doesn’t [Write out contractions] want to separate the family so they allow the juvenile back into the community to continue to commit crimes. Reasoning being [Doctoral rule (but good advice for any academic writer)--If not a noun (as in "human being"), the word "Being" is hard to imagine; it means "existing." Try to rewrite this without using "being"--with action words like "attending," "working," "living," "experiencing," simply "as"--or even removing "being" completely] is that the crimes are not reported to the police, illegal seizure and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] [Insert a comma before this word if this is the last in a list of more than two -- or if it begins a new clause] search and lack of evidence. For example: About ten [Express numbers higher than nine in digits (when not the first word in the sentence)] years ago [Beware of making time-stamps. You cannot predict when this will be read, so "X time ago" is meaningless. Be more specific, e.g., They opened the business in January 2009, etc.] a murder was committed [Passive voice ] in north Nashville there were eyewitnesses and evidence to put the assault away for life. Even the police knew that he committed the murder but because of lack of evidence and no witness this individual remains free. That the luck of a criminal.…...

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