Free Essay

Indonesian Alphabeth

In: Other Topics

Submitted By silzpong
Words 265
Pages 2
Indonesian alphabet

|A a |B b |C c |D d |
|Aa |a |/a/ |a as in father |
|Bb |bé |/b/ |b as in bed |
|Cc |cé |/t͡ʃ/ |ch as in check |
|Dd |dé |/d/ |d as in day |
|Ee |é |/ə/ |e as in under |
| | |/ɛ/ |e as in get |
|Ff |éf |/f/ |f as in fish |
|Gg |gé |/ɡ/ |g as in gain |
|Hh |ha |/h/ |h as in harm |
|Ii |i |/i/ |i as in it, in, or is |
|Jj |jé |/d͡ʒ/ |j as in jam |
|Kk |ka |/k/ |unaspirated k as in skate |
|Ll |él |/l/ |l as in let |
|Mm |ém |/m/ |m as in mall |
|Nn |én |/n/ |n as in net |
|Oo |o |/o/ |o as in owe |
|Pp |pé |/p/ |unaspirated p as in speak |
|Qq |qi |/q/ ~ /k/ |q as in the Quran |
|Rr |ér |/r/ |Spanish rr as in puerro |
|Ss |és |/s/ |s as in sun |
|Tt |té |/t/ |unaspirated t as in still |
|Uu |u |/u/ |oo as in soon |
|Vv |vé |/v/ ~ /f/ |v as in van |
|Ww |wé |/w/ |w as in wet |
|Xx |éks |/ks/ or /z/ |x as in xylophone |
|Yy |yé |/j/ |y as in yarn |
|Zz |zét |/z/ ~ /s/ |z as in zebra |

|Digraph |Sound |Notes |
|ai |/ai̯/ |uy as in buy |
|au |/au̯/ |ou as in ouch |
|oi |/oi̯ |oy as in boy |
|ia |/ia/ | |
|gh |/ɣ/ ~ /x/ | |
|kh |/x/ | |
|ng |/ŋ/ |ng as in sing |
|ny |/ɲ/ |Spanish ñ; similar to ny as in canyon with a nasal sound |
|sy |/ʃ/ |sh as in shoe |…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Indonesian; Use a Capital Punishment for Anti Trafficking Crime

...INDONESIAN; USE A CAPITAL PUNISHMENT FOR ANTI TRAFFICKING CRIME CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Indonesia is a source, transit, and destination country for women, children, and men trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. The greatest threat of trafficking facing Indonesian men and women is that posed by conditions of forced labor and debt bondage in more developed Asian countries and the Middle East. The government stopped permitting Indonesian women to travel to Japan and South Korea as “cultural performers,” to curtail a practice that led to victims being trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. However, in 2007 traffickers increasingly used false documents, including passports, to obtain tourist visas for women and girls who are subsequently forced into prostitution in Japan, through the unlawful exploitation of recruitment debts as high as $20,000 each. Trafficking of young girls to Taiwan as brides, mainly from West Kalimantan, persisted. Traffickers use false marriage licenses and other false documentation in order to obtain visas and subsequently force the women and girls into prostitution. Women from the People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Eastern Europe are trafficked to Indonesia for commercial sexual exploitation, although the numbers are small compared with the number of Indonesians trafficked for this purpose. The Government of Indonesia does not fully comply with the...

Words: 1619 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Poverty Rises, Inequality Gap Widens: Wealth of 40 Richest Indonesians Equivalent to 60 Million People’s

...01 November 2011 Poverty Rises, Inequality Gap Widens Wealth of 40 richest Indonesians equivalent to 60 million people’s Key Points: • Poverty rate rises over the last three years, Indonesia is the worst country in Southeast Asia in combating poverty • Inequality gap widens, wealth and economic resources are concentrated in a small number of people only • Social and economic justice must be included as development target to prevent social explosion and maintain the sustainability of the development process Managing Director: Setyo Budiantoro, MA Perkumpulan Prakarsa Executive Director ndonesia is the poorest performer on poverty reduction in Southeast Asia region. It is calculated that 2.7 million people become poorer in the country over the last three years. This increase of extreme poverty is, shamefully, the worst one in the region. Indonesia even lags behind its neighboring countries such as Cambodia and Laos in reducing poverty, -not to mention when it is compared to the better off neighbors such as Thailand or Malaysia. Moreover, it is not just that the poverty increases, the share of wealth has also been more disproportionate. The accumulation of 0.02 % richest Indonesians’ wealth is equivalent to 25% of the country’s total GDP (Gross Domestic Product), and the wealth owned by only these 43 thousand people is equal to the wealth accumulation of another 140 million people. If this situation persists, people will feel that their sense of social-economic......

Words: 3760 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Indonesian Decentralization

... rather than just construction. Through all this though, there has been a surprisingly large body of discontent in the country. The surging GDP growth rate and the country’s enormous wealth is seen to come at an economic level but not boiling down to actual standard of living made better or jobs for people. The poverty level and unemployment levels seemed to have not changed much with the huge change in the economy. A February 2008 LSI public opinion survey showed that most felt that their economic position was worsening. The picture is even more worrying because standard poverty indices don’t capture the full breadth and depth of the problem. Around 17% of Indonesians live below the country’s official poverty line (about US$1.55 a day), but very many more live only just above it. Data for 2006 showed 49% of Indonesians living below US$2 a day. The distribution of poverty and access to key welfare services isn’t simply divided along urban–rural lines; conditions are typically much worse in outlying areas, particularly eastern Indonesia. However, there’s no easy way to focus reformative efforts on eastern Indonesia—even though relative incidence of poverty is lower on the central islands of Java and Bali, in absolute terms that’s where nearly 60% of Indonesia’s poor live. Further compounding the problem is the current sharp rise in global food prices, which will disproportionately hurt the poor. In short, poverty is a very major problem for Indonesia, and a larger problem......

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Indonesian Quality Award

...terencana sangat diperlukan pada fasilitas-fasilitas produksi, jika tidak akan mengakibatkan kerusakan “ Unit Kritis” dikarenakan : * Kerusakan fasilitas tersebut akan menyebabkan terhentinya seluruh aktivitas proses produksi. * Kerusakan fasilitas tersebut akan mempengaruhi kualitas produk. * Investasi yang ditanamkan dalam fasilitas tersebut cukup besar. * Kerusakan fasilitas tersebut akan membahayakan pekerja, baik kesehatan maupun keselamatannya. Oleh karena itu pemeliharaan sebelum mesin mengalami kerusakan sangat penting dilakukan. Bagaimana pun, konsekuensi kerusakan harus benar-benar dipertimbangkan. Bahkan beberapa kerusakan kecil dapat mengakibatkan malapetaka untuk produktivitas ke depannya. Indonesian Quality Award (IQA) Indonesian Quality Award (IQA) adalah penghargaan pencapaian kinerja ekselen organisasi yang diukur berdasarkan hasil assessment menurut kriteria Malcolm Baldrige. Proses penilaian untuk pemberian penghargaan ini berlangsung setiap tahun. Participant dalam penghargaan ini adalah organisasi/perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang Bisnis, Non Bisnis, Kesehatan dan Pendidikan baik swasta maupun pemerintah. Proses "awarding" diawali dengan "assessment" dan dilanjutkan dengan penganugerahan  penghargaannya. Kegiatan ini diselenggarakan oleh IQA Foundation secara periodik setiap tahun. Tujuan pemberian penghargaan : * Memberikan Penghargaan kepada organisasi atas usaha membangun kinerja ekselen, dan pencapaian dan pertumbuhan......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Mass Graves and 1965 Indonesian Killings

...Mass Graves and memories of the 1965 Indonesian Killings The mass graves have been recognised as a violation of international humanitarian law. The PKI was the blame to the result of the killing, the PKI were extraordinary cruel in the way they allegedly tortured and killed seven army victims of the September 30th movement. The Islamic organisation offered a personal apology for the violence that led the PKI crimes against the humanity.The group members of Ukuwah Islamiya Kaloran violently obstructed YPKP coordinated reburial of remains of victims from 1965. The remains had been recovered from a mass grave in Wonosobo. During the 2004 elections the government ban on former political prisoners preventing for elections. In August 2005 many of anti-communist groups also protested outside capital Jakarta State Court against the action brought by ex-political prisoners from LPKP. The act, against the current President back then and his predecessors including Suharto, sought to repeal the 1966 verdict banning the Communist Party, historical correction, compensation and restoration of the names of victims. These event revolve around the impact and understandings of the September 30th Movement outcome. The events outspread differently in several parts of countries; the violence amounted to a counter-revolution proposed to restrict the mass mobilization and popular engagement released by the national revolution some two decades earlier. The aim of this event was to destroy the......

Words: 296 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Fiscal Policy Evolution and Distributional Implications: the Indonesian Experience

...THE IDEAs WORKING PAPER SERIES Paper no. 01/2012 Fiscal Policy Evolution and Distributional Implications: The Indonesian experience Smitha Francis Abstract This paper analyses Indonesia’s resource mobilisation and public expenditure policies against the backdrop of her inequality trends and macroeconomic policy evolution. It is argued that the country’s fiscal policy stance has been adversely impacted by her monetary and financial sector policies under an open capital account, with attendant regressive distributional implications. Juxtaposing the analysis of revenue mobilisation trends and taxation policies with the evidence of increasing asset and land concentration and persisting high inequalities reveals that the increase in income tax revenue did not necessarily come from the upper income profiles or corporate profits. Meanwhile, although government expenditure to GDP ratio has improved after 2003, capital expenditures and social expenditures other than those in education continue to remain low. Further, the current pattern of fiscal decentralisation does not seem to be effective in addressing the existing disparities. JEL Classification H 200; H 500; H 700 Key Words Indonesia, fiscal policy, public finance, inequality, taxation, revenue, government expenditure, financial liberalisation, IMF debt conditionalities, decentralisation Smitha Francis is Principal Economist, Economic Research Foundation, New Delhi. Email for correspondence:......

Words: 16175 - Pages: 65

Free Essay

Indonesian Culture to Bali. Some of the most outstanding features of Balinese culture include ceremonies of marriage, birth and death, holidays, social customs, unique time concepts, meaning of colors, ethical values, verbal and non-verbal communications. This paper will explore a more detailed overview of Balinese culture compare to the westernized culture of Jakarta. II. Balinese Culture compared to Jakarta Bali’s island is located just south of the equator and east of Java. Bali consists of active volcanoes, tropical rain forests and is surrounded by a variety of beautiful beaches. This island has turned out to be a popular tourist attraction for many visitors from around the world. It has an estimated population of two percent of the total Indonesian population (Skwirk). Balinese culture is much different compared to Jakarta. Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia and has a lot more diverse cultures, religions, holiday celebrations, clothing, etc. Each holiday and religious celebration is based on the family’s ethnic background. On the other hand, Balinese has kept all these traditions for centuries. Due to their religion, the people of Bali participate in many different ceremonies throughout their lifetimes. These different ceremonies represent a person's journey through life with color and celebration (Skwirk). Meaning of Colors When tourists visit Bali, he or she may realize that shrines and statues are wrapped in black and white fabrics. It is also common for the......

Words: 2412 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Uniqlo Indonesian trends ( 2.0 Country Profile Political The Indonesia politics occur in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, the both head of state and head of government are whereby the President of Indonesia and a multi party democracy. Administrative power is performable by the government. Legislative authority is accordance in both the government and the two People's Representative Councils. The Judiciary is autonomous of the executive and the legislative body ( The 1945 constitution accommodated for a limited separation of executive, legislative power and jurisdiction. The system of government has been showed as the characteristics of president and congress. Following the Indonesian rebellions of May 1998 and the abdication of President Suharto, a few political changes were set in movement by means of changes through constitutional amendment of Indonesia, which brought about changes to all departments of government ( Changes likewise included an important approach of decentralization of political and monetary force. Considerable political forces were inherited to the nation's regions and were given control in excess of a great part of the state budget. Despite the fact that this mass decentralization risked expanding the rate of embezzle, it elevated regional governments to settle on a large portion of the crux choices about how best to utilize local assets (Aspinall, 2010). Therefore, local......

Words: 4329 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Love Disaster (Indonesian) - Indonesian Homework

...Love’s Disaster Oleh: Cut Thirza Talitha (XII-B) ________________________________________________________ Hari bergulir dengan sangat cepat. Matahari perlahan menuju ke arah barat. Jam dinding telah menjulurkan jarinya ke pukul 16.00, waktunya untuk menghentikan segala aktivitas diluar dan pulang untuk beristirahat. Tetapi seorang psikiater muda, Yasmine Amanda, lebih memilih untuk melanjutkan pekerjaan diruangannya, di Rumah Sakit Jiwa Cimahi, Bandung. Yasmine saat itu sedang menikmati teh sorenya, lalu ia mendengar pintunya ruangannya diketuk “Masuk” perintahnya. Lalu seorang suster masuk membawa setumpuk file. “Dok, ini laporan pasien untuk hari ini” katanya sambil menyerahkan file laporan harian perkembangan pasien yang ditangani oleh Yasmine. “Terima kasih, sus” kata Yasmine sambil tersenyum. Setelah si suster tersebut keluar, yasmine langsung mengamati perkembangan pasien-pasiennya melalui file yang diberikan oleh suster tadi. Sebagai seorang dokter Yasmine harus selalu mengamati perkembangan pasiennya. Tiba-tiba mata yasmine menangkap nama seorang pasiennya yang agak menarik untuknya. Bukan, bukan tertarik dalam masalah hati, tetapi penyakitnya. Yasmine sedikit terpaku ke kartu laporan tersebut Nama: Leonardo Johnatan Umur: 24 th Alamat: Jenis penyakit: Psikopat Leo, begitu sapaannya, adalah seorang psikopat. Penyakit gangguan jiwa yang agak umum, bukan? Namun mengapa Yasmine tertarik dengan pasien yang satu ini? Padahal ia menangani 3 pasien......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Using the Right Financial Reward System in Indonesian Public Sector

...Motivation in the workplace: using the right financial reward system in Indonesian public sector INTRODUCTION Indonesia is one the most populous nation in the world, which happen to sit in one the most dynamic region between Australia and Asian industrial countries like Japan, China and South Korea. With Asia and Australia nearby, Indonesia is trying to leverage its strategic position by building its economic capacity. As commonly seen in developing country, Indonesia’s public sector is seen as inadequately equipped to bolster development in Indonesia. As a way to increase its economic development, Indonesian government decided to initiate bureaucratic reform for its public employee. This bureaucratic reform is intended to improve public service, which is plagued by corruption (Wihantoro et al. 2015). It is expected that the improvement of public sector could lead to better service and good governance which in turn would improve people’s satisfaction. Despite the effort by the government of Indonesia, public service in Indonesian remains mediocre at best and there are still a lot of room for improvement in Indonesian public sector. Traditionally the pay structure for civil servant in Indonesia is using membership-based and seniority based rewards, which does not lend itself well into motivating high performing employee. The bureaucratic reform then introduced the concept of job status-based rewards combined with seniority-based rewards in which civil servant still......

Words: 2133 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Indonesian Fdi Entry

...difficulty is reflected in the country’s ranking of 109th out of 189 countries in the World Bank Doing Business Report of 2016. Restrictive legislation, bureaucracy as well as Indonesia’s diverse cultural are several entry barriers for foreign companies seeking investment opportunities. Often, it is necessary to find a local partner to enter the Indonesian market, and to form an international joint-venture can is one of the way to enter the marketplace. Even though it remains difficult to enter the Indonesian Market, the government started to implement measures to facilitate foreign investments since 2007: • Making it easier to start a business: Indonesia introduce online procedures to create a business structure • Reduced regulatory complexity: Indonesia introduced an online system for filling and paying social security contributions. International Joint Venture in Indonesia : In Indonesia, it is necessary for any foreigner who want to start a business, including a joint-venture, to conduct his business activity through a foreign investment company, called PMA (Penanaman Modal Asing). The PMA is regulated under the Indonesian Company Law. The contract signed by the two parties of the JV, setting out the respective rights and obligations of both parties is called a JVA (Joint-venture agreement). Concerning management obligations, it is important to underline the role of company director. Indeed, the company director is held personally responsible for losses......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Alphabeth Games

...INTRODUCTION Ecotourism is a form of tourism which involves visiting areas of natural or ecological interest. This mostly involves travelling to destination where flora, fauna and cultural heritage are the main attraction. Doing ecotourism is the best way to observe and learn more about animals, plants and to create a greater appreciation of nature. Feasibility study 1 Title: Guided Tour at “Domaine de l’Etoile” Location: Sebastopol, Belle Rive Date: 15 May 2015 Time: 10:00 -14:30 Introduction: “Domain de l’Etoile” is situated in the south-east of Mauritius. This destination is a real paradise for ecotourism. The domain includes the most ancient sugar mill of Mauritius that is Ferney. L’Etoile is found in a landscape which contain several viewpoints from which magnificent panoramic views on more than half of Mauritius can be seen and also l’Etoile is the most preserved region of Mauritius, apart from its English garden and its rivers the domain count indigenous woods rich of hundreds of different varieties of plants and trees, and other endemic species. Visitors will discover many rare plants as well as animals Aims and objectives * Promote eco-tourism * To enrich visitors knowledge about species and natural habitat * Sensitize visitors to become more eco-friendly and protect nature and the environment * Encourage visitors to help in the conservation of species * Make them......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Causes of the Indonesian Financial Crisis

...Causes of the Indonesian Financial Crisis When the financial crisis hit Asian countries in mid-1997, Indonesia did not escape the impact. It became one of the worst hit countries during the crisis. The question to be answered is what really caused Indonesia, which at the time had a magnificent economic growth to collapse along with most of Asian countries. This paper studies the factors that may be causing the crisis and how the combination of them could lead to such crisis. Indonesia’s Economy before the Crisis * Indonesia under the governance of President Suharto was considered a growing and vastly developing country, with a 7.9% growth in GDP in 1996. GDP per capita first surpassed $1000 in 1995, growing significantly from mere $70 thirty years ago. Total GDP was US$227 billion in 1996. (exhibit 1) * Surplus on merchandise trade through the 1980s and 1990s. Manufactured exports grew from less than US$1 billion in 1980 to more than US$9 billion in 1990. In 1996 total exports was US$49.8 billion, with a growth of 9.7% from the previous year. 76.5% are from non-oil and gas exports. Main destinations were Japan followed by USA and Singapore. * In 1996, imports totaled US$42.9 billion, grew 5.7% from the previous year. * Indonesia was the third-largest FDI recipient in the Asia Pacific, averaging over US$31 billion per year from 1994 to 1996. In 1997 before the crisis, FDI was US$16 billion. * In 1991, foreign debt increased 66% from 1988. In 1992, the......

Words: 1180 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Indonesian Law

...95% Agriculture industry with an area of less than 25 ha: - 63 - FOREIGN CAPITAL NO. BUSINESS SECTOR KBLI OWNERSHIP LIMIT Sugar cane plantation and other sweetening plant 01113 FIELD plantation Tobacco plantation Rubber other plantation and 01114 01115 latex-producing plants plantation Textile raw material 01116 plant plantation Medicine/pharmaceutical plant plantation Volatile Plantation Other plantations in any not other 01119 Oil Plant 01118 01117 classified places Coconut plantation Pal oil plantation Beverage plantation material plant 01133 01134 01135 - 64 - FOREIGN CAPITAL NO. BUSINESS SECTOR KBLI OWNERSHIP LIMIT Cashew plantation Pepper plantation Clove plantation Other spices plantation 96 Indonesian labor placement internally services (like labor registration, recruitment, document arrangement, predeparture orientation accommodating, departure, placing and returning) 97 Work training (for giving, obtaining, as well as improving and developing work competence, productivity, discipline, attitude and work ethos, among others, 80929 Maximum 49% Manpower & 01136 01137 01138 01139 74910 Maximum 49% Manpower & FIELD Transmigration Transmigration - 65 - FOREIGN CAPITAL NO. BUSINESS SECTOR KBLI OWNERSHIP LIMIT including technical and engineering vocation, tourism, management, information technology, art and agriculture directed to provide the labor to enter professional world). FIELD Note: 1. Requirements for commercial......

Words: 10479 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Indonesian Government Debt

... Indonesian Domestic & Foreign Debt Since the Old Order (Orde lama), Indonesia has used foreign borrowing to finance development. Indonesia utilized foreign debt during the first period of 1966 . In the early 1960’s as a new independent country, government needs fund to finance country’s development. While only limited domestic fund source available with undeveloped domestic capital market, to fill domestic saving–investment gap external fund was the only available source. It is defined the primary goal of external fund was to accelerate urgently needed economic growth, where the external debt would turn into government’s spending which in turn would generate investment and to accelerate the growth. As economy developed, it was expected that the government could earn sufficient foreign exchange to service foreign obligations, to accelerate the development process, and gradually to lessen the country’s dependence on external resources. And still in the 1990’s, external public debt actually was not solely addressed to fill the financing gap of the government but rather to fill up budget deficit in order to foster the economic growth rapidly. The huge growing number of external debt used however has not always significantly contributed to the growth expected. It’s true that the economic growth used to reach the level of 7% in the middle of 1990’s. But on the other hand, the debt service also increased significantly. The debt......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6