Free Essay

Indian

In: Business and Management

Submitted By anilkr15285
Words 5008
Pages 21
OSTWALD – DILUTION LAW 1. Calculate the dissociation constant of monobasic acid which is 3.5% dissociated in N/20 solution at 20o C. (6.34x10-5) 2. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in 10 liters of 0.1 N solution of an acid having dissociation constant 4.0x10-10 . (6.32x10-6g ion liter-1 ) 3. Nicotinic acid (Ka =1.4x10-5) is represented by the formula HNic. Calculate its percent dissociation in a solution which contains 0.10 mol of nicotinic acid per 2.0 liter of solution. (1.66%) 4. A certain weak acid has Ka=1.0x10-4. Calculate the equilibrium constant for its reaction with strong base. (1010) 5. 0.16 g of N2H4 are dissolved in water and the total volume made upto 500 ml. Calculate the percentage of N2H4 that has reacted with water in this solution. The Kb for N2H4 is 4.0x10-6M. (2%)

6. An aqueous solution of aniline of concentration 0.24M is prepared. What concentration of sodium hydroxide is needed in this solution so that anilinium ion concentration remains 1x10-3M?
(Ka for C6H5NH3+ =2.4x10-5M) (10-2M) 7. An aqueous solution contains 10% ammonia by mass and has a density of 0.99g cm-3. Calculate hydroxyl and hydrogen ion concentration in this solution.(Ka for NH4=5.0x10-10M) (9.28x10-13 mol L-1)

CALCULATION OF pH 8. Calculate pH value of (a) .00001M HCl solution, and (b) 0.04M HNO3 solution assuming complete dissociation in each case. (4)(1.398) 9. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in moles/liter of a solution whose pH is 5.4 (3.98x10-6mole/liter) 10. Will the pH of water be same at 4oc and 25oC? Explain?

11. Saccharin (Ka=2x10-12) is a waek acid represented by formula HSac. 4x10-4 mole amount of saccharin is dissolved in 200 cm3 water of pH3. Assuming no change in volume, calculate the concentration of Sac- ions in the solution at equilibrium. 4x10-12M

12. A solution of HCl in water has a pH of 5. If 1 ml of this solution is diluted to one liter, what will be pH of the resulting solution? (6.98)

13. Calculate the pH value of 0.0001 M NaOH solution. (10)

14. Taking barium hydroxide to be completely ionized, calculate the pH of 0.001 M solution of it.

15. How many moles of calcium hydroxide must be dissolved to produce 250 ml of an aqueous solution of ph 10.65? Assume complete dissociation56x10-4 16. What is the pH of a 0.50 M aqueous NaCN solution? pKb of CN- is 4.70. (11.5) 17. Calculate the pH of a 0.01 M solution of acetic acid, Ka for CH3OOH is 1.8x10-5 at 25oC. (3.37) 18. The pH of 0.10 M hydrocyanic acid solution is 5.2. what is the value of Ka for hydrocyanic acid? (39.6x10-11) 19. The pH of 0.05 M aqueous solution of diethylamine is 12. Calculate its Kb. (2.5x10-3) 20. The value of Kw is 9.55x10-14 at a certain temperature, calculate the pH of water. ( 6.51) 21. Find the pH of 0.002 M acetic acid solution, if it is 2.3% ionized at this dilution. (4.3372) 22. Calculate the pH value of the mixture containing 50 c.c M-HCl and 30 c.c. M-NaOH solution assuming both to be completely ionized. (0.6021) 23. Calculate the pH value of the mixture containing N HCl and 30 c.c. of N NaOH solution both to be completely dissociated in normal solution.
1
24. What would be pH of a solution that contains 100ml of 0.1 N HCl and 9.9 ml of 1.0N NaOH solution? (3.05) 25. What will be the resultant pH when 200 ml of an aqueous solution of HCl (pH=2.0) is mixed with 300 ml of an aqueous solution of NaOH (pH=12.0)?
0
26. Calculate the pH of a solution made by diluting 25 c.c. of N/100 HCl to 500 c.c. assuming complete ionization of HCl. (3.3) 27. How many grams of NaOH must be dissolved in one liter of solution to give a pH value of 12? (0.40 gm ion/liter)

28. The dissociation constant of weak acid HA is 4.9 x10-8.after making the necessary approximation, calculate (i) percentage ionization, (ii) pH and (iii) OH- concentrationin a decimolar solution of the acid. Water has a pH of 7. 29. How many grams of NH4Cl should be dissolved in 500 ml of water to have solution of pH 4.5? Kb for ammonium hydroxide is 1.8x10-5.

30. What is the pH of a 1.0 M solution of acetic acid? To what volume must one liter of this solution be diluted so that the pH of the resulting solution will be twice the original value? Given Ka=1.8x10-5. (2.78x104 lit)
COMMON ION EFFECT 31. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution containing 0.04 mole of acetic and 0.05 mole of sodium acetate in 500 ml of the solution. Dissociation constant for acetic acid is 1.8x10-5. 1.44x10-5M 32. A solution contains 0.10 M H2S and 0.3 M HCl. Calculate the concentration of S2- and HS- ions in the solution. For H2S, Ka1 = 1.0x10-7 Ka2 = 1.3x10-13

33. Two acids A1 and A2 have their dissociation constant as 0.00018 and 0.0037 respectively at 25oC. What would be the relative dilution of the acids so that the solutions becomes isohydric? (1:20.5)

34. Determine the concentration of OH- in 0.4 M NH4OH solution and also in the above solution having 5.35g of NH4Cl in a liter of the solution; Kb for NH4OH is 1.8x10-5

BUFFER SOLUTION 35. 0.1 mol of methyl amine (kb=5x10-4) is mixed with 0.08 mol of HCL and the solution is diluted to 1 liter. Determine the hydrogen ion concentration of the resulting solution. (8x10-11M) 36. Calculate composition of an acid buffer solution of total molarity of 0.09 and having a pH of 4.4. dissociation constant of the acid 1.8x10-5. (Salt =0.09M acid=0.20M) 37. Calculate the amount of NH3 and NH4Cl required to prepare a buffer solution of pH 9.0, when total concentration of buffering reagents is 0.6 mol L-1. pKb for NH3=4.7, log2=0.30. (0.04 mo/lt, 0.2 mo/lt)

38. Calculate the amount of (NH4)2SO4 in grams which must be added to 500 mL of 0.200 M NH3 to yield a solution with pH 9.35(Kb for NH3=1.78x10-5) (10.49g) 39. How many grams moles of HCl wioll be required to prepare one liter of a buffer solution (containing NaCN and HCN) of Ph 8.5 using 0.01 gram formula weight of NaCN? K dissociation (HCN)=4.1x10-10 (8.85×10-3) 40. A 40.0 ml solution of a weak base, BOH is titrated with 0.1 N HCl solution. The pH of the solution is found to be 10.04 and 9.14 after respectively. Find out the dissociation constant of the base. (1.828 x10-5) 41. The concentration of HCN and NaCN in a solution is 0.01M each. Calculate the concentration of Hydrogen and hydroxyl ions if the dissociation constant of HCN is 7.2x10-10. (H+=7.2 x10-10M, OH-= 1.39 x10-5M) 42. What volume of 0.10 M sodium formate solution should be added to 50 mL of 0.05 M formic acid to produce a buffer solution of pH 4.0? pKa for formic acid is 3.80. (39.62 ml) 43. 0.15 mol of pyridinium chloride has been added into 500 cm3 of 0.2 M pyridine solution. Calculate pH and hydroxyl ion concentration in the resulting solution assuming no change in volume. (Kb for pyridine = 1.5x10-9 M) (5, 10-9mol/lt) 44. A base B has a Kb of 8.1x10-8. In what amounts should 0.02 m HCl and 0.02 m base be mixed to make 200 mL of a buffer of pH7? (61.8 ml,138.2ml) 45. How many moles of sodium propionate should be added to one liter of an aqueous solution containing 0.020 mole of propionic acid to obtain a buffer solution of pH 4.75? what will be the pH if 0.010 mole of hydrogen chloride is dissolved in the above buffer solution? Compare the last pH value with the pH of 0.010 molar HCl solution. Dissociation constant of propionic acid, Ka at 25oC=1.34x10-5. (1.5072 x10-2mo, 4.09, 2) 46. The [H+] in 0.2M solution of formic acid is 6.4x10-3 mole liter-1. To this solution sodium formate is added so as to adjust the concentration of sodium formate to one mole liter-1. What will be pH of this solution? Ka for HCOONa is 2.4x10-4 and dissociation of HCOONa is 0.75. (4.19) 47. A buffer solution of acetic acid and sodium acetate of 1 M concentration was prepared and its pH was found to be 4.74. Calculate pH of system (i) when 0.01 mole of HCl is added to a liter of the above solution (ii) when 0.01 mole of NaOH is added per liter of the above solution (Ka=1.8 x10-5) (4.73, 4.75)

48. An acidic type indicator, HIn differs in colour from its conjggate (In-). The human eye is sensitive to color difference only when the ratio [In-]/[HIn] is greater than 10 or smaller than 0.01. what would be the minimum change in pH of the solution to observe a complete colour change(Ka=1.0x10-5) (2) 49. Calculate the change in pH of one liter of buffer solution containing 010 mole each of NH3 and NH4Cl upon addition of (i) 0.02 moledissolved gaseous HCl (ii) 0.02 mole of dissolved NaOH Assume no change in solution volume.(Kb for NH3=1.8x10-5)
(Decreases by 0.1761, Increases by 0.1761 ) 50. The pH of blood stream is maintained by a proper balance of H2CO3 and NaHCo3 concentration. What volume of 5 M NaHCO3 solution should be mixed with a 10mL sample of blood which is 2M in H2CO3, in order to maintain a pH of 7.4? Ka for H2CO3 in Bolood is 7.8x10-7. (78.36 ml) 51. What is the pH of the solution when 0.20 mole of hydrochloride acid is added to one liter of a solution containing (i) 1 M each of acetic acid and acetone ion? (ii) 0.1M each of acetic acid and acetone ion?
The dissociation constant of acetic acid is 1.8x10-5 (4.5686,1) 52. The dissociation constant of an acid HA at 25oC is 1.34x10-5. How many moles of sodium salt of this acid should be added to one liter of an aqueous solution containing 0.020 moles of this acid to obtain a buffer solution of pH 4.75? What will be pH if 0.010 mole of hydrogen chloride is dissolved in the above buffer solution? (0.015) (4.09) 53. 20 mL of 0.2M NaOH is added to 50 mL of 0.2M acetic acid to give 70 mL of solution. What is the pH of the solution? Calculate the additional volume of the solution 4.74. the ionization constant of acetic is 1.8x10-5 (4.5686)(4.86 ml) 54. 500 mL of 0.2 M aqueous solution of acetic acid is mixed with 500 ml of 0.2M HCl at 25oC (i) Calculate the degree of dissociation of acetic acid in the resulting solution and pH of the solution. (ii) If 6 g of NaOH is added to the above solution, determine the final pH.[Assume there is no change in volume on mixing ; Ka of acetic acid is 1.75 x10-5 mol L-1] (1) (4.75) 55. Two buffers, (X) and (Y) of pH 4.0 and 6.0 respectively are prepared from acid HA and salt NaH. Both the buffers are 0.50 M in HA. What would be the pH of the solution obtained by mixing equal volumes of the two buffers?(KHA = 1.0x10-5) (5.7) 56. When 0.002 mole of acid is added to 250mL of a buffer solution, pH decreases by 0.02 units. Calculate the buffer capacity of the system. (0.4)

HYDROLYSIS OF SALT 57. Calculate the hydrolysis constant of the salt containing NO-2 ions, Ka for HNO2=4.5x10-10 (2.2 x10-3) 58. Calculate the degree of hydrolysis of N/10(i.e. , 0.1 M) solution of sodium acetate at 25oC; Ka=1.8x10-5 (7.452 x10-2) 59. Calculate the percentage of hydrolysis in 0.003 M aqueous solution of NaOCN. (Ka for HOCN=3.33x10-4 M) (0.01%) 60. For 0.50 M aqueous solution of sodium cyanide, (pKb of CN- is 4.70), calculate (i) hydrolysis constant, (ii) degree of hydrolysis and (iii) pH. (2 x10-5)(6.3 x10-3)(11.5) 61. Calculate the percentage hydrolysis of a mixture of aniline and acetic acid in 0.1 M solution (Ka=1.8x10-5 and Kb=4.6 x10-10) (0.523) 62. Calculate the degree of hydrolysis and pH of 0.1M sodium acetate solution. Also calculate the concentration of all the ions at equilibrium. Hydrolysis constant of sodium acetate is 5.6x10-10 (7.5x10-6)(7.5x10-7mol/lt) 63. Ka for ascorbic acid (HAsc) is 5x10-5. Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration and percentage of hydrolysis in an aqueous solution in which concentration of Asc- ions is 0.20M. (5x10-9)(0.1%) 64. When 0.20 M acetic acid is neutralized with 0.20M NaOH in 0.50 liter of water, the resulting solution is slightly alkaline, calculate the pH of the solution (Ka for acetic acid = 1.8 x10-5) (8.873) 65. Ka for butyric acid is 2.0 x10-5. Calculate pH and hydroxyl ion concentration of 0.2M aqueous solution of sodium butyrate. (9)(10-5M) 66. Calculate the pH of an aqueous solution of 1.0M ammonium formate assuming complete dissociation. (pKa of formic acid=3.8 and pKb of ammonia =4.8) (6.5) 67. Calculate the pH at the equivalence point when a solution of 0.10 M acetic acid is titrated with a solution of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide. Ka for acetic acid is 1.9x10-5 (8.71) 68. 0.1 M NaOH is titrated with 0.1 M HA till the end point; Ka for HA is 5.6x10-6 and degree of hydrolysis is less compared to 1. Calculate pH of the resulting solution at the end point. (9) 69. Calcium lactate is a salt of weak organic acid and represented as Ca(Lac)2 contains 0.13 mol of this salt in 0.50 litre solution. The pH of this solution is 5.60 . assuming a complete dissociation of the salt, calculate Ka of lactic acid (8.26x10-4.)
SOLUBILITY PRODUCT 70. A sample of hard water contains 0.005 mole of CaCl per litre. What is the minimum conc. Of Na2SO4 which must be added for removing Ca2+ ions from the water sample. Ksp for CaSO4 is 2.4x10-5 at 25oC.

71. The solubility product of Mg(OH)2 at 25oC is 1.4x10-11. What is the solubility of Mg(OH)2 in gm per litre?

72. The solubility product of AgCl in water is 1.5x10-10. Calculate its solubility in 0.01 M NaCl aqueous solution.

73. Calculate the solubility of AgCl(s) in pure water and in 0.1 M NaCl at 25oC.
Ksp(AgCl)=2.8x10-10Comment on the influence of [Cl-] on the solubility of AgCl.

74. The solubility product of SrF2 in water is 8x10-10. Calculate its solubility in 0.1M NaF aqueous solution.

75. If the solubility of calcium sulphate in water is 1.03x10-5, what will be its solubility in 0.005 M solution of sulphuric acid? 76. The solubility product (Ksp) of Ca(OH)2 at 25oC is 4.42 x10-5. A 500 ml of saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 is mixed with equal volume of 0.4 M NaOH. How much Ca(OH)2 in milligram is precipitated?

77. A sample of AgCl was treated with 5.00 mL of 1.5 M Na2CO3 solution to give Ag2CO3. The remaining solution contained 0.0026 g of Cl- per liter. Calculate the solubility product of AgCl.[Ksp for Ag2CO3=8.2x10-12]

78. The solubility product of BaSO4 is 1.5x10-9. Find out its solubility in (i) pure water and (ii) 0.1 M BaCl2.

79. The solubility of Pb(OH)2 in water is 6.7x10-6M. calculate the solubility of Pb(OH)2 in a buffer solution of pH=8. 1.2x10-3 M

80. Calculate the solubility of AgCN in a buffer solution of pH 3.00; Ksp for AgCN is 1.2x10-16 and Ka for HCN is 4.8 x10-10. 81. Calculate the simultaneous solubility of AgCNS and AgBr, Ksp for AgCNS and AgBr are 1.0 x10-12 and 5.0x10-13 respectively.

82. Determine the number of moles of AgI which may be dissolved in 1.0 liter of 1.0 M CN- solution; Ksp for AgI and Kf for [Ag(CN),]- are 1.2x10-17 M2 and 7.1 x1019, respectively.

83. The solubility product Ksp of lead bromide is 8x10-5. If the salt is 80% dissociated in saturated solution, find the solubility of the salt.

84. The concentration of the Ag+ ion in a saturated solution of Ag2C2O4 is 2.2x10-4 mole per liter. Determine the solubility product of Ag2C2O4.

85. Calculate the solubility product of lead iodide at 25oC. Its solubility at given temperature is 0.7g liter-1.

86. Calculate the pH at which Mg(OH)2 begins to precipitate from a solution containing 0.10 M Mg2+ ions. Ksp for Mg(OH)2=1.0x10-11

87. The solubility product of Ag2C2O4 at 25oC is 1.29x10-11 mol3 L-3. A solution of K2C2O4 containing 0.1520 moles in 500 mL water is shaken at 25oC with excess Ag2CO3 till the following equilibrium is reached:
Ag2CO3 + K2C2O4 ==Ag2C2O4 + K2CO3
At equilibrium, the solution contains 0.0358 moles of K2CO3. Assuming the degree of dissociation of K2C2O4 and K2CO3 to be equal, calculate the solubility product of Ag2CO3. 88. Freshly precipitated aluminium and magnesium hydroxides are stirred vigorously in a buffer solution containing 0.25 mol/L of ammonium chloride and 0.05 mol/L of ammonium hydroxide. Calculate the concentration of aluminium and magnesium ions in solution.
Kb[NH4OH]=1.8x10-5,
Ksp[Mg(OH)2]=6x10-10,
Ksp[Al(OH)3]=6x10-32

89. Given : Ag(NH3)+2==Ag++2NH3, Kc=6.2x10-8 and Ksp of AgCl=1.8x10-10 at 298 K. Calculate the concentration of the complex in 1.0M aqueous ammonia.

90. Predict if a precipitate will be formed or not in a solution having concentration of Ba2+ ions of 1x10-3 M and that of SO2-4 ions of 2X10-4 M; solubility product of BaSO4 is 1x10-10.

91. Predict whether a precipitate will be formed or not when equal volumes of 2x10-6 M BaCl2 solution and 2x10-5 M Na SO4 solution are mixed. The solubility product of barium sulphate is 1x10-10.

92. ½ liter of 2x10-3 M AlCl3 and ½ liter of 4x10-2 M solution of NaOH are mixed and the solution is diluted to 102 liters with water at room temperature will a precipitate exist? Given Ksp for Al(OH)3=5x10-33.

93. Calculate the NH+4 ion concentration (derived from NH4Cl) needed to prevent Mg(OH)2 from precipitating in a liter of solution which contains 0.010 mole of Mg2+. The ionization constant of ammoni a is 1.8x10-5 and Ksp of Mg(OH)2 is 1.23x10-11

94. A solution has 0.05 M Mg2+ ions 0.05 M NH3. Calculate the concentration of NH4Cl required to prevent the formation of Mg(OH)2 in this solution Ksp of Mg(OH)2 = 9.0x10-12 and ionization constant of NH3=1.8x10-5. 95. You are provided with a 500 mL of hard water, containing 0.005 mole of CaCl2 and two sulphuric acid sample of 0.001 M and 0.02 M concentration. Which one or both or none can be used for precipitating out calcium ion? The solubility product of calcium sulphate in water at 25oC is 2.4x10-5. 96. What [H3O+] must be maintained in a saturated H2S solution to precipitate Pb2+, but not Zn2+ from solution in which each ion is present at a concentration of 0.01M? [Ksp H2S=1.1x10-22 and Ksp ZnS=1.0x10-21]

97. A lead salt is dissolved in HCl which is 94% ionized. It is found to have 0.1M Pb2+ and 0.28M[H+] ions. The solution is saturated with hydrogen sulphide gas; find out the amount of Pb2+ ions that remains 4x10-10 and that of H2S is 1.1 x10-22.

98. A solution contains a mixture of Ag+(0.10M) and Hg2+2 (0.01M) which are to be separated by selective precipitation. Calculate which one of them gets precipitated almost completely. What percentage of that metal ion is precipitated?
[Ksp : Agl=8.50x10-17; Hg2I2=2.5x10-26]

99. An aqueous solution of a metal bromide MBr2 (0.05M) is saturated with H2S. what is the minimum pH at which MS will precipitate ? Ksp for MS=6.0x10-21: concentration of saturated H2S=0.1M : K1=10-7 and K2=1.3x10-13 for H2S.

100. The average concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere over a city on a certain day is 10ppm, when the average temperature is 298K. given that the solubility of SO2 in the water at 298K is 1.3653 moles liter-1 and the pKa of H2SO3 is 1.92, estimate the pH of rain water on that day.

Law of Electrolysis

1. From thevalues of the a faraday (996500C and ) Avogadro number (6.023x1023),calculet the Coulombic charge on an electron. 1.6x10-19coul 2. Find the charge in coulomb on 1 g ion of N3-. 2.89x105C 3. Hoe many atoms of calcium will be deposited from a solution of CaC12 by a current of 25 mA flowing for 60sec? 4.68x1018atoms of Ca 4. Copper sulphate solution (250mL) was electrolysed using a platinum anode and a copper cathode. A constant current of 2mA was passed for 16 min. It was found that after electrolysis the of the solution was reduced to 50% of its original value. Calculate the concentration of copper sulphate in the solution to begin whit. 7.95x10-5mol L-1 5. In a fuel cel, hydrogen and oxygen react to produce electricity. In the process hydrogen gas is oxidised at the anode and oxygen at the cathode. If 67.2 liter of H2 at STP react in 15 min, what is the average current is used for electro-decomposition of copper from copper(ll) solution, how many grams of copper will be deposited ?
Anode reaction: H2+ 2OH- 2H2O+2e-
Cathode reaction: O2+2H2O+2e- 4OH- (643.3A)(190.50g) 6. A solution of a salt of a metal of atomic mass 112 was electrolysed for 150 min with a current of 0.15A. The mass of metal deposited was 0.783 g. Find the equivalent mass and valency of the metal in the salt. (55.97) 7. A100W, 110V incandescent lamp is connected in series with an electrolyte cell containing cadmium sulphate solution. What mass of cadmium will be deposited by the current flowing for 10h? (19.06 g) 8. Chromium metal can be planted out from an acidic solution containing Cro3according to the following equation :
Cro3(aq)=6H+(aq)+6e- cr(s)+3H2O
Calculate (i) how many grams of chromiumwill be plated out by 24,000C and (ii) how long will it take to plate out 1.5g of chromium by using 12.5 A current? (2.1554g)(1336.15 sec) 9. The following reaction Zn(s)+Co2 Co(s)+Zn2+
Accurs in a cell. Write the electrode reactions and compute the standard EMF of the all cell. Give that
E0zn Zn2+= 0.76V
E0co Co2+=0.28V (0.48V) 10. An electric current of 0.5 A was passed through acidulated water for 1h. galculate.the volum of hydrogen at NTP peoduced. 1 G of electricity Deposisits0.00001 g of hydrogen. 0.2016liters 11. How many grams of silver could be plated out on a serving tray by electrolysis of a solution containing silver in +1 oxidation state for a period of 8.0 h at a current of 8.46A? What is the area of the tray if the thickness of the silver plating is 0.00254 cm? Density of silver is 10.5g/cm3. (272.178g)(1.02x104 cm2) 12. Electrolysis of a solution of MnSo4 in aqueous sulphuric acide is a method for the preparation of MnO2as per reaction.
Mn2+(aq)+2H2O Mno2(s) + 2H+(aq)+H2(g)
1kg of MnO2. What is the value of current efficiency? Write the reactions taking place at the cathode and the anode. (94.8%) 13. Silver is electrodeposited on a metallic vessel of surface area 800 cm2 by passing a current of 0.20 A for 3.0hrs. Calculate the thickness of silver deposited, given its density as 10.47g/cc [Atomic mass of Ag=107.92] 2.88x10-4cm

14. a current of 1.70 A is passed through 300.0mL of 0.160 M solution of ZnSo4 for 230 sec with a cuerrent efficiency of 90%. Find out the molarity of Zn2+ after the deposition of Zn. Assume the volumeof the solution to remain constant during the electrolysis. (0.154M) 15 (i) What is the mass of sodium bromated and molarity of solution necessary to prepare 85.5 mL of 0.672 N solution when the half-cell reaction is
BrO-3+6H++6e- Br-+ 3H2O (iii) What would be the mass as well as molarity if the half-cell reaction is
BrO-3 +12H+ 10e- Br2+6H2O (1.446g)(1.7352g) 16. Calculate the quantity of electricity that would be required to reduce 12.3 g of nitrobenzene to aniline, if the current is 50%. If the potential drop across the cell is 3.0V, how much energy will be consumed? (347.4J) 17. Calculate the mass and volume (at STP) of hydrogen and chiorine that will be formed by passing 10,000 C of charge through an aqueous solution of potassium chloride. the cell reaction is 2KCI+2H2O 2KOH+H2+Cl2 (1.160lit) 18. An acidic solution of cu2+salt containing 0.4 g of Cu2+is electrolysed until all the copper is deposited. The electrolysis is continued for seven more min with the volume of solution kept at 100mL and the current at 1.2A. calculate the volume of gases evolved at NTP during the entire electrolysis. (58.48mL) 19. 100 mL of a neutral solution containing 0.2g of copper was electrolysed till the whole of copper was deposited. The current strength was maintained at 1.2 A and the volume of solution was maintained at 100mL. Assuming 100% efficiency, find out the time taken for deposition of copper.[Atomic mass of copper =63.58] (506 sec) 20. Molten aluminium chloride is electolysed with a current of 0.5A to produce 27.0g of aluminium. (i) How many gram equivalent of aluminium were produced? (ii) How many gram atoms of aluminium were produced? (iii) How many atoms of aluminium were produced? (iv) How many electrons were produced? (v) What is the number of faraday of electricity consumed? (vi) How long did the electrolysis took place ? (vii) How many liters of chlorinz at STP were produced?
[atomic mass of Al=27, Avogadro No.=6.02x1023] Ans: (3geq of Al) (1g atom of aluminium) (6.02x1023)(18.06x1023) (3Fof electricity)(570240sec) 22. Calculate the quantiy of electricity that will be required for liberating 710g of chorine gas by the electrolysis of a concentrated solutionof NaCl. What (i) mass of NaOh, and (ii) what volume of hydrogen measured at 270cand 1 atm pressure will be obtained during the process? (20faradays of electricity)(246.1 lit) 23. Electric current is passed through two cells A and B in series. Cell A contains aqueous solution of Ag2SO4 and platinum electrodes. Cell B contains aqueous solution of CuSO4 and copper electrodes. The current is passed till 1.6g of oxygen is liberated at the quantities of copper and silver deposited at the cathodes of the two cells. [Atomic mass O=16,Cu=Ag=108] (6.35g of Cu) 24. Ten grams of a fairly concentrated solution of cupric sulphate is electrolysed using 0.01F of electricity. Calculate (i)the mass of the resulting solution and(ii) the number of equivalents of acid or alkali in solution. [Atomic mass O= 16,S=32,Cu=63.5] (9.6025g)(0.01g equivalent acid) 25. A current of 3.7A is passed for 6hrs between nickel electrodes in 0.5 liter of a 2M solution of Ni(NO3)2. What will be molarity of solution at the end of the end of the electrolysis?

26. 27. 28.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Cherokee Indians

...THE CHEROKEE INDIANS Richard T. McLamb Jr. American InterContinental University Abstract The following pages will talk about the Cherokee Indian Tribe. It will talk about some of the events that occurred before the first Americans arrived from Europe. I will also talk about things that happened to the tribe after the fact of the Americans arriving. It talks about some of the events that involved the Americans push for more land and the effect it had on the Cherokee. It also tells of one historical figure of the Cherokee Tribe’s history. The Cherokee Indians are still known to this day of being the strongest tribe in America. They have survived several things in America’s history. There is research that finds the Cherokee originated in the North but they were found in the whole mountain region of the south Alleghenies, in southwest Virginia, western North Carolina and South Carolina, north Georgia, east Tennessee, and northeast Alabama, and claiming even to the Ohio River when they were first encountered by De Soto in 1540 (Cherokee Indian Tribe, 2011). This tribe was said to have broken off of their Iroquoian family. In 1736, the Jesuit Priber started the first mission among them, and was trying to organize their government to be more on a civilized basis (Cherokee Indian Tribe, 2011). In 1759 to 1794, the Cherokee joined with the English against the Americans to try and stop their push against taking the Indian’s land and possessions. During this time they......

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Navajo Indians

...Culture of the Navajo Indian Tribe, Past & Present Ashford University Introduction to Cultural Anthropology ANT101 Robert Moon November 11, 2012 Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Thesis statement 3 Introduction 3 Primary mode of subsistence 3 Kinship 4 Beliefs and values 4 Economic organization 5 The Navajo and World War II 6 The Navajo Indian in Modern Times 6 Closing Thoughts 7 Thesis statement The Navajo Indian is the largest tribe in North America, how did their culture develop over time and where are they today in regards to modern times? Introduction There is great respect through the Navajo Culture with regards to their kinship system. They are very traditional towards they religion and family life. They have great feelings about the land that surrounds them and believe that all things have meaning and soul. From the past they were mostly nomadic until they met the Pueblo. The Pueblo helped them to develop more towards being domestic rather than being a foraging society. Later the Spanish came and they learned more about trading and working with foreign cultures. They thrived in to large tribes in the 1700’s to the late 1800’s. But change was to come as the Europeans came to North America. The Indians were not treated with much respect and they were forced to live on reservations. After many hard years the Navajo have come to be the largest Indian tribe in North America. They are still very traditional but have modernized in...

Words: 1968 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Indian Camp

...Indian Camp December 2011 Going through childhood, and taking a step into the adult world, is something that we all go through. Growing up is a very important part of life. Someday we’ll all become adults, and if you don’t develop yourself personally, you will remain having a childish personality and not have the skills life requires of you to live a life as a normal human being. Personal development is a theme that is very prominent in the short story “Indian Camp” written by Ernest Hemingway in 1921, where we meet the young boy Nick who’s on a mission with his father at an Indian camp. He gets introduced to the realities of birth and death in only one day, and when the day is over, he has got numerous of experiences and has obviously grown mentally. He has taken a little step further into becoming an adult. In my analysis I will make a brief summary, an analysis of the short story, where I will focus on Nick Adams development through the story and discuss which kind of initiation he goes through. Finally to sum up, I will make a conclusion. Nick is a young boy accompanying his father and his uncle George to an Indian camp on the other side of a lake. Nicks father is a doctor, and the reason why they are visiting this Indian camp, is because the father is summoned by the Indians to help a young woman who’s been in labor for 2 days, still unable to deliver her baby. When the father arrives, she is lying in a bottom bunk; her husband, who cut his foot badly with an axe......

Words: 1281 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Columbus and the Indians

...Columbus and the Indians The paper summarizes the story about Columbus and the Indians. It’s interesting noting that, like Africans at that time, Indians were very innocent. Columbus explains how their arrival struck the Indians with wonder. The innocence they portrayed could not be explained. For instance, they were spectacularly hurting themselves when they handled Columbus’ swords by their edge instead of using their special handles. Because of the happiness they had, and the curiosity to get Columbus’ items, they willingly traded everything they had. It is further noted that Columbus was hungry for money. He often forced the Indians to show him where gold was. He used brutal force and led to a genocide that left many of the innocent Indians dead. (Brenda 1) notes that the arrival of Columbus to India led to the Indian-American holocaust. Columbus seized the Arawaks by force to gather information about the whereabouts of gold. He liaised with the king and the queen of Spain, who were also hungry for gold and other valuables that were available. He got legitimacy to persecute, enslave, and to murder the individuals in order to get his way to where gold was. The American government introduced the Columbus Day which is however not recognized in the seventeen states for the simple reason that, Columbus did not respect people’s lives in his lifetime. (Fortier, Bill, and Semon 203) notes that those citizens with American-Indian blood were not particularly happy with this day...

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Indian

...The British Colonization in Indian Introduction East India Company, also known as The Honorable East India Company, British East India Company, was a joint-stock company established by the British. On Dec. 31th, 1600, the company was chartered by the Queen Elizabeth as the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies (Chaudhuri, 2006). The charter in fact gave East India Company a monopoly right for twelve years. During its rule in India, the company not only owned economic monopoly but also assisted the British to realize military expansion. There will first be a discussion about how East India Company assisted British to realize its military expansion in India. Following that, there will be a discussion on how East India Company works as an economic tool of colonial expansion for Britain. Finally, there will be a discussion on how East India Company finally led to the backwardness of the country as well as disaster of the local people. Military expansion The British colonization in India is actually a military expansion, which not only struck some other foreign colonial powers but also led to the elimination of local rulers (Nicholas, 1992). As a result, the colonization in fact had made a preparation for the later centralization of authority. The French army was defeated in the Seven Years’ War in India. As a result, the French no longer dear to expand its power in India, which also prevented the development of its industrial revolution....

Words: 1670 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Indian Camp

...Summary * Uncle George * smoker * Nick Adams * maybe 10 years old * father * doctor? * volunteer? * Indian lady * pregnant * sick – trying to have her baby since 2 days (being in labour, Wehen haben) * husband * smokes a pipe * axe -> foot (3 days before) * Indians * bark peelers * work for a logging company Way to the Indian Camp * Nick, father and Uncle George * 2 Indians pick them up * row across the lake in two boats * Nick asking: Where are we going… father: to an Indian Camp because an India woman is very sick * boats arrive – walk through a meadow to the woods * follow a trail -> logging road (much lighter) * Shanties – the 2 men enter the one nearest the road @ camp – sick woman * Indian woman has been in labor for 2 days * lying on the bottom bunk of a bead * cries out in pain * father explains Nick: her muscles are trying to get the baby out of her body * Nick: anything against the pain? – no anesthetic * husband is on the top bunk with a cut foot * father prepares: boils some medical instruments, washes his hands carefully * explanations to Nick: babies are supposed to be born head first, but sometimes become turned around * may have to operate * several men must hold the woman down * she bites Uncle George * boy is born * father -> Nick: do you like being an intern? – lies: yes it’s fine *......

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Indians

...1 INDIANS Donna Rose History204 Tami Depasse July 14, 2014 2 “Go West Young Man” (Greeley, H. 1865) and West is where we went. Which marked the beginning of the end of the American Indians way of life. A life that was once peaceful and prosperous for the Sioux Indians was about to change drastically. Throughout history, the Sioux Indians, had to fight physical and emotional battles, in trying to retain their land and dignity. Following a time line, the American Indians were treated unjustly, as I will show starting with the Bozeman Trail and continuing on with The Great Sioux Reservation, Custer’s expedition, Battle of the Little Big Horn, Ghost Dancers, Wounded Knee, Citizenship Act of 1924, The Indian Reorganization Act, and The American Movement(AIM). The terrains were rough, being brutal and forcibly tough, especially for the new settlers who came west, when there was talk of gold. John Jacobs and his partner John...

Words: 3069 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Sioux Indians

...Sioux Indians The Sioux Indians first came to North America from Asia. Sioux means, “little snake” and was given to the tribe by the Chippewa Indians. The Sioux Indians were nomadic, meaning they didn’t stay in a particular place for very long. They would follow the pattern of the buffalo, and hunt them for food and clothing. The Sioux Indians migrated from Minnesota to the South Dakota area in the 1700’s. For more than 160 years, the Sioux Indians had a great deal of land in the plains to support the bison herds, during the time there were over 60 million bison in the Great Plains, and the Sioux Indians held a massive piece of land in the plains to support the bison herds which they hunted on these lands. In those times, there were over 60 million bison on the Great Plains and the Sioux Indians reigned over 80 million acres of land on the plains. The tribe had chiefs that were in charge of various parts of organizational aspects of the tribe, to include war, civil rules, and of course, medicine men. The Lakota tribes were divided into family groups called tiyospaye. These family groups had the responsibility for hunting bison, and processing the meat, hide and bones. They also built what were called earthen loges for the winters, and bison hide tipis for the summer hunting season. Because they had no written language, their heritage was entrusted to storytellers and drawings on bison hides. A single hide may represent up to over 50 years of Lakota history. The......

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Indian Camp

...Written assignment: Indian Camp and Just Like That The name of the story is "Indian Camp" and is written by Ernest Hemingway, and it was published in 1924. The story is about a boy called Nick, Nick's father and Nick's uncle, George. They have to sail to an Indian camp, where there's a very sick lady, that they have to help. When they finally arrive to the Indian camp, they get to a shanty, where the women is. They walk in to the shanty, where there is a young woman who's in labor. Her husband's there too, in the upper bunk, but he doesn't say or do much. The woman is in excruciating pain and has been in labor for two days. They don't have a lot to help them, no anesthetic and only a jack-knife to help them. Nick's father have to perform a Caesarean operation on the woman to get the baby and the placenta got out. They have to use tapered gut leaders to close the woman back up. When they finish, they see that the husband isn't alive, he chose to commit suicide. Characterization of Nick Adams Nick is a young boy. We don't hear about his actual age, but I would guess he's around 12-13, since he still seems kind of innocent during the story. Nick has a father and an Uncle, called George. It seems like he's white person, which is kind of implied by the way the Indians treat the family. He's father and uncle is doctors, and it seems like they also want Nick to become a doctor and face the reality of life, that life doesn't always goes the way you want it to. Nick is...

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Imaging Indians

... Imaging Indians Name: Institution Date: Hollywood is one of the most influential entities in the world. This industry shapes the perception of movie viewers in every aspect of their lives. In Hollywood movies, Americans and Indians are the key players as a result of their long interaction in the history of America. Therefore, Hollywood movies greatly affect the perceptions of the Americans and other audiences about Indians. In most cases, Hollywood stereotype Indians as savages, as well as primitives. They portray Indians as vicious and dangerous people headed for extinction. Even with the production of Indians and western films, this wrong perception of Indians still remains in the mind of many movie audiences (Aleiss, 35). The Native American has experienced extensive damage from mass media in the way it portrays cowboys and their process of moving in the west. These cowboys moved across the west conquering the lands while riding the horses. In real sense, they were driving the Indians out (Mihelich, 130). This example points out at some of the cultural misconceptions created by the Hollywood. The conception of the movie by young Americans is inaccurate, as well as highly damaging. This misconception especially in young children makes it difficult for them to learn about the Native Americans of the present days (O'Connor, 72). The stereotype on Indians has also affected the Indians in America. Many of them suffer from self-esteem deficiency caused by the......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Indian

...Indian Distributors Ltd. Prof. Ramesh Behl Indian Distributors Ltd. was originally started as a small trader who used to import goods from third world countries and sell these in India. Slowly, it expanded its business to an ‘Importing House’. It was established about fifty years back and, over the years, has built up a substantial nation-wide selling and distribution organization within India. Its headquarters is in Mumbai, but it has warehouses and Regional Sales Offices in Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Jaipur, Lucknow and Amritsar. Over and above the Regional Sales Officers, it also has Regional Sales Centres in all the major towns of all States of India. Although the business started purely as an importing business, it has created a strong selling and distribution network on the basis of imported product range. The existence of a strong distribution and selling network enabled them to take on distributorships of a wide range of Indian manufacturers. Today, they sell about 50% of indigenous manufactured products, while 50% products continue to be imported from other countries. The imported items of course involve license formalities, and a separate license section has been established (adjacent to the Delhi Regional Sales Office) to deal with these matters. License Section job is also to liaison with customs department and other agencies. Indian Distributors Ltd. markets several range of machines and other household consumable products. The machines range......

Words: 2012 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Choctaw Indian

...Choctaw Indian Christine Hutson Soc/262 Contemporary American Society Introduction Choctaw Indians liven in many different parts of the United States. In which their tribe government is different from the U.S... Their main focus is to operate on their government and be recognizing as a tribe. When the U.S tried to abolish them they stood up to fight to keep their heritage a live. Despite what they had to go threw they are a strong union and their story will live forever. With the help of the C.D.I.B card this will help find more Indians to keep going . Choctaw Indian Choctaw Indians occupied land east of the Mississippi river in in Louisiana, Oklahoma an Alabama. They were dividing into separate governmental jurisdiction that was operating under its own contrition. This is the largest and formally recognized by the united stated government. The Choctaw nation of Oklahoma and the Mississippi band of Choctaw Indians .Now the other Indians are still seeking recognition .But in 1820 a policy seeking to abolish the Choctaw nation an confiscate their land .in 1907 the U.S government believe that Choctaw Indians ceased to exist.......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Indian Tractors

...27 March 2012 India Tractors The growth story continues continues…. Mayur Milak (+91 22 ) 4096 9749 mayurm@dolatcapital.com mayurm@dolatcapital com 1 Executive summary Why did we do a follow-up report on tractors NOW ? The tractor industry has grown at a CAGR of ~12% during last five years. After a splendid performance, during the last two to three years, the Indian tractor industry is believed to head for a slow-down , we believe otherwise and hence our stance to b buy i into tractor at this j hi juncture. Our takeaways: There is an increasing lack of cheap farm labour due to migration to urban areas, leading to more mechanisation. Further, f F h farm i income h has grown at a CAGR of 12 8% d i f 12.8% during l last fi five years. W expect this growth to sustain going We hi h i i forward, which will continue to boost tractor sales. Contrary to popular belief, rainfall does not affect tractor sales directly. Other factors such as higher farm income, availability of water (irrigation facilities), cheaper and more easily available finance, successful implementation of government schemes (NREGA) and higher MSP are the key drivers for growth in tractor sales. We expect tractor demand to grow by 11-12%, going forward. All key drivers are in place and adequate availability of water is expected with a forecast of regular and timely rainfall. Our top-pick: M&M top pick: M&M has always been a leader in the farm equipment sector. After acquiring Punjab Tractors Limited (PTL), it...

Words: 8383 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Indian

...kumar Ph.d scholar in public administration, kurukshetra university Narender joon LL.M, Kurukshetra university kurukshetra INTRODUCTION: The most operational irritants to Centre State Relations springs in administrative sphere & they have led to most slanderous accusation against executive functionaries and decision makers. It is an area in which seemingly detailed provisions of the Constitution have not helped much. In the modern administrative age, administration plays a very significant role by way of enforcing the law of promoting socio-economic welfare of the people. The pattern of administrative relationship between the Centre and the State, therefore, assumes a great significance in developing country like India. The Indian Constitution contains more elaborate provisions regarding the administrative relation between the Centre and the States than are to be found in any of the three federation of the U.S.A., Canada and Australia. The Constitution lays down a flexible and permissive and not a rigid scheme of allocation of administrative responsibilities between the Centre and State. The scheme is so designed as to permit all kind of co-operative administrative arrangement between the two levels of Government. It is notable, however, that though legislative and judicial power is defined by the Constitution, this is not the case with the executive in our Constitution. Some Constitutional experts like Wade & Philips, try to define executive functions......

Words: 4462 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Indian History

...Discuss the rise of imperialism in India, with special reference to the establishment of British colonial rule in the subcontinent. Why did the British succeed while other empires failed? • Imperialism is when a country dominates another country politically, economically, culturally, etc. o And for the British this was the bigger picture that they had in mind for India. • The British succeeded in India because: o Disunity among Indian princely states. India was more a collection of militaristic princely states. The British successfully used this to play off one state against another. Clive succeeded at Plassey, because Mir Jaffar was willing to betray his master Siraj-Ud-Daulah in lie of being the Nawab. Mir Jaffar himself, was betrayed by Mir Qasim later on. o Superiority over other colonial powers. The other colonial powers in India competing for the share of resources were France, Portugal, Denmark, and Holland. Of the 4, Denmark and Holland could never really be serious competitors to the British. The battle of Amboyna happened in 1623 and this left the Dutch in South East Asia while the British had South Asia. o Portugal focused primarily on the Western coast, Goa, parts of Kerala, Karnataka, and this left the British with vast swathes of unoccupied territory. o France as the major contender to Britian in the race for colonialism. The British Army was more well equipped, more professional, more disciplined compared to the French army, suffering from......

Words: 2316 - Pages: 10