Premium Essay

Infidelity and the Psychological Mechanism of Jealousy in Reproductive Relationships

In: Other Topics

Submitted By acarver90
Words 1298
Pages 6
Joe Quirk notes in his book, It’s Not You It’s Biology, “the wombless and bewombed have evolved different emotions when it comes to protecting their reproductive interests. Female jealousy guards resources. Male jealousy guards wombs” (2006, p. 162). Jealousy is created when a human being believes there is a potential threat to a valuable relationship. It can occur in any relationship, but most notably, romantic ones. Men and women experience jealousy differently because it is believed they faced different reproductive obstacles during early human evolution. Men are more likely to exhibit jealousy in response to sexual infidelity, while women are more likely to exhibit jealousy in response to emotional infidelity.
Male sexual infidelity stems from the evolutionary reproductive strategy of having as many mates as possible to increase the chances of passing on genes to the next generation. While this tactic may have elevated the need for multiple mates in early human mating, today’s society has enforced a strict relationship between a man and a woman, known as monogamy. In a study conducted by Jeff Ward and Martin Voracek of the School of Psychology at the Australian National University, it was found that of the 268 participants involved, men (44%) were more likely than women (20%) to select sexual intercourse as the most distressing. Also, men (28%) were more likely to find their partner trying different sexual positions more distressing than were women (5%) (2001, p.168). Of these findings, it’s apparent that men and women experience different jealous reactions when it involves romantic relationships. Social beliefs are also a primary driver of jealousy, and are influenced by how we believe both sexes should react to it. The study reveals that men’s beliefs tend to shift in the direction of sex implying attachment more than attachment implying sex. For women the…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Infidelity

...Out of Control Infidelity. Reasons for cheating, Ways in Which People Cheat, or Is it really that out of control or just actually being discussed more? Amanda A Northrup Schiller International University Abstract Cheating seems like it is almost a guaranteed topic of discussion at least once a day. Whether you’re hearing a struggle of someone close to you, hearing about it on the television, or even telling your own personal experience, we hear about it way too often. Cheating can be done in the palm of your hand, just on your cell phone alone. We are surrounded in a social media thriving world which allows you to chat with anyone via email, games, apps, text, and even websites designed for the cheating spouse. The reasons people cheat are plentiful; anywhere from intimacy issues, to boredom. But is it really this out of control, or is it that it’s just talked about now rather than staying behind closed doors? Out of Control Infidelity. Reasons for cheating, Ways in Which People Cheat, or Is it really that out of control or just actually being discussed more? When I bought my first “smartphone” I was told to,” Be careful, that phone literally puts the world in the palm of your hands.” It is true for so many reasons and can be an amazing, helpful, piece of technology for the average person. It can also be a gateway for any person regardless of race, sex, or religion. A pathway, if you will, to begin on the road of infidelity. Cell phones don’t only call people......

Words: 1366 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Outline and Critically Evaluate the Concept of the ‘Psychological Contract’. Why Is an Understanding of the Psychological Contract Considered to Be Important to the Management of the Contemporary Employment Relationship?

...critically evaluate the theory of the “psychological contract” and its role between the employee and employer. Through looking at the positive and negative aspects of this contract by using relevant information, figures and evaluating case studies, it shall explain why the understanding of this “psychological contract” is considered to be so vital to the management the contemporary employment relationship. The “psychological contract” of employment can briefly be defined as ‘a set of unwritten reciprocal expectations between an individual employee and the organisation’ (Schein, 1976). Such as the employee being promised certain policies or benefits and the employer expecting the employee to perform at a certain level or be of a specific age etc. Guest and Conway (2002) defined it as “the perceptions of the two parties, employee and employer, of what their mutual obligations are towards each other”. Therefore, an agreement that is beyond what is written or implied in the contract or other explicit manifestations of the employment relationship. The concept of the psychological contract is commonly traced back to the early work of Argyris (1960) and to social exchange theory (Blau, 1964). However, the crucial developments leading to its current use as an analytic framework were provided mainly by Rousseau (1995). The psychological contract therefore provides an opportunity to explore the processes and content of the employment relationship through a focus on more or less......

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Infidelity

...Review of studies on infidelity Bahareh Zare1+ 1 Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht branch, marvdasht, shiraz, iran. Abstract. This paper reviews empirical studies over the past decades from all over the world in order to assess what researchers have done about infidelity issue and identify gaps in the literature where further research is needed. These studies are categorized into eight groups: 1) Different types of infidelity 2) Gender difference in infidelity 3) Education level and infidelity 4) Genetic effect on infidelity 5) Personality and infidelity 6) Reasons of infidelity 7) Consequences of infidelity 8) Infidelity and treatments. The existing body of knowledge relating to these groups of studies will be summarized in this paper. Key words: Infidelity, Personality, Gender, Education Level, Genetic Effect. 1. Introduction Nowadays, infidelity is a most important reason of divorces. Based on research reports, 90% of all divorces involve infidelity. The most consistent data on infidelity drives from the General Social Survey which sponsored by the National Science Foundation to track the opinions of Americans about social behaviors since 1972. The survey data shows that in any given year, about 10% of married couples (12% men and 7% of women) have engaged in sex outside their marriage. But detailed analysis of the data from 1991 to 2006 shows surprising shifts. University of Washington researchers have found that the rate of lifetime infidelity for men over......

Words: 3070 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Romantic Jealousy and Facebook Usage

...Method and Theory in Psychology October 8, 2013 Romantic Jealousy and Facebook Usage The use of Facebook, a popular social network, can have a significant influence in the development of romantic jealousy. Facebook jealousy can occur when someone feels threatened after viewing their partner interacting online with a superior potential mate, which could possibly lead to a daily surveillance of their partner’s activity on Facebook. A person with anxious-attachment could be described as having low self-esteem and a fear of abandonment, resulting in the continuous need for reassurance about the status of their romantic relationship and possible signs of infidelity. Individuals who have an anxious-style of attachment and frequently view their partner’s Facebook activity are more prone to experience feelings of romantic jealousy. Prior research has shown that anxious attachment is positively related, and avoidant attachment negatively related, to Facebook jealousy and surveillance (Marshall, Bejanyan, DiCastro, & Lee, 2012, p.5). Those with an anxious-style of attachment do not feel that they deserve a loving relationship and are scared of being alone. The researchers designed an online survey to test the prevalence of Facebook jealousy. The study included 255 participants, 201 women and 54 men. Two tests were conducted that measured attachment style, self-esteem, perceived relationship quality, jealousy, and their usage of Facebook. The participant’s answers......

Words: 2159 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Sex Differences in Jealousy

...Sex Differences in Jealousy: An Evolutionary Perspective Jealousy is an intense emotional reaction that affects all types of people in different cultures all over the world (Buss, 2001). Having a wide variety of implications, jealousy is most often associated with negative, anxiety induced behaviours, and in relationships it is most often in response to a relationship threat by a third party with desirable qualities. Current literature on the topic suggests that there is a general consensus that the main function of jealousy is to protect a valuable relationship from loss to a desirable rival (Buss & Haselton, 2005). However despite this primary function, there are clear sex differences with regards to thoughts about emotional and sexual infidelity (Daly, Wilson & Weghorst, 1982). There exists a lot of evidence to support the finding that men find sexual infidelity worse than emotional infidelity, whereas women find the opposite (Buss et al., 2001; Daly et al., 1982). It has been found that 60% of men choose sexual infidelity as worse, and 74% of women choose emotional infidelity (Sagarin et al., 2012). Moreover, these findings have been replicated in numerous countries, which encourage the perspective that these sex differences are evolutionary based (Buunk & Angleitner, 1996). The parental-investment model states that these differences occur because men want to be sure of the paternity of their children, not invest their resources to genetically unrelated......

Words: 2634 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Theory of Psychological Contracts in Organizational Employment - and Wider 'Psychological Contracting' in Relationships, Communications and Societies - and the Psychological Contract 'Iceberg' Diagram

...The Psychological Contract' is an increasingly relevant aspect of workplace relationships and wider human behaviour. Descriptions and definitions of the Psychological Contract first emerged in the 1960s, notably in the work of organizational and behavioural theorists Chris Argyris and Edgar Schein. Many other experts have contributed ideas to the subject since then, and continue to do so, either specifically focusing on the the Psychological Contract, or approaching it from a particular perspective, of which there are many. The Psychological Contract is a deep and varied concept and is open to a wide range of interpretations and theoretical studies. Primarily, the Psychological Contract refers to the relationship between an employer and its employees, and specifically concerns mutual expectations of inputs and outcomes. The Psychological Contract is usually seen from the standpoint or feelings of employees, although a full appreciation requires it to be understood from both sides. Simply, in an employment context, the Psychological Contract is the fairness or balance (typically as perceived by the employee) between: how the employee is treated by the employer, and what the employee puts into the job. The words 'employees' or 'staff' or 'workforce' are equally appropriate in the above description. At a deeper level the concept becomes increasingly complex and significant in work and management - especially in change management and in large......

Words: 7423 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

The Relationship Between Sports Fanship and Social Psychological Well-Being

...Greg Tyler Bray UNIV 200 10/31/2013 The Relationship Between Sports Fanship and Social Psychological Well-Being As a lifelong sports fan, I’ve experienced just about all of the emotional highs and lows that go with it, from my football team winning the Super Bowl twice, to my favorite baseball team going through 14 consecutive losing seasons. People love sports no matter how good or bad their favorite teams may be and they have become a large part of many people’s lives. And like many sports fans, my day to day mood can be greatly affected by how my favorite teams performed the previous night. Being a sports fan has positive benefits for your psychological and social well-being. In order to fully understand how being a sports fan can affect your life, we must first fully understand the different aspects of fanship. First the basics, fan. Walter Gantz, et al. define a fan as “a keen and regular spectator of a (professional) sport, originally of baseball,” but the term can also pertain to athletes and teams themselves (Gantz 96). Next is team identification. Team identification is defined as the extent to which an individual feels a psychological connection with a team and to passionate fans it is “‘a central component of their self-identity’” (Vallerand 1281). The relationship between team identification and well-being is the main topic of research for many psychologists and has shown to be a positive relationship. Being a sports fan provides countless possibilities......

Words: 2807 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Infidelity

...Hernandez 1 Clarisa Hernandez ENC1102 Professor Clark May 19, 2014 infidelity in a relationship For the most part many couples complain that the reason why their relationship came to an end was because of infidelity issues. In a society such as ours, where the divorce rate is sky high, infidelity plays a major role and of great concern to all those who are presently married, or those who are someday hoping to be. Emotional and sexual infidelity is the two most studied forms of infidelity. Infidelity is a sexual and/or emotional act engaged in by one person within a committed relationship. Reasons for me choosing this topic, was because i wanted to learn why would someone in a commited relationship who qoute on qoute "Love" their partner damage them emotionally. The thought of another person breaking up the “two halves that make a whole” is not even an issue. Think again, this world is not a great place, and often enough the most important person in ones life finds some reason to be unfaithful. Infidelity is a kind of thing that could leave a scar for all eternity. My question is "If you're so called happy" than why are you being unfaithful ?. Cheating seems like it is almost a guaranteed topic of discussion at least once a day. Whether you’re hearing a struggle of someone close to you, hearing about it on the television, or even telling your own personal experience, we hear about it way too often. As a young adult i honestly fear of adultry, i wouldnt want the man......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Partner Infidelity and the Decision to Forgive

... Partner infidelity and the decision to forgive Many long-lasting romantic relationships are constantly threatened by sexual and emotional infidelities. A person that has been betrayed by his or her partner is faced with a difficult decision of whether to forgive or to terminate the relationship. The effect of aspects of infidelity on likelihood of forgiveness or breakup partly depends on sex differences. Both sexes can be devastated by partner’s infidelity. Unpleasant emotions like anger, depression and jealousy are felt by the betrayed partner upon discovering the infidelity (Buss, 2000; Lawson, 1988). A study of 160 cultures found out that infidelity is the most frequent reason for dissolution of relationship ( Betzig, 1989). However, not all couples breakup upon discovering an infidelity. Some forgive their partners and continue with the relationship ( Lawson, 1988). It is important to know the conditions under which betrayal in relationships lead to breakups or forgiveness. However, little empirical work has been done in exploring this critical issue, although some related researches have attempted to explain strategies to deal with jealousy and suspicions of infidelity. For example, Buunk (1981) found out four strategies that couples may use to cope with jealousy such as improving communication and being independent of the partner. White and Mullen (1989) found out that people use eight strategies to cope with jealousy : investing in the main relationship, coming up...

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Partner Infidelity and the Decision to Forgive

... Partner infidelity and the decision to forgive Many long-lasting romantic relationships are constantly threatened by sexual and emotional infidelities. A person that has been betrayed by his or her partner is faced with a difficult decision of whether to forgive or to terminate the relationship. The effect of aspects of infidelity on likelihood of forgiveness or breakup partly depends on sex differences. Both sexes can be devastated by partner’s infidelity. Unpleasant emotions like anger, depression and jealousy are felt by the betrayed partner upon discovering the infidelity (Buss, 2000; Lawson, 1988). A study of 160 cultures found out that infidelity is the most frequent reason for dissolution of relationship ( Betzig, 1989). However, not all couples breakup upon discovering an infidelity. Some forgive their partners and continue with the relationship ( Lawson, 1988). It is important to know the conditions under which betrayal in relationships lead to breakups or forgiveness. However, little empirical work has been done in exploring this critical issue, although some related researches have attempted to explain strategies to deal with jealousy and suspicions of infidelity. For example, Buunk (1981) found out four strategies that couples may use to cope with jealousy such as improving communication and being independent of the partner. White and Mullen (1989) found out that people use eight strategies to cope with jealousy : investing in the main relationship, coming......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Infidelity

...Infidelity There is a rise in infidelity across the country. It is becoming more common; affecting everyone from celebrities, presidents, married couples, and new lovers. People are more openly talking about infidelity. Infidelity has been on the rise for some time now and is expected to continue to rise. Free dictionary.com defines infidelity as unfaithfulness to a sexual partner especially a spouse. Infidelity statistics show cheating is on the rise; over 50% of both men and women have had a sexual relationship with a person other than their spouse during their marriage. There are many different causes and effects of infidelity, mostly negative, but some can be positive. One possible cause is availability and opportunity. There are so many options of cheating—emotional, cyber, and sexual. There are even more ways to hide it, most believe they will not get caught. When the opportunity arises, it is too tempting for most people to pass up. I took a survey in the class to see what fellow classmates believed was the most common cause of cheating. 60% believed that a change in perspective is the leading cause to infidelity. Another cause is technology. Technology makes cheating easier than it ever has been. Numerous people visit online chat rooms and dating sites. Several of those people stay in contact with their online friends, on a daily basis. According to the infidelity statistics nearly 60% of internet users flirt over internet. 40% of them have engaged...

Words: 1252 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Relationship Between Psychological Intimacy and Romantic Jealousy

...Relationship Between Psychological Intimacy and Romantic Jealousy Abstract Most of the research on romantic relationships are emphasizing the roles of psychological intimacy and the generated jealousy evoking behaviors. However, the causal effects of these constructs in relation to jealousy have not yet been examined enough. Some of the factors such as affection, affirmation levels, attachment style, and levels of intimacy play an important role in changing the style of jealousy related behaviors either cognitive or surveillance. Results show that the negative type of jealousy where the emotion of fear, aggressiveness hold to the person’s character may be the reason of perceived threats to the relationship from third parties. When there is a threat in a romantic relationship, it is seen that the partners are more likely to be engaged in jealousy behaviors. Keywords: Jealousy, Psychological intimacy, Romantic relationship Relationship Between Psychology Intimacy and Romantic Jealousy Have you ever seen that either you or your romantic partner turned into a green eyed monster? Green eyed monster is socially named for the concept, jealousy. Being jealous has always considered to be negative yet many people engage in jealousy evoking behaviors. There are many factors lying behind the emotion such as psychological intimacy. In other words, interpersonal closeness. Due to different give and takes, interpretations...

Words: 3830 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Reconstructing a Relationship After Infidelity

...Reconstructing a relationship after infidelity Infidelity is certainly one of the most destructive things that can happen in a relationship and can cause severe emotional pain. It can lead to the end of a relationship quicker than most other problems. Financial problems, health issues and other disagreements can strain a marital relationship but such problems may not cause as much heartache and desolation as infidelity (Fife & Weeks, 2008). This is because unfaithfulness undermines the foundation of a relationship. Nevertheless, an affair does not necessarily have to mean the end of a relationship. Given time to heal and with a common goal to rebuild the relationship, it is possible for a couple to emerge from infidelity with a relationship that is stronger and more sincere than before. It is difficult to determine exactly how many couples have had affairs, but one study found 37% of men and 20% of women admitted to being unfaithful (Rutherford, 2008). Men tend to have affairs for sexual reasons while women stray more for emotional reasons. In other words, men may be seeking sexual gratification in an affair while women may be seeing emotional gratification of the need to feel special. Does the discovery of an affair mean the marriage is over or irreparably damaged? Not necessarily. Fifty percent of marriages stay together following the discovery of an affair. Two thirds do not divorce if the couple seeks counseling (Rutherford, 2008). Living with the after effects of...

Words: 2270 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Jealousy- Not My Paper

...e! ! Jealousy!in!Close!Relationships!Among!Emerging!Adults! by! Katrina!Poetzl!Blomquist! Department!of!Psychology!and!Neuroscience! Duke!University! ! Date:_______________________! Approved:! ! ___________________________! Martha!Putallaz,!Supervisor! ! ___________________________! James!Moody! ! ___________________________! Philip!Costanzo! ! ___________________________! John!Curry! ! ! ! Dissertation!submitted!in!partial!fulfillment!of! the!requirements!for!the!degree!of!Doctor! of!Philosophy!in!the!Department!of! Psychology!and!Neuroscience!in!the!Graduate!School! of!Duke!University! ! 2014! ! ! ! ! ABSTRACT! Jealousy!in!Close!Relationships!Among!Emerging!Adults! by! Katrina!Poetzl!Blomquist! Department!of!Psychology!and!Neuroscience! Duke!University! ! Date:_______________________! Approved:! ! ___________________________! Martha!Putallaz,!Supervisor! ! ___________________________! James!Moody! ! ___________________________! Philip!Costanzo! ! ___________________________! John!Curry! ! An!abstract!of!a!dissertation!submitted!in!partial! fulfillment!of!the!requirements!for!the!degree! of!Doctor!of!Philosophy!in!the!Department!of! Psychology!and!Neuroscience!in!the!Graduate!School!of! Duke!University! ! 2014! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Copyright!by! Katrina!Poetzl!Blomquist! 2014! ! ! ! Abstra......

Words: 16800 - Pages: 68

Free Essay

Discuss the Relationship Between Sexual Selection and Human Reproductive Behaviour

...Discuss the relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour (24 marks) In this essay I will be discussing the two theories of sexual selection within humans and their reproductive behaviour. The evolutionary explanation of relationships says humans have an innate drive to reproduce and pass on our genes. Sexual selection is a process within natural selection where characteristics are selected because they’re attractive to the opposite sex, and so this increases reproductive success and passes on these traits to their offspring. Sex differences in sexual selection comes from our evolutionary past and so males and females have different reproductive behaviour; these differences are shown from their mate choice (inter sexual selection), mate competition (intra sexual selection) and differences within their short term and long term mating strategies. Males and females differ in mate selection as the different sexes have different needs which are stemmed from our genetic code which has evolved over millions of years. According to the inter sexual selection theory males and females look for different characteristics in a mate and behave differently to attract these mates. It is important to men that women prioritise physical attractiveness and so men are responsive to those who are young and attractive as it connotes that these women are more likely to be fertile and so the man can reproduce and pass on his genes. Therefore, men are attractive to women who...

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7