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Inferential Psychology:
Hypothesis testing and the search for truth
Asking questions of nature has been a part of science from the beginning. In psychology we generally move towards a model of natural science that makes use of inferential hypothesis testing as a central tenet or dogma.
As indicated earlier, with respect to sampling from populations, we use a collection of probability distributions and inferential statistics to help us in making decisions about our hypotheses.
Essentially statistics are a tool that we use in making decisions. Sometimes we use these tools thoughtfully, considering their strengths and weaknesses, sometimes we use them blindly allowing them to dominate our thoughts and remove our interpretations from the role they must play.
Remember that there are numerous assumptions behind the use of statistics in guiding our decision-making, they do not make science and truth for us.

Looking back to the Rebirth of Positivism:
Psychology and The Golden Age of Behaviorism Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959): Purposive behaviorism
Influenced by neo-realism and gestalt psychology
Purpose and hunger could be objectively observed Operational behaviorism examines the functional relationships between independent and dependent variables Intervening variables: Theoretical constructs representing hypothetical processes) which enable the prediction of dependent variables. Theoretically they are the link between stimulus and response, sometimes thought of as real causes. For example: B=fx(S,P,H,T,A) where s=stimuli, p=physiological drive, h=heredity, t=training, a=age Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952): Mechanism & reductionism
Mathematization of psychology: "physics envy"
Quantifiable prediction and control are goals of psychology Underlying realism (in opposition to Mach & Bridgman) Hypothetico-Deductivism:…...

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